Sports psychology roby


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Sports psychology roby

  3. 3. Is Your “Unique Individual Make-up”THERE ARE 3THEORIES… Stable Unstable Introvert Extrovert A PERSONALITY 1) Trait Theory -Personality is innate, consistent in all situations and enduring -Attempts to “profile” the individual E.g. Esyenck 4 personality types on a matrix 3ARISE ROBY
  4. 4. PERSONALITY (cont…) 2) Social LearningTheory Personality is: Learned from significant others e.g. role models, our peers and the media Learned from experience by the process Observe Identify Reinforced Copy (BANDURA) 4ARISE ROBY
  5. 5. PERSONALITY (cont…) 3) InteractionistTheory -Combines both Trait and Social Learning theories -Summarised by the formula B = f (P x E) -Behaviour is adapted to the situation -Accounts for behaviour change 5ARISE ROBY
  6. 6. PERSONALITY (cont…) E.g. a boxer is calm at home, but assertive and determined in the boxing ring. 6ARISE ROBY
  7. 7. PROBLEMS WITH PERSONALITY RESEARCH PROBLEMS  Attempts at “profiling” are unsuccessful because: inconclusive Personality changes within the game Personality changes when not competing in the game  Traits are poor predictors of behaviour RESEARCH unreliable invalid 7ARISE ROBY
  8. 8. HOW TO MEASURE PERSONALITY Advantages Disadvantages Questionnaire Observation Physiological Measure -Efficient -True to life -Factual, can compare -Biased Answer -Subjective -Cumbersome TASK: Complete the table suggesting 2 advantages and 2 disadvantages for each method -Deals with lots of info -misunderstand questions -During real game -Behaviour change when watched -During performance -Increased stress 8ARISE ROBY
  9. 9. ATTITUDES THERE ARE THREE PARTS… “Are states of readiness directed at attitude objects” 1) Cognitive – Your thoughts 2) Affective – Your feelings 3) Behavioural – Your actions e.g. a belief in exercise benefits e.g. enjoying training e.g. training 3 times a week 9ARISE ROBY
  10. 10. FORMATION OF ATTITUDES Attitudes can be positive or negative POSITIVEThe Media Role Models Influence of Significant Others Enjoyable Experiences A Belief in Ability Stress Release After Competing 10ARISE ROBY
  11. 11. NEGATIVE The Media Influence of Significant Others A Bad Experience e.g. an injury Lack of Ability Stress in Competition FORMATION OF ATTITUDES 11ARISE ROBY
  12. 12. CHANGING ATTITUDES  Persuasion from a ‘perceived expert’  Make it fun when training  Allow early success  Point out the benefits of exercise  Use positive reinforcement and rewards  Use role models  Cognitive Dissonance Negative attitudes can be changed to positive attitudes by… 12ARISE ROBY
  13. 13. COGNITIVE DISSONANCE “Is a challenge to existing beliefs causing „disharmony‟ in an individual and a motivation to change attitudes” E.g. a rugby player who thinks aerobics is for girls may change his opinion if told only the fittest people do aerobics “Is a rugby player fit enough for this?” 13ARISE ROBY
  14. 14. PREJUDICE “Is an extreme attitude” FORMED BY… EXAMPLES Influence of Significant Others The Media Fitting In With The Group Bad Experience Your TeamOfficials Gender Race Age 14ARISE ROBY
  15. 15. PREJUDICE TASK: Discuss how you as a teacher or coach could prevent a prejudice in sport Cognitive Dissonance Media Education Use Role Models Punish Unfair BehaviourReinforce Fair Play PREVENTION 15ARISE ROBY
  16. 16. AGGRESSION IN SPORT Aggression Aggression Assertion? Control Frustration - Uncontrolled - Intent to harm - Outside rules - Reactive - Controlled - No intent to harm - Within rules - Motivated Assertion Definitions 16ARISE ROBY
  17. 17. AGGRESSION IN SPORT Aggression Assertion In most sports it is easy to distinguish between aggression and assertion, but in some sports it is a grey area TASK: Discuss whether you think boxing is aggressive or assertive - Intent to harm - Within the rules - Reactive - Motivated 17ARISE ROBY
