Lecture: literacy issues bilingual children


Published on

Robyn Moloney lecture slides (Macquarie University). Literacy and biliteracy strategies and issues for bilingual and multilingual children.

Published in: Education, Technology
  • Teachers are often at a loss to find the best devices with which to bridge the gap between the child's birth language, that which is spoken officially in their country and a second, third or fourth foreign language they're being taught at school.
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • finally someone wrote something about this 'thing' we call bilingualism or multi-lingualism:)
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • IN the past parents, general public and policy makers have been prejudiced and thrught that acquiring 2 lang from birth must be detrimental to childs growth. A lot of early research was based on a negative assumption that learning 2 langs will muddle the brain (not enough space- get dumber) or retard lang development. There was the idea of it bringing about split personality disorder, unbalanced. In novels and films often bilinguals used their shady skills to be spies, traitors. There are many stories of children being punished for speaking two languages at school. Anxieties about bilingualism still remain . You still hear ideas based on the idea of a set of scales, a balancing act, that the more you use a second language, the less skill the person will have in the first language. – the more one increases, the other decreases. But my friend bringing up their child bilingually tell me that there are still threads of these anxieties still around. In fact you can hear them form teachers, family members, friends…A second language is the first scapegoat to blame for other things going wrong, learning difficulties, behaviour problems.
  • There are so many different circumstances of kids acquiring different languages, through family, travel, immigration, chosen or forced, and So there are many different patterns of bilingual development. So for example, When kids become bilingual from birth, being exposed to 2 langs from birth, , usually where 2 paRents consistently only ever speak their own lang to infant, not surprisingly we call it simultaneous bilingualism . Where a child learns one family language at home, then goes to preschool or school and has to learn a second language, in our case, English, you have Sequential bilingualism . Langauge decisions in the family can be made consciously, having a plan, or by default . Choices might be made according to the parents relationship, balance of power, and interaction, Deaf people who have learnt AUSLAN (fully accredited as a community lang in australia) or another sign langauge are also fully bilingual, they learn literacy and oracy as a second language. Rich culture associated with their bilingualism.
  • I would like to acknowledge that I know both from friends and colleagues, and from my research and reading, just how hard this endeavour is. I know that it can be a constant struggle, with kids who don’t want to go to Saturday school, don’t want to do the extra homework, and the rejection of the language and culture. The power of the English speaking peer group and all that goes with it. You want your kids to be accepted in the dominant culture, its so important for their social development. But you want them to know and be part of the home language and culture group too, and to have enough language to be able to participate in it You don’t want them to be stranded in some kind of no-mans land in between. . There are no simple answers, it is a very long commitment of tiny incremental steps, thousands of conversations and exchanges, of perseverance. You may not see any fruits of your labour for a long time, maybe even until they are adults. and finally they might say “thanks for persevering”.
  • . In the 1950s Penfield and Robert, neurosurgeons, identified the idea that very young children have the total range of mechanical structures to produce any sound of any language in the world, like th perfect mimicking of the clicks and throat sounds of African languages,. Whereas this is no longer possible later on. Lenneberg in the 1960s came up with the idea of a critical learning hypothesis This holds that primary lang acquisition must occur during a period which starts at 2 and end s at puberty, when the brain loses its plasticity. There is work also on brain lateralisation. The left hemisphere is dominant for language processing. bilateral involvement was pronounced in early fleunt bilinguals. Its been shown that learning a second language early increases the density of gray matter. Gray matter density was greater in bilinguals than monolinguals, and early bilinguals were denser than late bilinguals. But these results have been questioned and other studies have either not been able to replicate the study or have found conflicting results.
