Indus Valley Civilization
a Primary Phase
Culture
 little or no continuity
with the following
cultures
 forgotten until ...
INDUS VALLEY CIVILISATION
a Primary Phase Culture
 little or no continuity with the following
cultures
 forgotten until ...
Harappan Culture


Indus valley
◦ not desert
◦ well-watered and heavily forested



500 miles along the river valley
◦ 1...
India

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Hydraulic Culture
like Egypt and Mesopotamia
 agriculture and flood-control
 significant industry and trade
 cities ver...
Indus Valley

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Lack of Sources


literate culture
◦ we cannot read the writing
◦ writing on bricks and seals
◦ did not use paper or clay...
“Unicorn” seal + writing
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More seals
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…and more seals...
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Seated “yogi” : early Shiva?

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Reasonable generalizations
rapid development: early 2,000s B.C.
 roughly contemporary with Egypt and
Mesopotamia
 early ...
Generalizations, con’t
cities dominated both economic and
political activity
 origins of the people are unclear


◦ simi...
Major Cities


Harappa and Mohenjo-daro
◦ surrounded by smaller cities, towns, and
villages

one situated in the north
 ...
Cities, con’t
uniform culture over a wide area
 cities built on a common plan


◦ a grid: always NS and EW axes
 with t...
Grid map of
Mohenjo-daro

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CENTER
Mohenjo-daro : aerial view
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Mohenjo-daro
of the “Citadel”

view

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The “Great Bath”
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another view of the “Great Bath”
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view of a small, side street
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looks like a small
tower, but actually it
is a neighborhood
well

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A bathroom on a private residence
ARISE TRAINING & RESEARCH
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A public well in Harappa, or perhaps an
ancient laundromat...
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A large drain or sewer

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CENTER
Monumental architecture
very-large scale building
 walled cites, with fortified citadels
 always on the same scale
 pal...
Architecture, con’t
large grain storage facilities near
temples
 a theocracy ??
 planned economy


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Harappan granary
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CENTER
Cities
very densely populated
 houses: two to three stories
 every house is laid out the same


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Culture and Society
advanced agriculture
 surplus production
 textiles: wool and cotton
 domesticated animals and fish
...
Bronze Age technology
no swords
 spears and bows
 stone arrow heads


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CENTER
Society
dominated by priests ?
 from the fortified palaces and temples
?
 power base: fertility ?
 deities: male and fe...
A priest?

A bull
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Trade
with lower Mesopotamia
 but gradually declined


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Decline


domination of an indigenous people ?
◦ who rebelled ?

foreign invasion?
 gradual decline ?


ARISE TRAINING ...
Combination of Changes
climate shift: the monsoon patterns
 flooding
 destruction of the forests
 migrations of new peo...
The Aryan Invasions
Indus civilization on the verge of
collapse
 about 1500 B.C.
 settlement by a nomadic people


◦ th...
Possible route of the Aryan invasions

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CENTER
The Aryans
not to be confused with Hitler’s
“Aryans”
 these Aryans speak an Indo-European
dialect
 related to other lang...
Map of Language Families

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CENTER
The Aryans, con’t
they called themselves “Aryans”
 their land: “Aryavarta”


◦ land of the Aryans

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Gradual settlement
over a long period of time
 gradual infiltration
 more primitive than the earlier culture


ARISE TR...
Settlement, con’t
new society by 1,200 B.C. or so
 little evidence
 not literate
 no record system


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Oral Tradition
passed down from priests and singers
 written down in the 500’s
 The Vedas


◦ “Veda” means “knowledge”
...
The Vedas


our primary source
◦ early Aryan tradition
◦ later Hindu religion



four “vedas”
◦ the Rig Veda is the olde...
Krishna with
Arjuna on the
battlefield of
Kuruksketra

2 points to the first
person who can tell
whether this is a
modern ...
Krishna reveals
himself to Arjuna
in his manifold
aspects

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CENTER
The Vedas
oral poetry
 come to have a sacred character
 provide some historical information


ARISE TRAINING & RESEARCH...
The Aryans
restless, warlike people
 tall, blue-eyed, fair-skinned
 describe the indigenous population as


◦ short, “b...
The Aryans, con’t
originally pastoralists
 family, clan, tribe (typical IndoEuropeans)
 eventually settled down to farmi...
The Aryans, con’t
villages and kingdoms constantly
fighting
 War chiefs and kings
 aristocrats and freemen


ARISE TRAI...
The Aryans, con’t


fond of fighting, drinking, chariot
racing, gambling chasing women and
bragging about their spears
◦ ...
Aryans and Hindus
Aryans give rise to Hindu society
 but different characteristics


◦ cows: they ate them
◦ classes, bu...
The Iron Age: new sources
the Vedas: passed on orally
 the Brahamanas: interpretations on
the Vedas
 the Upanishads: int...
Strain of change
Iron Age change causes strain on the
class system
 blurring of lines between Aryans and
Daas


◦ answer...
Caste System
skin color
 ritual purity
 “Us--Them” feelings
 divine order of four castes


