L2 learners = second language acquisition learners L1 learners = monolingual leanersListening comprehension = “an active process in which listeners select and interpret information which comes from auditory and visual[this author’s italics] clues” (Rubin, 1995, p. 7)Videotexts = includes movies, game and talk shows, dramas, music videos, documentaries and news. They are multimodal texts that consist of contiguous, interwoven sounds plus visual images. Typical features include public interviews, computer generated animations (CGA’s) and computer generated texts (CGT’s)Dialogic recall = where the learners become the ‘story tellers’ and the researcher becomes the audience (based on work by Dr Grover Whitehurst)Thematic analysis = a method of qualitative analysis based on participants conceptions of actual communication episodes. It is “performed through the process of coding to create established, meaningful pattern.” Generally focuses wholly or mostly on one level. Semantic themes attempt to identify the explicit and surface meanings of the data. The researcher does not look beyond what the participant said or wrote. (Wikipedia, 2013).
Implications for Classroom Practice: Deliberately teach how to distinguish when the aural and visual elements of a text do / do not match. Prior to using videotexts, present students with the audio transcript and make predictions of what the audiovisual content might include. Reflect after viewingTeaching students the themes and defining features of news videotexts.
At the time of this research, educational technology had advanced (e.g. interactive encyclopedias) however educational psychology had not kept pace with these changes (e.g. how to design computer-based instruction using words and pictures.) An additional purpose of this research was to close the gap between educational technology and educational research regarding the role of student’s spatial ability in learning from pictures and wordsDomain-specific knowledge = refers to prior content knowledge of a given topicSpatial ability = (in its simplest meaning) is the ability to perceive the construction of an object in both 2 and 3 dimensions. (http://www.waiting.com/glossary.html) Concurrent program = animation and narration presented at the same timeSuccessive = narration followed by animation OR animation followed by narration
Contiguity effect = a model developed by Howard & Hakana (2002). It suggests that when “an item is presented, it activates the temporal context that was active when the item was originally studied. Because contexts of neighbouring items over lap and that overlap increases with decreasing lag, a contiguity effect results” (Wikipedia, 2013). Mayer & Sims (1994) definition of meaningful learning (in this context) requires the learner to build:an internal verbal representation from the presented verbal informationan internal visual representation from the presented visual informationreferential connections between these verbal and visual representations
ANOVA = analysis of variance IMPLICATIONS OF THIS RESEARCH: use material that encourages students to build either a verbal or visual representation encouraging students to make referential connections between the two mental representationsdevelop instructional material that force students to build connections between words and pictures (e.g. using concurrent words and pictures) deliberately teach children how to make connections with prior knowledge
Assignment 2 powerpoint 2
TOPIC: The Use of Multimedia in the Classroom
By Robyn Wood
A Critique of
Comprehending News Videotexts: The Influence of
For Whom Is a Picture Worth a Thousand Words?
Extensions of a Dual-Coding Theory of Multimedia
Learning (Mayer & Sims, 1994)
A Brief Summary: Comprehending News Videotexts….
• PhD in applied linguistics. Associate professor in English, Nanyang Technological
Purpose of research:
• To explore the influence of the visual content of news videotexts on the listening
comprehension of L2 learners (builds on the same research done with L1 learners)
• Participants: - 20 Japanese women (of similar English speaking abilities)
Used 5 BBC news videotext segments – with the verbal and visual information being
coded into 4 categories
Learners - paired up, watched the segments & made notes on:
(i) their understandings
(ii) their comprehension processes and
(iii) considered ways to better understand the segments
Dialogic recall was recorded and analysed using a thematic analysis approach is
Results were discussed based on dual coding theory
Main Findings of this Research
Visual content may / may not be unhelpful in assisting comprehension
• Some learners were distracted by the sheer number of visual images making it difficult
for students to make connections. This supports split-attention theory (Chandler &
L2 learners do not necessarily benefit from visual information the same as L2
• While CGA‟s benefited L1 learners, some L2 learners found CGA‟s unhelpful
At times, learners attended to either the visual content or the audio content as
a means of a comprehension strategy
• Suggests when processing issues such as redundancy or „split attention‟ arose,
students used „selective attention’ as a comprehension strategy. Supported by
Lang‟s (1995) research that “the multimodality of news videotexts places excessive
demands on an individuals limited short term memory capacity”
Learners respond differently to different news texts
• Several learners identified captions as being helpful in orientating them re. the
interviewers/ees while other learners did not even notice the captions!