  • The are plenty of research studies which show that Babies are biologically ready to acquire store and differentiate two or more languages from birth onwards. Infant bilingualism is normal and natural. To acquire 2 lang successfully from birth, babies can do 2 things: differentiate between the 2 langs and (2) store the 2 langs for both understanding and production. Infants show lang discrimination very early. Memory for lang sounds operates even in the foetal stage. Newborns can discriminate between different sounds and voices, intonation patterns. Newborns can distinguish their parents native lang sounds from unfamiliar foreign language sounds . At the babbling stage, (10-12 months) a child exposed to 2 langauges from birth (a) has tendency to babble in their stronger lang (b) show language-specific babbling patterns and intonations and (c) may not babbly with contenxt-specific accuacry. Bilingual 2 year olds, know which language to speak to whom and in what situation . Very young children can easily switch languages and differentiate between them. they can already use language in contextually sensitive ways. Where you have one parent-one language system, the ability to use the appropriate lang with a particular person occurs very early. - an awareness of 2 distinct but equivalent lang systems. The childs brain is different from the adult brain in that it is a very dynamic structure that is evolving. A 2 years old brain has twice as many synapses(connections) in the brain as an adult. The young brain must use these connections or lose them. Failure to learn a skill during a critical or sensitive period has important significance (why I cant ride a bike? or use a mobile all that well?)
  • SLIDE bilingual babies site - real stories- Ondrej A n interesting website is this one with real life stories from people bringing up their children bilingually. There are month by month accounts of the childs development. Has anyone in the audience kept a journal of their childs progress in the home language? heres your chance to publish it on the web.
  • I guess one common model here tonite is One parent- one language. But extended family members can also be the ones to speak the home language to the child and extend the amount of input. Some parents choose to speak the language in a specific situation, such as at mealtimes, in the bath, or on weekends. You draw language boundaries around situations rather than people. You will get many different outcomes according to the model you use but more critical, amount of exposure and input and opportunity to speak. There will usually be an uneven balance in the use of two or more languages and that can change over time, as circumstances change. A bilingual child rarely has an equal balance in 2 language experience, (only balanced bilinguals in places like belgium, alsace, close to borders) Over the years of child-rearing, there are recognised patterns in shifting balance of the 2 langauges of bilingual children. – shift in which language is dominant. Children can be reluctant to speak one of the languages in certain times can even slip to just being a passive use (i.e. just understand, not speak e.g. understand a question in L1 but answers in Englih) But then other periods, when suddenly that passive ability will blossom very quickly into a great active ability, such as visitng monolingual grandparents in the home country, vacation, etc) . I had one student tell me recently that at 4 as a bilingual, she was taken for 6 months for a holiday to her home country with her grandmother, and completely forgot all her English. when she returned to Australia to start kindy, was very upset to be completely starting from scratch. It also very normal to have different outcomes in siblings. Its recognised that the oldest child gets much greater exposure, and less interference from English. Later the siblings nearly always speak English togther, and so the links for the younger ones are weaker, more English interference, and this can produce a weaker outcome in the family language.
  • These 2 terms are pretty much the same thing. but they are an issue frequently brought up by parents and teachers, usually in negative terms. They both represent the idea of when one language gets mixed with another. But actually Its in fact Monolinguals who often have negative attitudes to codeswitching, thinking that it show a deficit, a lack of mastery of both languages. But in fact it tends to be those who are more fluent in a language that code-switch. It is a valuable linguistic tool. It does not typically happen at random. has purpose and logic. It is using the full language resources available, and knowing that the other person fully understands. One main language provides the sentence structure, the grammar, and the other language gest inserted into those rules, , will fit the rules of the first language. If the main language is the home language, with English inserted, that is usually regarded as a strength in the home language, Very few bilinguals keep their 2 langauges separate. the ways they mix them can be varied and complex. Codemixing is a term sometimes used, to mean almost the same thing, but more like the deliberate choice of one language to fit a particular context or person. And then there is language borrowing which is where foreign loan words (usually English) become an itegral and permanent part of another language. Codeswitching can be done for emphasis, substitute for a concept that has no equivalent in L2, to reinforce a request, have greater authority, to express common identity, bonding for humour, to exclude people, and to show shifts in emotion- use L1 to say “I love you”, and L2 to say “clean up your room!”.