ARISE TRAINING & RESEARCH
C...
Caste System (“Varnas”)
Brahmins: the priests
 Kshatriyas: the warriors
 Vaisyas: merchants and peasants
 Sudras: non-A...
Caste system,
produced by Brahmins
 literature emphasized the divine order
 hierarchical relationship
 inheritance and ...
Caste system in practice
warrior class did not always accept it
 nor the other classes
 the process of evolution is stil...
Castes
define a person’s social universe
 define a person’s standard of conduct
 define a person’s expectations
 define...
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INDUS VALLEY CIVILISATION - ARISE ROBY

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The facts behind the our Indian history - arise roby

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INDUS VALLEY CIVILISATION - ARISE ROBY

  1. 1. Indus Valley Civilization a Primary Phase Culture  little or no continuity with the following cultures  forgotten until the 19th Century  ◦ rediscovered by the British ARISE TRAINING & RESEARCH CENTER
  2. 2. INDUS VALLEY CIVILISATION a Primary Phase Culture  little or no continuity with the following cultures  forgotten until the 19th Century  ◦ rediscovered by the British ARISE TRAINING & RESEARCH CENTER
  3. 3. Harappan Culture  Indus valley ◦ not desert ◦ well-watered and heavily forested  500 miles along the river valley ◦ 10-20 times larger than Mesopotamia or Egypt ARISE TRAINING & RESEARCH CENTER
  4. 4. India ARISE TRAINING & RESEARCH CENTER
  5. 5. Hydraulic Culture like Egypt and Mesopotamia  agriculture and flood-control  significant industry and trade  cities very common  ARISE TRAINING & RESEARCH CENTER
  6. 6. Indus Valley ARISE TRAINING & RESEARCH CENTER
  7. 7. Lack of Sources  literate culture ◦ we cannot read the writing ◦ writing on bricks and seals ◦ did not use paper or clay tablets ARISE TRAINING & RESEARCH CENTER
  8. 8. “Unicorn” seal + writing ARISE TRAINING & RESEARCH CENTER
  9. 9. More seals ARISE TRAINING & RESEARCH CENTER
  10. 10. …and more seals... ARISE TRAINING & RESEARCH CENTER
  11. 11. ARISE TRAINING & RESEARCH CENTER
  12. 12. Seated “yogi” : early Shiva? ARISE TRAINING & RESEARCH CENTER
  13. 13. Reasonable generalizations rapid development: early 2,000s B.C.  roughly contemporary with Egypt and Mesopotamia  early village culture  changing rapidly to urban civilization  ARISE TRAINING & RESEARCH CENTER
  14. 14. Generalizations, con’t cities dominated both economic and political activity  origins of the people are unclear  ◦ similar to the Mediterranean type ARISE TRAINING & RESEARCH CENTER
  15. 15. Major Cities  Harappa and Mohenjo-daro ◦ surrounded by smaller cities, towns, and villages one situated in the north  one situated in the south  ARISE TRAINING & RESEARCH CENTER
  16. 16. Cities, con’t uniform culture over a wide area  cities built on a common plan  ◦ a grid: always NS and EW axes  with twelve smaller grids ◦ kiln-dried brick ARISE TRAINING & RESEARCH CENTER
  17. 17. Grid map of Mohenjo-daro ARISE TRAINING & RESEARCH CENTER
  18. 18. Mohenjo-daro : aerial view ARISE TRAINING & RESEARCH CENTER
  19. 19. Mohenjo-daro of the “Citadel” view ARISE TRAINING & RESEARCH CENTER
  20. 20. The “Great Bath” ARISE TRAINING & RESEARCH CENTER
  21. 21. another view of the “Great Bath” ARISE TRAINING & RESEARCH CENTER
  22. 22. view of a small, side street ARISE TRAINING & RESEARCH CENTER
  23. 23. looks like a small tower, but actually it is a neighborhood well ARISE TRAINING & RESEARCH CENTER
  24. 24. A bathroom on a private residence ARISE TRAINING & RESEARCH CENTER
  25. 25. A public well in Harappa, or perhaps an ancient laundromat... ARISE TRAINING & RESEARCH CENTER
  26. 26. A large drain or sewer ARISE TRAINING & RESEARCH CENTER
  27. 27. Monumental architecture very-large scale building  walled cites, with fortified citadels  always on the same scale  palaces, temples  ARISE TRAINING & RESEARCH CENTER
  28. 28. Architecture, con’t large grain storage facilities near temples  a theocracy ??  planned economy  ARISE TRAINING & RESEARCH CENTER
  29. 29. Harappan granary ARISE TRAINING & RESEARCH CENTER
  30. 30. Cities very densely populated  houses: two to three stories  every house is laid out the same  ARISE TRAINING & RESEARCH CENTER
  31. 31. Culture and Society advanced agriculture  surplus production  textiles: wool and cotton  domesticated animals and fish  ARISE TRAINING & RESEARCH CENTER
  32. 32. Bronze Age technology no swords  spears and bows  stone arrow heads  ARISE TRAINING & RESEARCH CENTER
  33. 33. Society dominated by priests ?  from the fortified palaces and temples ?  power base: fertility ?  deities: male and female, both nude  bull worship and phallic symbols  ARISE TRAINING & RESEARCH CENTER