  18. 18. THEORIES OF AGGRESSION THERE ARE 4 THEORIES… 1) Instinct Theory -The aggressive response is innate - It is a product of our evolution and will surface under provocation  Instinct theory suggests we are born with aggressive inclinations and we will use them if we need to 18ARISE ROBY
  19. 19. THEORIES OF AGGRESSION 2) The F-A Hypothesis - Aggression is inevitable when frustrating circumstances cause our goals to be blocked E.g. a referee’s decision, poor play or being fouled - If the aggressive tendency can be released, Catharsis may occur. If the aggression cannot be released even more frustration can occur. 19ARISE ROBY
  20. 20. THEORIES OF AGGRESSION 2)The F-A Hypothesis (Cont…) Drive Obstacle Frustration Inevitable Aggression PunishmentMore Aggression SuccessCatharsis  Here is a model to explain the F-A Hypothesis 20ARISE ROBY
  21. 21. THEORIES OF AGGRESSION 3) The Aggression Cue Hypothesis -Aggression only occurs if learned „cues‟ are present - Such pre-learned cues, learned from the coach or other players, trigger the aggressive response E.g. A coach may have allowed a football player to elbow the defender as his team works for positions in the penalty area as a corner is taken. The taking of a corner is a learned cue for an aggressive response  Here is a model to explain the Aggression Cue Hypothesis Goals Blocked Aggression Unlikely Aggression Likely No Cues Present Cues Present Arousal 21ARISE ROBY
  22. 22. THEORIES OF AGGRESSION 4) Social Learning Theory - Aggression is learned from experience, coaches, role models and significant others - Aggressive behaviour will be copied if it is reinforced Observe Identify Reinforced Copy - Bandura suggested that children will copy the aggressive behaviour of adults, especially in a live situation E.g. A basketball player sees her team captain foul an opponent she is marking closely and the opposing player is put off her game 22ARISE ROBY
  23. 23. CAUSES OF AGGRESSION Aggression In Sport Over Arousal EnvironmentContact Unfair Decisions Frustration Personality Traits Intimidation Stress Type of Sport Social LearningImportance of Event Losing Expectations Blow to self esteem 23ARISE ROBY
  24. 24. HOW TO PREVENT AGGRESSION Coach Player TASK: Can you complete the table suggesting 4 measures a coach could take and 3 measures a player could take to prevent aggression? - Punish of substitute a player - Reinforce non-aggressive acts - Promote peer group pressure - Set non-aggressive goals - Use relaxation techniques - Practice mental rehearsal - Channel the aggressive response 24ARISE ROBY
  25. 25. UNIT 1 – EXAM QUESTIONS 1. Use an example from sport to illustrate what is meant by the intentionalist approach to personality? (4 marks) 2. Give an example of a prejudice that may occur in sport and show how such a prejudice may have been formed. (4 marks) 3. Define the term aggression as used in sport psychology and explain how a coach of a sports team could eliminate the aggressive tendencies of his or her players. (4 marks) 25ARISE ROBY
  26. 26. 1. Interactionist approach 3 marks from 3 of: -B = f(PxE) -Combines trait and social learning - Innate characteristics are adapted to the situation - Accounts for behaviour change -1 mark for example UNIT 1 – EXAM ANSWERS 26ARISE ROBY
  27. 27. UNIT 1 – EXAM ANSWERS 2. Prejudice 1 mark for example - Racism/ sexism/ ageism/ gender/ officials 3 marks from 3 of - Social learning - Media - Peer group pressure - Historical influences - Bad past experience over valued 27ARISE ROBY
  28. 28. UNIT 1 – EXAM ANSWERS 3. Aggression 1 mark for definition -Intent to harm/ outside rules/ reactive 3 marks for 3 ways to eliminate - Punishment of aggression/ substitution - Reinforce fair play -Promote peer group pressure - Set non aggressive goals 28ARISE ROBY
  30. 30. SPORTS GROUPS  A group has the following features: - Interaction between group members. -A collective identity. - Shared objectives or a common goal. 30ARISE ROBY
  31. 31. STEINER’S MODEL OF GROUP PERFORMANCE Actual Productivity = Potential Productivity – Losses due to Faulty Processes  Actual Productivity is the result  Potential Productivity is the groups best performance  Faulty Processes include the things that go wrong such as lack of cohesion, poor group co-ordination and motivational losses 31ARISE ROBY