  • research has established these 3 negative trends in adolesent heritage language kids Cognitive competence in the HL: lack of access to advanced and/or technical vocabulary in adolescence can influence learners development and speed in HL (Cummins, 1984) Do not develop the full spectrum of sociolinguistic registers of the level of cognitive or academic literacy commended by monolingual native speakers (Montrul, 2008) IN adolescence, as the peer group is so important, more and more English is used in social interactions with peers and siblings, the language for thinking and learning (Merino 1983). These kids are known in the research as heritage language speakers. Becuas eof thei incomplete set of language skills, they are regarded in some ways as a bit “unique” (Valdes, 2005). They are neither completely native speakers of the TL, nor foreign language learners. In fact, many heritage speakers, need to become heritage language learners , they need formal study at school in their home language in order to become literate in it and be able to fully develop. Children with 1 or 2 parents who speak L2, Typical patterns, K-6 limited vocab and literacy adolescence- social factors Often limited literacy, need formal study: become HL learners Need differentiation
  • These kids are known in the research as heritage language speakers. Becuas eof thei incomplete set of language skills, they are regarded in some ways as a bit “unique” (Valdes, 2005). They are neither completely native speakers of the TL, nor foreign language learners. In fact, many heritage speakers, need to become heritage language learners , they need formal study at school in their home language in order to become literate in it and be able to fully develop. Children with 1 or 2 parents who speak L2, Typical patterns, K-6 limited vocab and literacy adolescence- social factors Often limited literacy, need formal study: become HL learners Need differentiation
  • PICK the items which are not true!!!
  • There is quite an old book by Francois Grosjean called The Bilingual Person that was one of the first things I cam eactoss years ago when reading about bilingualism, prior to my studies. One bit I love was where Grosjean described some interwtsing reaerach on how bilingual operate differently in their different languages. He did a study where they were presented with an ambiguous picture , which they had to make up a story about in one of their languages. Then some time later, they did it again in their other language. The stories they made up were driven by social and cultural values of the particular language. So for example, a Japanese English bilingual, develop 2 different stories. The English version was driven by a focus on the individual, progress, etc. but their Japanese story was driven by notions of family honour.
  • Infusing Dual language literacy through the library curriculum This case study reports on a collaborative action research project developed by an elementary school teacher librarian and a university researcher. It focuses on the initiatives taken by teacher librarian Padma Sastri to use students' home languages as a resource for increasing their engagement with literacy and their overall literacy development. This study takes place in the Greater Toronto Area where half the population has been born outside of Canada making it the city with the second highest number of foreign-born residents in the world (2005, Canadian Heritage). The teacher involved in this study has made this cultural and linguistic diversity a central focus of her teaching. The purpose of the research was to observe the dual language literacy strategies that the teacher was implementing in her library curriculum and to examine both the pedagogical objectives underlying this orientation and the responses of students and parents to them. Padma, the teacher in this study has found ways to enable students to use their first language skills as a resource and further develop them. She has also enabled parents to become partners in the development of students' school literacy through dual language practices. She has done so by (a) creating a dual language book collection in the library that fosters home literacy, (b) implementing dual language "flip book" authoring by students that often includes parental support, and (c) creating a forum for multilingual oral literacy events in her library curriculum. Evidence from this case study suggests that parental participation in school literacy is increased when teachers make students' linguistic background part of the curriculum. In addition, students appear to develop a heightened awareness and acceptance of linguistic diversity as part of school life when a multilingual focus underlies literacy teaching. The potential for increasing student and parent investment in school literacy by creating a school environment in which students' linguistic and cultural background is valued as part of the curriculum is supported by the data collected. The case study elaborates on this claim and provides evidence that students' engagement with school literacy is strengthened when their linguistic differences are perceived as strengths and utilized to scaffold new learning rather than being looked at as deficits in need of remediation. In the Multilingualism, identities and multiliteracies: student and teacher voices at Coppard Glenn study, the multiliteracies pedagogy adopted was a cross-grade dual language collaborative book writing. The success of the initial project was reproduced in a cross-grade class collaboration that took place between grade 4s and grade 7s in 2004/2005.  Joanne, a grade 7 teacher and Perminder brought their classes together to have their students jointly create dual language books.  As in Perminder's dual language text project, the main research claims for this partnership focused on the beliefs that: engaging students L1 literacies in collaborative writing enhances cognitive engagement, and increases vocabulary in both the L1 and English, builds collaboration, negotiation and leadership skills.  Furthermore, it was proposed that teacher collaboration (i.e., the integration of pedagogies, teaching styles, and personal experiences) and the co-creation of projects build and strengthen pedagogies, provide intellectual stimulation and support, and opportunities for change across the curriculum, within classrooms and within the school.