Main Findings of this Research Continued + Links
initial portions of segments were used by students for predicting or creating an
students used visual content to make inferences
o Note however that the students inferences were not always correct!
visual information in the news videotext was not always attended to or used
o E.g. students looking at the screen with a „blank-stare‟ while listening (presumably to cut out
the visual information). This is supported by Garland-Thomson (2009).
Links To This Paper :
Dual coding theory
Second language acquisition
A Critical Review of this Research
o Informative literature review. The inclusion of screen shots illustrating the coding categories was
o Useful research for educators using multimedia and for ESOL educators
o The sole use of dialogic recall at times made the results feel vague and lacking precision e.g.
„several‟ learners, and „a number of learners‟
o Absence of graphs / tables
o Limitations to the design were acknowledged. Further research was suggested .
o The implications for classroom practice are clearly stated (see notes) however because
variables such as the influence of differing mental models etc. were not considered, I have
reservations about these.
o The use of qualitative data only is questionable especially when thematic analysis views it only
from one level. Adding a quantitative component (e.g. eye tracking movements and a required
response to set questions) would have added greater depth/reliability to this research.
o Given current use of videotexts in classrooms is „one size fits all learners‟, this research topic is
important however I believe it is weak due to questionable research methods/analysis.
A Brief Summary: For Whom Is a Picture Worth a Thousand Words?….
Richard E. Mayer
American educational psychologist.
Valerie K. Sims (M.A. and Ph.D)
Associate professor in cognitive psychology, Orlando. Research includes
human-computer interaction and individual differences in spatial ability.
Purpose of research:
To determine if students build better referential connections when visual and verbal materials are
presented contiguously or separately
Conducted 2x experiments involving 86 college students viewing an animation and listening either
simultaneously (concurrent group) or successively (successive group) to two sets of different
Participants were tested and grouped according to their domain-specific knowledge of the topic and
their spatial abilities.
After watching the animations, participants answered questions relating to creative problem solving
Data was interpreted using the modified DCT model (as shown in diagram above)
Main Findings of this Paper & Links:
The concurrent group generated more creative solutions when solving problems requiring transfer
The contiguity effect was strong for high-ability spatial learners but not for low-spatial ability
Spatial ability allows high-spatial ability learners to devote cognitive resources to building
referential connections between visual and verbal representations
Low-spatial ability learners need to allocate more cognitive resources to building representation
connections between visually presented material and its visual representation
Students with domain-specific knowledge may not require texts with visual aids because they can
generate their own mental image (drawn from long term memory) as they read or listen
individual differences of leaners (i.e. in terms of domain specific knowledge and spatial ability)
influence the cognitive conditions required for meaningful learning* from words and pictures.
Links To This Paper
Baddeley‟s model of working memory
Dual coding theory
A Critical Review of this Research
o Diagrams, explanations and tables aided the understanding of this research. Terms well defined.
o Highly relevant topic – especially to educators of 21st Century learners. The resulting
implications are pertinent to classroom practice (see notes below).
o Extended dual coding model seems plausible
o Measuring both domain-specific knowledge and spatial capability at the same time seemed
o Major imitations to research were acknowledged with further research suggested to address
o Using a second experiment to confirm the hypothesis relating to the first experiment was sound
o Having a control group enabled comparisons
o Analyzing the results using ANOVA added reliability (although mathematical equations were
o The conclusions appear reasonable, build on the widely accepted view of DCT, confirm previous
research and contribute to the evolving theory re. cognitive conditions for meaningful learning from
pictures and words.
Chandler, P. & Sweller, J. (1991). Cognitive load theory and the format of instruction. Cognition and
Instruction, 8, 293-332. Retrieved from
Cross, J. (2011) Comprehending news videotexts: the influence of the visual content. Language,
Learning &Technology, 15 (2), 44–68. Retrieved from Factiva database.
Mayer, R. E., & Sims, V. K. (1994) For who is a picture worth a thousand words? Extensions of a
dual-coding theory of multimedia learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 86 (3), 389-401.
Retrieved from Proquest Education Journals database.
Paivio, A. (1986). Mental representations: A dual coding approach. Oxford, England: Oxford
Wikipedia. (2013). Contiguity effect. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Contiguity
Wikipedia. (2013). Thematic analysis. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thematic_analysis