  32. 32. GROUP CO-ORDINATION Lack of co-ordination may be caused by: Poor Strategies Bad Timing Misunderstanding of roles or the coaches instructions Poor Tactics Lack of communication Caused by 32ARISE ROBY
  33. 33. THE TYPE OF SPORT AFFECTS CO-ORDINATION TASK: Discuss how much co-ordination is needed in the following sports: Marathon Running Netball Double Sculls Rowing The more people involved the more co-ordination is needed. Individual sports need less co- ordination than co-active sports (a pair) and team interactive sports need most co-ordination Answer: 33ARISE ROBY
  34. 34. MOTIVATIONAL LOSSES-SOCIAL LOAFING  Social loafing is a loss of individual motivation due to lack of performance identification Caused by A belief your effort won‟t change the results Others not trying Lack of reinforcement Low ability Low confidence Others may cover for you 34ARISE ROBY
  35. 35. TASK: Now that you know what causes social loafing, how could you prevent it? Prevention Highlighting individual performanceStatistics Peer group pressure Give roles Set goals SOCIAL LOAFING 35ARISE ROBY
  36. 36. MOTIVATIONAL LOSSES IN THE GROUP The Ringlemann Effect states that: “Group performance decreases with group size”  A study of “tug of war” found that a team of eight did not pull eight times as hard as an individual !! 36ARISE ROBY
  37. 37. GROUP COHESION The desire of the group members to achieve their goals Affected by Past success Likelihood of future success Sharing common goals Unequal pay or rewards Communication Threats to the team Similarity of group members Type of sportSize of group Personality 37ARISE ROBY
  38. 38. GROUP COHESION (cont…) TASK: As a coach, discuss how you would ensure your team works together in a cohesive manner: Promoted by:  Goal Setting  Promoting group identity  Interactive drills in training  Giving roles  Clear tactics 38ARISE ROBY
  39. 39. MODEL OF COHESION Attraction – What gets you to the group Integration – How the group “gel” Task Cohesion – Achievement Social cohesion – How group members get on Cohesion Attraction Integration Task Social Task Social Athletes are attracted to the sport for social purposes and to make progress (task) Only in the team they must interact with others (social) and try to achieve their goals. 39ARISE ROBY
  40. 40. LEADERSHIP THERE 2 TYPES OF LEADER… 1) Prescribed 2) Emergent - Appointed by an outside source E.g. Sven Goran Eriksson - From within the group Qualities of a Leader Charisma Motivator Communicator Skills Experience Empathy 40ARISE ROBY
  41. 41. LEADERSHIP STYLES Six styles a leader can adopt are: 1) Autocratic 3) Training 6) Laissez Faire 5) Social Support 4) Rewarding 2) Democratic - Dictates to the group and makes all the decisions - Listens to group ideas before deciding on action - Structured skills and drills - Motivational strategies such as praise and rewards e.g “player of the match” - One to one feedback - No leader input, leaving the group to get on with it 41ARISE ROBY
  42. 42. THE CHOICE OF LEADERSHIP STYLE CAN DEPEND ON HOW GOOD THE SITUATION IS  Fielders Contingency Model Autocratic – Leader is best in a positive (Most Favourable) or negative (least favourable situation) Autocratic Most favourable Clear Task Group get on Strong leader Democratic Autocratic Least favourable Unclear task Hostile group Weak leader Democratic – Leader is best in moderately favourable situation 42ARISE ROBY
  43. 43. ACCORDING TO CHELLADURAI 3 FACTORS AFFECT LEADERSHIP Group Leader Situation TASK: Can you give examples from sport of situation, group and leader variables? 43ARISE ROBY
  44. 44. LEADERSHIP (cont…) Situation can be affected by:  Time available  Type of task  Danger Leader can be affected by:  Leader characteristics  Preferences Group can be affected by:  Group size  Group ability  Group hostility 44ARISE ROBY