  • Lecture: literacy issues bilingual children

    1. 1. A conversation in Japanese… <ul><li>Onamae wa? </li></ul><ul><li>Robyn desu. </li></ul><ul><li>Doko ni sunde imasu ka? </li></ul><ul><li>Chatswood ni sunde imasu . </li></ul><ul><li>???Nani ga suki? </li></ul><ul><li>Sushi ga suki </li></ul><ul><li>(tempura? karate? juudo? anime? sumo? ) </li></ul>
    2. 2. Development of the bilingual child EDUC 373 9 September 2010 Dr Robyn Moloney <ul><li>All bilingual situations- </li></ul><ul><li>ESL students </li></ul><ul><li>Second language learners (terminology?) </li></ul><ul><li>Heritage languages…. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Overview today – a broad sweep of a huge field <ul><li>Perspectives: parents, teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Bilingualism and the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Bilingual babies </li></ul><ul><li>Aspects of bilingual acquisition, e.g codeswitching </li></ul><ul><li>Bilingualism in adolescence </li></ul><ul><li>Heritage speaker vs. learner </li></ul><ul><li>Multiliteracies </li></ul><ul><li>Bilingual education </li></ul>
    4. 4. We can see… <ul><li>Language/ bilingualism as a problem </li></ul><ul><li>Language/ bilingualism as a right </li></ul><ul><li>Language/ bilingualism as a resource </li></ul><ul><li>(Baker 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Important for all teachers: </li></ul><ul><li>Respect, affirmation </li></ul><ul><li>Active inclusion of culture and language </li></ul><ul><li>Support for development in both languages </li></ul>
    5. 5. Bilingualism for fun: Cockney English <ul><li>While initially we couldn’t ‘Adam and Eve it’ (believe it), sharp-suited Guy Richie fans seeking a little legal ‘sausage and mash’ (cash) from ATM outlets operated by Bank Machine can now choose the cockney language option after inserting their card and punching in their personal ‘Huckleberry Finn’ (PIN). </li></ul>
    6. 6. Language is fun…. <ul><ul><li>Q: According to Sigmund Freud , what comes between fear and sex? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A: Fünf . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>( German numbers - vier, fünf, sechs = four, five, six.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Before the Battle of Normandy, two German spies have infiltrated the Allied Headquarters. Before they can retire and radio to Berlin, they have to attend the officer's cocktail. One of the two spies goes to the barman and asks, in perfect English: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Two martinis , please.&quot; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Dry?&quot; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>&quot; Nein, zwei! &quot; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>(In German, drei (three) is pronounced quite like dry .) </li></ul>
    7. 7. Early research and negative attitudes <ul><li>Detrimental, muddle, retard progress, “no space”, unbalanced, even sinister, suspicious </li></ul>
    8. 8. Models, types of bilingualism <ul><li>Definition? </li></ul><ul><li>Simultaneous bilingualism </li></ul><ul><li>Sequential bilingualism </li></ul><ul><li>Many models of development, situations of choice & privilege, no choice & no status </li></ul><ul><li>Deaf people are bilinguals with sign language being a natural first lang, plus literacy(and oracy) in second hearing lang. Bilingual ed for deaf can be rich, strong form of bilingual ed. </li></ul>
    9. 9. affective and cognitive factors in development of bilingualism <ul><li>motivation factors (falling in love), </li></ul><ul><li>cross-linguistic factors (being influenced by the dominant language and maintaining identity, being influenced by the pronunciation of the native speakers around you), </li></ul><ul><li>educational factors (arriving as a child and receiving a formal education or arriving as an adults and slowly acculturating in informal language learning situations) </li></ul><ul><li>and general cognitive factors (such as events impacting on an individual over a lifetime, time pressure, risk taking, establishing long term memory codes). </li></ul>
    10. 10. What does go on in our brains? <ul><li>Brain research- language areas </li></ul><ul><li>Penfield and Roberts, 1959 </li></ul><ul><li>CPH-L2A , Critical Period Hypothesis for second language acquisition - Lenneberg </li></ul>