  34. 34. A priest? A bull ARISE TRAINING & RESEARCH CENTER
  35. 35. Trade with lower Mesopotamia  but gradually declined  ARISE TRAINING & RESEARCH CENTER
  36. 36. Decline  domination of an indigenous people ? ◦ who rebelled ? foreign invasion?  gradual decline ?  ARISE TRAINING & RESEARCH CENTER
  37. 37. Combination of Changes climate shift: the monsoon patterns  flooding  destruction of the forests  migrations of new peoples: the Aryans  ARISE TRAINING & RESEARCH CENTER
  38. 38. The Aryan Invasions Indus civilization on the verge of collapse  about 1500 B.C.  settlement by a nomadic people  ◦ the Aryans ARISE TRAINING & RESEARCH CENTER
  39. 39. Possible route of the Aryan invasions ARISE TRAINING & RESEARCH CENTER
  40. 40. The Aryans not to be confused with Hitler’s “Aryans”  these Aryans speak an Indo-European dialect  related to other languages like Greek and Latin  ARISE TRAINING & RESEARCH CENTER
  41. 41. Map of Language Families ARISE TRAINING & RESEARCH CENTER
  42. 42. The Aryans, con’t they called themselves “Aryans”  their land: “Aryavarta”  ◦ land of the Aryans ARISE TRAINING & RESEARCH CENTER
  43. 43. Gradual settlement over a long period of time  gradual infiltration  more primitive than the earlier culture  ARISE TRAINING & RESEARCH CENTER
  44. 44. Settlement, con’t new society by 1,200 B.C. or so  little evidence  not literate  no record system  ARISE TRAINING & RESEARCH CENTER
  45. 45. Oral Tradition passed down from priests and singers  written down in the 500’s  The Vedas  ◦ “Veda” means “knowledge” ARISE TRAINING & RESEARCH CENTER
  46. 46. The Vedas  our primary source ◦ early Aryan tradition ◦ later Hindu religion  four “vedas” ◦ the Rig Veda is the oldest ARISE TRAINING & RESEARCH CENTER
  47. 47. Krishna with Arjuna on the battlefield of Kuruksketra 2 points to the first person who can tell whether this is a modern or ancient painting and why? ARISE TRAINING & RESEARCH CENTER
  48. 48. Krishna reveals himself to Arjuna in his manifold aspects ARISE TRAINING & RESEARCH CENTER
  49. 49. The Vedas oral poetry  come to have a sacred character  provide some historical information  ARISE TRAINING & RESEARCH CENTER
  50. 50. The Aryans restless, warlike people  tall, blue-eyed, fair-skinned  describe the indigenous population as  ◦ short, “black”, noseless, and slaves ARISE TRAINING & RESEARCH CENTER
  51. 51. The Aryans, con’t originally pastoralists  family, clan, tribe (typical IndoEuropeans)  eventually settled down to farming  living in villages  ARISE TRAINING & RESEARCH CENTER
  52. 52. The Aryans, con’t villages and kingdoms constantly fighting  War chiefs and kings  aristocrats and freemen  ARISE TRAINING & RESEARCH CENTER
  53. 53. The Aryans, con’t  fond of fighting, drinking, chariot racing, gambling chasing women and bragging about their spears ◦ any modern comparisons ???  fond of taking soma ◦ a psychedelic drug ◦ probably psychotropic mushrooms ARISE TRAINING & RESEARCH CENTER
  54. 54. Aryans and Hindus Aryans give rise to Hindu society  but different characteristics  ◦ cows: they ate them ◦ classes, but no castes ◦ priests subordinate to the nobility  the Mahabharata ARISE TRAINING & RESEARCH CENTER
  55. 55. The Iron Age: new sources the Vedas: passed on orally  the Brahamanas: interpretations on the Vedas  the Upanishads: interpretations and symbolic studies  ◦ forerunners of later dissenting literature ARISE TRAINING & RESEARCH CENTER
  56. 56. Strain of change Iron Age change causes strain on the class system  blurring of lines between Aryans and Daas  ◦ answered with the caste system ARISE TRAINING & RESEARCH CENTER
  57. 57. Caste System skin color  ritual purity  “Us--Them” feelings  divine order of four castes  ARISE TRAINING & RESEARCH CENTER
  58. 58. Caste System (“Varnas”) Brahmins: the priests  Kshatriyas: the warriors  Vaisyas: merchants and peasants  Sudras: non-Aryans  ARISE TRAINING & RESEARCH CENTER
  59. 59. Caste system, produced by Brahmins  literature emphasized the divine order  hierarchical relationship  inheritance and marriage  ARISE TRAINING & RESEARCH CENTER
  60. 60. Caste system in practice warrior class did not always accept it  nor the other classes  the process of evolution is still going on  the most powerful organizer of Indian society  ◦ thousand of castes today ARISE TRAINING & RESEARCH CENTER
  61. 61. Castes define a person’s social universe  define a person’s standard of conduct  define a person’s expectations  define a person’s future  define how a person deals with others  ARISE TRAINING & RESEARCH CENTER

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