  45. 45. FACTORS AFFECTING CHOICE OF LEADERSHIP STYLES - SUMMARY The more leaders actual behaviour matches the needs of the group and the demands of the situation the more satisfaction is gained from the performance. Situation Demands Leader Group Actual Prefer = = Satisfaction  Chelladurai  Leadership is affected by 3 factors: 45ARISE ROBY
  46. 46. ARE LEADERS BORN OR MADE?  Leaders are born with innate characteristics Some argue that: Others say that:  Leaders learn from experience or role models But perhaps:  Leaders adapt to the situation NATURE NURTURE INTERACTION 46ARISE ROBY
  47. 47. Conduct a class discussion or debate on the motion “All leaders are born great and male!” Perhaps the boys would like to argue against the girls in this discussion!! 47ARISE ROBY
  48. 48. GOAL SETTING Setting targets improves performance because:  Allows targets to be met  Builds confidence  Provides motivation  Lowers arousal 48ARISE ROBY
  49. 49. TYPES OF GOALS Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Steps to success Process goals about technique Performance goals about beating your last attempt Outcome or product goals. The ultimate aim! Short term goals Long term goals 49ARISE ROBY
  50. 50. CONSIDERATIONS WHEN GOAL SETTING S pecific  M easured  E xciting  A greed  R ealistic, but challenging  T imed  R ecorded  Goals should not just concern winning, not everyone can win.  Personal performance goals provide intrinsic motivation and can be achieved by everyone! 50ARISE ROBY
  51. 51. UNIT 2 – EXAM QUESTIONS 1. Name two features of a sports group. (2 marks) 2. What is meant by the term social loafing and how can a sports coach help to prevent social loafing occurring in their team? (4 marks) 3. Explain three factors that could influence the choice of style chosen by the leader of a sports group. (3 marks) 51ARISE ROBY
  52. 52. UNIT 2 – EXAM ANSWERS 1. Group features 2 for 2 of: - Shared common goals - Interaction - Common identity 52ARISE ROBY
  53. 53. UNIT 2 – EXAM ANSWERS 2. Social Loafing 1 mark for definition -Loss of individual motivation in a group due to lack of performance identification Prevention of social loafing, 3 marks for 3 of: -Highlight individual performance - Statistics - Set goals - Give roles - promote peer group pressure 53ARISE ROBY
  54. 54. UNIT 2 – EXAM ANSWERS 3. Leadership choice, 3 for 3 of: -Situation – danger/time/facilities - Leader – characteristics/personality - Group – size/ability/hostility 54ARISE ROBY
  56. 56. CONFIDENCE IN SPORT Is a “Belief in your ability to master a situation” According to Vealey confidence is based on: 1. Personality- Your level of competitiveness and achievement motivation 2. Experience- Your amount of past success on the task and your belief in your ability to succeed in future 3. Situation- Playing at home or away for example 56ARISE ROBY
  57. 57. TRAIT V STATE CONFIDENCE Trait Confidence – Is innate confidence shown in most situations  State confidence – The interaction between these two is important. A naturally confident hockey player who has taken many penalty flicks before will be very confident of scoring from the spot in future games. Is situation specific e.g. Taking a penalty 57ARISE ROBY
  58. 58. CONFIDENCE-SELF EFFICACY THEORY  4 factors affect confidence in any situation According to Bandura 1. Performance Accomplishments- What you have done before 2. Vicarious Experience- Seeing others do it 3. Verbal Persuasion- Encouragement 4. Emotional Arousal Your level of anxiety  If all 4 factors are positive then a highly satisfactory performance will result 58ARISE ROBY
  59. 59. PROMOTING CONFIDENCE TASK: Taking into account the 4 influences on self efficacy, how could a coach develop confidence in his o hers players? Promoting Confidence Attribute success internally Use positive reinforcement and encouragement Set attainable yet challenging goals Show similar aged role models successfully doing the task Control arousal with relaxation techniques Allow early success Give accurate demonstrations 59ARISE ROBY