    11. 11. Overview development <ul><li>the young child and aspects of development Codeswitching, adolescence, heritage language learners </li></ul><ul><li>the benefits </li></ul><ul><li>maintain and enrich : provision in the community and home </li></ul>
    12. 12. Development of bilingual babies <ul><li>Normal and natural </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate and store </li></ul><ul><li>Babbling is language specific </li></ul><ul><li>Critical period </li></ul><ul><li>Brain research </li></ul>
    13. 13. http://www.bilingualbaby.eu/real-stories/ondrej <ul><li>Birth Decision </li></ul><ul><li>There are very good objective answers to make your baby learn two or three languages. A personal perspective may be useful for you when you make your decision about the languages that you baby will speak. </li></ul><ul><li>Age: 0 to 6 months </li></ul><ul><li>Sadly I spent the first three months of my son's life working so hard that I did not see him more than one hour each day…….. </li></ul><ul><li>Age: 6 to 12 months </li></ul><ul><li>Singing songs and waiting for the first word…….. </li></ul><ul><li>Age: 1 year 6 months </li></ul><ul><li>Language used by Ondra is not mixed and depends on who is he speaking to. </li></ul><ul><li>If child is ahead in one language </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes my son Ondrej is ahead in Czech, the language of the surrounding environment (majority language). He may learn a word in Czech when I am not there, or I fail to notice and provide an English equivalent. This happened twice recently. </li></ul>
    14. 14. In bringing up a child bilingually… <ul><li>Simultaneous OPOL </li></ul><ul><li>Sequential </li></ul><ul><li>Situational </li></ul><ul><li>consistency </li></ul><ul><li>Shifting balance of L1/ L2- very few balanced bilinguals </li></ul><ul><li>Sibling difference </li></ul>
    15. 15. Codeswitching <ul><li>“ Sometimes I ' ll start a sentence in Spanish y termino en español&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>(Poplack, The Bilingualism Reader, 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Not a negative, its a sign of fluency, valuable linguistic tool </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiation- “I love you” …. “clean up your room!” </li></ul>
    16. 16. Research on family languages in adolescence <ul><li>Literacy ability- limited development </li></ul><ul><li>Limited range of emotional expression to express own identity and development ? </li></ul><ul><li>HL keeps pace with their intellectual development? </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive competence in the HL: lack of access to advanced and/or technical vocabulary in adolescence can influence learners development and speed in HL (Cummins, 1984) </li></ul><ul><li>Do not develop the full spectrum of sociolinguistic registers of the level of cognitive or academic literacy commanded by monolingual native speakers (Montrul, 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>English is used in social interactions with peers and siblings, the language for thinking and learning ( Merino 1983) </li></ul>
    17. 17. Recognised at school level as heritage language learners <ul><li>Children with 1 or 2 parents who speak non-English lang </li></ul><ul><li>Typical patterns, K-6 limited vocab and literacy </li></ul><ul><li>adolescence- social factors </li></ul><ul><li>Often limited literacy, need formal study: become HL learners </li></ul><ul><li>Need differentiation in teaching </li></ul>
    18. 18. Social justice? Japanese, Chinese, Korean, Indonesian <ul><li>limited literacy and script development, without formal schooling in L2 country. </li></ul><ul><li>Exclusion from regular course , criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Exclusion from Background speakers Course HSC, designed for full literacy </li></ul><ul><li>No provision, “punished” for being brought up bilingually; the right to study their language for the HSC? </li></ul><ul><li>Grass-roots action, collection of data:- Board of Studies creating new level of courses in these languages 2010 </li></ul>
    19. 19. Bilinguals are…? <ul><li>Superior in divergent , creative thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Can relate stories well </li></ul><ul><li>eat their vegetables </li></ul><ul><li>See that language is arbitrary (object + label) </li></ul><ul><li>May have greater reading readiness </li></ul><ul><li>Always do their homework </li></ul><ul><li>Have better communicative sensitivity </li></ul><ul><li>Are better behaved </li></ul><ul><li>Have cross-language transfer skills </li></ul><ul><li>Have intercultural skills </li></ul><ul><li>Show flexible critical thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Can order in foreign restaurants </li></ul>