  60. 60. ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION  Is the desire with which competitive situations are approached or avoided  The degree of competitiveness can be a personality trait, and/or it can be developed through sporting experiences and change with the situation 60ARISE ROBY
  61. 61. ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION (cont…) Atkinson suggested 2 personality types: 1. NACH 2. NAF - Welcome competition - They take risks - Welcome feedback - Like a challenge - Try harder after failure - The need to achieve - The need to avoid failure - Avoid competition - Take the easy option - Give up easily - Do not take responsibility for their actions 61ARISE ROBY
  62. 62. THE DEGREE OF ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION IS INFLUENCED BY THE TASK AND SITUATION COMPETITIVENESS Have I done it before? How motivated am i? Am I in a familiar environment? Task How easy How hard What’s the incentive? How will I feel if I succeed? TASK: Place the influences on achievement motivation listed above in rank order according to how important they are in promoting competitiveness and confidence. 62ARISE ROBY
  63. 63. AROUSAL IN SPORT  Arousal is an energised state of readiness to perform  Increases in arousal can be cause by: - Simply being watched - By a challenging situation such as a major game  The relationship between arousal and performance is explained by a number of theories TASK: Give some examples of situations in sport that may cause high levels of arousal 63ARISE ROBY
  64. 64. DRIVE THEORY  Is explained by the formula P = f (D x H)  Initial motivation causes increased drive, more effort, more success and a repetition of the same response  At high arousal we pick up less information and focus on the dominant response. - If the task is simple or the performer is an expert then this response will be correct. - If the task is complex or the performer is a novice then performance may be impaired 64ARISE ROBY
  65. 65. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AROUSAL AND PERFORMANCE Performance Arousal  Drive Theory High Low High 65ARISE ROBY
  66. 66. Inverted U Performance ArousalLow High High Under Over Moderate  Increased arousal improves performance but only to a moderate level after which more arousal causes performance to suffer  Under and over arousal can be equally bad for performance 66ARISE ROBY
  67. 67. A moderate level of arousal is not always the best At low arousal At high arousal - Introverts perform best because they already have high adrenaline levels - A novice performs best because they need to concentrate on lots of info - Fine and complex skills are performed best because they require control and decision making - Extroverts can tolerate extra adrenaline - Experts are used to the pressure and can operate on limited info - Gross and simple skills are performed best because they need less control and decision making 67ARISE ROBY
  68. 68. CATASTROPHE THEORY  Increased arousal improves performance to a point but an intense combination of somatic and cognitive anxieties causes a dramatic deterioration in performance Low High High Arousal Performance Quality  Is an adaptation of the Inverted U  To return to adequate performance the athlete must relax to the point before the catastrophe occurred 68ARISE ROBY
  69. 69. THE ZONE OF OPTIMUM FUNCTIONING  According to Hanin athletes perform best not at a point (inverted u) but in an area or “zone” that is reached by advanced cognitive techniques such as imagery and visualisation In Zone Out Of Zone Out of Zone In Zone Out of Zone Out of Zone In Zone Athlete A Low Zone Athlete B Moderate Zone Athlete C High Zone Low High Anxiety Level  The zone is an adapted version of the Inverted U 69ARISE ROBY
  70. 70. THE ZONE TASK: Athlete A performs best at a low arousal zone Athlete B at moderate arousal Athlete C at high arousal  Give examples from sport of tasks that would be appropriate for athlete A, B and C 70ARISE ROBY
  71. 71. ANSWERS: Athlete A – Low arousal Athlete B – Moderate arousal Athlete C – High arousal Golf Putt Rugby Tackle Volleyball block 71ARISE ROBY
  72. 72. FEATURES OF THE ZONE Extreme confidence Outcome assured Automatic control Total focus Effortless smooth performance Relaxed Anxiety is low Energised yet calm 72ARISE ROBY
  73. 73. STRESS IN SPORT  Is a response to a demanding situation or threat If we think we can match the threat a positive and confident performance results. If we think we can‟t meet the demands of the situation, distress results. Our perception of the situation is important. Can we hack it? Positive Negative We think we can beat the threat We think we can‟t meet the demands of the situation = anxiety 73ARISE ROBY
  74. 74. A SUMMARY OF STRESS Stressors Stress Response Stress Experience Conflict Competition Climate Frustration Crowd Fatigue Alarm Resist Exhaust Includes increases in heart rate, sweating and increased adrenaline Positive Or Negative Depends on your perception. Can you meet the threat? 74ARISE ROBY
  75. 75. TASK: Explain, using examples from sport, what you think is meant by “conflict”, “competition” and “frustration” as stressors. Answer: Conflict:- Playing against an established international player Competition:- Reaching a major final with lots of athletes close to your p.b Frustration:- Being fouled just when you are about to score the equalising goal 75ARISE ROBY
  76. 76. ANXIETY Is a negative aspect of stress. Characterised by irrational thinking, loss of concentration and fear of failure Anxiety isTrait State - Personality trait - Consistent - Stable - Anxious behaviour all the time - A player worrying before all games - Situation dependant - Temporary rush of anxiety - Caused by threatening circumstances - E.g. taking a penalty 76ARISE ROBY
  77. 77. CAUSES OF ANXIETY  Worries about: Causes Letting the team down Playing badly Injury Meeting training demands Running out of time when losing Pleasing the crowd 77ARISE ROBY
  78. 78. THE SCAT TEST Statements Hardly ever Sometimes Often 1) Competing against others is socially enjoyable 2) Before I compete I feel uneasy 3) Before I compete I worry about not playing well 4) I am a good sportsperson when I compete 5) When I compete I worry about making mistakes Tick appropriate box e.g. 78ARISE ROBY
  79. 79. THE SCAT TEST (cont…) Statements Hardly ever Sometimes Often 6) Competing against others is socially enjoyable 7) Before I compete I feel uneasy 8) Before I compete I worry about not playing well 9) I am a good sportsperson when I compete View the next slide for how to calculate your SCAT score 79ARISE ROBY
  80. 80. HOW TO SCORE THE SCAT TEST For each statement, 3 responses are possible: The test items are 2, 3, 5, 6, 8 and 9 Items 1, 4 and 7 are not scored  Items 2, 3, 5, 8 and 9 are scored according to the following key: Hardly ever = 1 Sometimes = 2 Often = 3  Item 6 is scored as follows: Often = 1 Sometimes = 2 Hardly ever = 3  The higher the score, the higher is your competitive anxiety 80ARISE ROBY
  81. 81. SPORTS COMPETITION ANXIETY TEST (SCAT) (Martens)  A questionnaire that measures anxiety cause by sporting competition  The main findings of the test are:- 1) Anxiety is interactive. State and Trait effects combine. A natural worrier would be even more nervous taking a penalty. If you have the trait you‟re more likely to get the state. 2) Athletes are not equally anxious all the time 3) Being watched is a main cause of anxiety 4) Anxiety is therefore multi- dimensional 81ARISE ROBY
  82. 82. ANXIETY CAN BE PRESENT IN TWO WAYS Somatic Cognitive - Physical - of the body - Muscular tension - Shaking - Pacing - Poor co-ordination - Sweating - Increased heart rate - In the mind - Irrational thinking - Worrying - Confusion - Loss of concentration 82ARISE ROBY
  83. 83. MULTI DIMENSIONAL ANXIETY  Somatic anxiety mirrors the inverted U. Increases in somatic anxiety improve performance to a point after which performance deteriorates Performance Quality Level of State Anxiety Cognitive Anxiety Somatic Anxiety The Relationship Between Anxiety And Performance  Cognitive anxiety has a linear effect. Increases in cognitive anxiety makes performance worse. 83ARISE ROBY