    20. 20. Benefits in summary (all bilinguals) <ul><li>Personal, emotional bond conceived in and through the special nature of the culture as expressed in language, its stories, songs, rhymes, visual images. </li></ul><ul><li>Portraits of bilinguals- Andre Makine- Le Testament Francais </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptual : Different concepts, notions, sensitivities </li></ul><ul><li>Intercultural competencies- ability, skills in moving between two languages and two cultures </li></ul><ul><li>developing an intercultural “third space”, from which the child can make observations about both languages and cultures, both are visible and valued. </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive: Divergent thinking, Creativity, Literacy, metalinguistic , flexibility. Positive effects of L1 literacy on the development of literacy in L2 (Cummins,2001) </li></ul>
    21. 21. <ul><li>nuit ( French ), Nacht ( German ), nacht ( Dutch ), nicht ( Scots ), natt ( Swedish , Norwegian ), nat ( Danish ), noc ( Czech , Polish ), ночь, noch ( Russian ), нощ , nosht ( Bulgarian ), ніч , nich ( Ukrainian ), ноч , noch / noč ( Belarusian ), noć/ноћ ( Croatian , Serbian ), νύξ, nyx ( Greek ), nox ( Latin ), nakt- ( Sanskrit ), natë ( Albanian ), noche ( Spanish ), nos ( Welsh ), noite ( Portuguese and Galician ), notte ( Italian ), nit ( Catalan ), noapte ( Romanian ), nótt ( Icelandic ), and naktis ( Lithuanian ), </li></ul><ul><li>English word? …………………………… </li></ul><ul><li>Sitara/Tara ( Hindi ), astre or étoile ( French ), αστήρ (astēr) ( Greek ), stella (Latin, Italian ), stea ( Romanian and Venetian ), stairno ( Gothic ), astl ( Armenian ), Stern (German), ster (Dutch and Afrikaans ), starn (Scots), stjerne ( Norwegian and Danish), stjarna ( Icelandic ), stjärna ( Swedish ), setare ( Persian ), stoorei ( Pashto ), seren ( Welsh ), steren ( Cornish ), estel ( Catalan ), estrella (Spanish) and Leonese , estrela ( Portuguese and Galician ) and estêre or stêrk ( Kurdish ) </li></ul><ul><li>English?........................................... </li></ul><ul><li>German Milch . But French lait and Spanish leche are less obviously cognates of Ancient Greek γάλακτος (genitive singular of γάλα ) , a relationship more evidently seen through the intermediate Latin lac , as well as the English word lactic and other terms borrowed from Latin. English?................................................... </li></ul>
    22. 22. Grosjean (1999) <ul><li>Change language, change attitudes, personality (Czech proverb : “learn a new language and get a new soul”) </li></ul><ul><li>Research- finish the sentence </li></ul><ul><li>interpret ambiguous pictures differently </li></ul>
    23. 23. What do bilingual kids need? <ul><li>L1, L2 Speaking, listening, reading writing skills </li></ul><ul><li>Other input: reading, DVDs, TV? other speakers? </li></ul><ul><li>Adolescence, r eading at appropriate interest level </li></ul><ul><li>Non-fiction: r eading for information - Maps, atlases, websites for kids , news </li></ul>
    24. 24. Enrichment through writing <ul><li>Writing in 2 languages can be used as a tool for thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Children can read in one language and write about what they read, in the other language. </li></ul><ul><li>Use lived experience in one language to produce text in the other. </li></ul><ul><li>creating a new and bilingual text. </li></ul>
    25. 25. How about classroom biliteracy? <ul><li>Home literacy working with school literacy. </li></ul><ul><li>new approach to literacy pedagogy that takes into account both the cultural and linguistic diversity that is part of schools and society, and the range of information and multimedia technologies that create new text forms and new ways for communicating </li></ul><ul><li>www.multiliteracies.ca </li></ul><ul><li>Year 4 examples bilingual books </li></ul>