  84. 84. MULTI DIMENSIONAL ANXIETY  Cognitive anxieties and present well before a major sporting event but somatic anxiety emerges just before the game. Lack of physical signs during the days leading up to the game does not mean lack of anxiety Cognitive Anxiety Somatic Anxiety 1 Week Before Day before 2hrs before 1hr before Start of Event Time to Event 84ARISE ROBY
  85. 85. TO CONTROL ANXIETY AND STRESS  Controlling cognitive anxiety Imagery- Using the senses to recreate a past success. Attempts to build confidence Visualisation- Creating a mental picture of doing a task in a real game situation, and succeeding Mental Rehearsal- Going over the performance in the mind, maybe rehearse a sequence Positive Self Talk- Convincing yourself you can do it or reminding yourself of tactics Goal Setting- Motivating yourself by setting targets Cognitive 85ARISE ROBY
  86. 86. CONTROLLING SOMATIC ANXIETY Somatic Progressive relaxation techniques- Used to relieve muscular tension Biofeedback- Used to test which of the anxiety control methods works best for you Breathing exercises- Learn to control breathing to reduce anxiety 86ARISE ROBY
  87. 87. ATTENTION IN SPORT FOCUSING ON RELEVANT CUES  Niddefer argued that the performer must choose the right attentional style for the right situation  The styles are:  Broad- Attending to several stimuli with wide vision  Narrow- Focusing on one or two cues  External- Looking at the environment  Internal- Inner thoughts 87ARISE ROBY
  88. 88. SUMMARY OF ATTENTION IN SPORT Broad Narrow External Internal Position of players in a game e.g. Midfield in soccer Focus on the ball e.g. Golf ball to hole Analyse and plan. Coaches tactics after watching the game Mental Rehearsal Focus at the start 88ARISE ROBY
  89. 89. CUE UTILISATION- EASTERBROOK  The amount of information we can process is related to our level of activation or arousal  At low arousal we have a broad attentional field, take in many cues but can become confused  At high arousal the attentional field narrows and we only focus on a few cues, maybe missing relevant information  At moderate arousal we focus on the relevant stimuli 89ARISE ROBY
  90. 90. EFFECTS OF ATTENTION OVERLOAD TASK: What do you think might happen to a sports performer who has too much information to deal with? Answer: Loss of concentration Increased anxiety Too much attention on irrelevant cues A tendency to fall back on the dominant responseConfusion Effects 90ARISE ROBY
  91. 91. SOCIAL FACILITATION The Effects Of Others On Performance 4) Co-Actors -  According to Zajonc there are 4 types of others present in sport: 1) An audience - Just watches 2) Competitors - Are in conflict with the performer 3) Supporters - Encourage or criticise performance Are doing the sport alongside you 91ARISE ROBY
  92. 92. HERE ARE SOME FEATURES OF SOCIAL FACILITATION  Inhibition - - When performance is made worse  Facilitation - - When performance is improved  Audience -  Evaluation Apprehension -  Dominant Response -  Increased Arousal - Focusing on one or two cues as our ability to take in information reduces - The fear of being judged - Watching performance 92ARISE ROBY
  93. 93. TASK: Can you put these features (from the previous slide) in the order you think they would occur? 1) Dominant Response 2) Evaluation Apprehension 3) Audience 4) Increased Arousal SUMMARY OF FACILITATION/ INHIBITION 5) Inhibition 6) Facilitation 93ARISE ROBY
  94. 94. SUMMARY OF FACILITATION/ INHIBITION Audience IncreasedArousal Evaluation Apprehension Dominant Response Improved performance Simple Task Impaired performance Complex Task/ beginner Answer: 1 2 3 4 FACILITATION INHIBITION 5 94ARISE ROBY
  95. 95. COPING WITH AN AUDIENCE  To combat the pressure of being watched coaches and players should: Focus on the task Train in front of a crowd Lower arousal with relaxation techniques Decrease the importance of the event 95ARISE ROBY
  96. 96. EVALUATION APPREHENSION  Is the perceived fear of being judged  This fear is made worse if: Audience is know to us We are lacking confidence Audience are critical Audience are experts e.g. chief scouts Evaluation Apprehension 96ARISE ROBY
  97. 97. DISTRACTION/ CONFLICT THEORY  Explains that it is hard to be multi-tasked and concentrate on two things at once. Task Distraction Conflict Arousal Performance effects  Conflict between task and distraction causes increased arousal, anxiety and lack of concentration  When playing sport and trying to concentrate on task demands we may be distracted by both internally (our anxieties) and externally (the crowd) 97ARISE ROBY
  98. 98. ATTRIBUTION  The perceived causes of events  The reasons we give for winning/ losing can effect future effort  The reasons for winning/ losing can be within our control or not our fault – The “Causality” dimension  They can be permanent or changeable – “Stability” - An internal reason is within our control - An external reasons is out of our control - A stable reason is unlikely to change in the short term - An unstable reason can change from minute to minute 98ARISE ROBY
  99. 99. A FRAMEWORK FOR ATTRIBUTION Reasons you might give for winning or losing a game could be… Your ability Luck The effort you put in Coaching you have been given Playing a good team The amount of practice you did The officials 99ARISE ROBY
  100. 100. A FRAMEWORK FOR ATTRIBUTION Ability Coaching Effort Amount Of Practice Luck Task Officials Internal External Stable Unstable Stability Causality TASK: Can you put the reasons from the previous slide into the model below 100ARISE ROBY
  101. 101. SELF SERVING BIAS  We like to attribute success to internal and stable factors and losing to external factors beyond our control  Therefore if your team lost, the blame can fall on the ref, luck, or quality of opposition and If you played well, its put down to effort and ability  Praise effort and reward ability to ensure your players keep trying 101ARISE ROBY
  102. 102. LEARNED HELPLESSNESS  It is a belief that failure is inevitable, caused by blaming internal/ stable reasons for losing  Global learned helplessness means you think you can‟t succeed at all, specific learned helplessness relates to one sport  To counter learned helplessness you should: - Get away from internal reasons such as ability and blame, the coach, your tactics, your equipment or other external reasons - Introduce attributional re-training - Be positive  It occurs when you blame yourself for losing 102ARISE ROBY
  103. 103. ATTRIBUTION – CONTINUE EFFORT Explain early failure Allow early success Stress personal improvement Make it fun TASK: As a coach, given your knowledge of attribution, how could you ensure that your players continue to try in the future? Attribute success internally Blame external reasons for failures Attribution 103ARISE ROBY
  104. 104. UNIT 3 – EXAM QUESTIONS 1. Identify one main method of measuring stress in sport and give three ways in which a coach can help an athlete to reduce stress. (4 marks) 2. Explain the factors that could affect performance when playing in front of a large crowd at an important local match. (4 marks) 3. Use examples from sport to illustrate the factors a coach must consider when setting goals for an athlete. (4 marks) 104ARISE ROBY
  105. 105. UNIT 3 – EXAM ANSWERS 1. Stress measure 1 mark for: - questionnaire e.g SCAT/ observation/ physiological responses 3 marks for three of: - Reduce importance of event - Goal setting - Teach relaxation techniques - Point out past successes - Counter athletes negative perception 105ARISE ROBY
  106. 106. UNIT 3 – EXAM ANSWERS 2. Playing in front of a crowd, 4 from 4 of: -Increased arousal - Playing away/home field advantage - Experts could play better - Novices could play worse - Proximity of crowd - Evaluation apprehension/knowledge of crowd - Crowd known to you - Simple tasks performed well - Complex tasks performed worse 106ARISE ROBY
  107. 107. UNIT 3 – EXAM ANSWERS 3. Goal Setting, 4 marks from 4 of (must have examples): SMARTER -Specific - Measured - Agreed - Realistic - Timed -Exciting -Recorded 107ARISE ROBY