    26. 28. Reports of research projects on this website of … <ul><li>Studies about how to (in a practical way) bring about the increased chance of children becoming biliterate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Infusing Dual language literacy through the library curriculum -- Cohen and Sastri </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Studies about the importance of harnessing students' out-of school literacy skills and communicative practices to support academic attainment through in-school multiliteracies pedagogy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multilingualism, identities and multiliteracies: student and teacher voices at Coppard Glenn </li></ul></ul>
    27. 29. <ul><li>“ the development of biliteracy in individuals occurs along a continua in direct response to the contextual demands placed on individuals” (Hornberger, 1989, p. 281). Many different contexts, different degrees of achievement </li></ul><ul><li>accessing literacy practices in two or more languages can </li></ul><ul><ul><li>add more functions to a language, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>widen the choice of literature for enjoyment, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>give more opportunities for understanding different perspectives and viewpoints, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lead to a deeper understanding of history and heritage, or traditions and territory. (Baker,2006) </li></ul></ul>
    28. 30. Types of bilingual language education <ul><li>Two-way or dual language </li></ul><ul><li>Bilingual immersion </li></ul><ul><li>Partial immersion </li></ul><ul><li>Transitional </li></ul><ul><li>Additive/ subtractive </li></ul><ul><li>CLIL in European high schools </li></ul>
    29. 31. Australian context example <ul><li>Bilingual programs in Aboriginal languages </li></ul><ul><li>1972, bilingual programs created in 20 NT schools </li></ul><ul><li>Australian Language Matters Vol 7 no.2 Apr 1999 </li></ul><ul><li>Dr Christine Nicholls, former principal at Lajamanu school in the Tanami desert </li></ul>
    30. 32. <ul><li>School attendance grew from 65% to 90% </li></ul><ul><li>Link with self-esteem, brought adults into school </li></ul><ul><li>Indigenous children in L2,3,4 far above average, they often have 4 languages before 8 years old! </li></ul><ul><li>Phased out 1999, alleged failure of kids to complete schooling, etc- other causes? </li></ul><ul><li>Diverted funds to ESL teaching- what does this represent? </li></ul>
    31. 33. Still debating bilingual education… <ul><li>&quot;Learning in Pitjantjatjara first helps our children to learn better. It helps them to learn English too. Our children who are good at reading and writing in Pitjantjatjara are also the same ones who are good at reading and writing in English .... The teachers will use Pitjantjatjara when teaching to help the children understand things. How can you tell us the teachers must use only English even if the children don't understand what they are saying?&quot; ] </li></ul>
    32. 34. Baker- bilingualism and special education <ul><li>Bilingual children (ESL) are often over-represented in Special Ed, being seen as having language deficit. </li></ul><ul><li>Bilingualism associated with lang disorders (e.g. delay) </li></ul><ul><li>Special Ed children are served by variety of institutional arrangements and services. Importance of bilingual special ed. </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment of Biling children needs to include observation, not just testing, with awareness of cultural bias of tests. </li></ul>
    33. 35. 6 alternative causes of special needs, learning difficulties in bilingual kids (Baker) <ul><li>Poverty, deprivation, mismatch between culture and approach of home/ school </li></ul><ul><li>Standard of education (poor pedagogy, resources, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Monolingual School and attitude to English, L1/l2 </li></ul><ul><li>Low self-esteem, anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>Interactions amongst kids in classroom, learning ethos </li></ul><ul><li>Mismatch gradient of learning and ability level of child. </li></ul>
    34. 36. Recall? –Cornell notes <ul><li>Bilingualism and the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Bilingual babies </li></ul><ul><li>Aspects of bilingual acquisition, e.g codeswitching </li></ul><ul><li>Bilingualism in adolescence </li></ul><ul><li>Heritage speaker vs. learner </li></ul><ul><li>Multiliteracies </li></ul><ul><li>Bilingual education </li></ul><ul><li>Over-representation of bilingual children in special ed…(Baker) </li></ul>