Arise study on emotional intelligence


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People are ought to know about E.Q and find ways to tune them to be successful

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Arise study on emotional intelligence

  2. 2. Definition of Intelligence • The ability to learn or understand or to deal with new or trying situations : the skilled use of reason • The cognitive abilities of an individual to learn from experience, to reason well, and to cope effectively with the demands of daily living.
  3. 3. "Intelligence, as a hypothetical construct, is the aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with his environment” What is Intelligence?
  4. 4. What is Intelligence? Although experts differ on an exact definition of intelligence most agree that intelligent behavior has at least two components: 1. The ability to learn from experience. 2. The ability to adapt to the surrounding environment.
  5. 5. Factors of General Intelligence Tests 1. Verbal Comprehension - vocabulary, verbal analogies 2. Number -- mathematical operations 3. Space - visual-spatial and mental transformation 4. Associative Memory -- rote memory 5. Perceptual Speed -- quickness in noticing similarities and differences 6. Reasoning - skill in inductive, deductive, and math problems
  6. 6. What Do We Know About IQ? • Predicts school grades relatively well • Does not predict success in life • Predicts 6% of job success • Peaks in late teens • Culture-bound, Gender Bias, SES • Racial controversies • Gets you in the door –Professional schools (medicine, dentistry, law) –Can help you get hired (Harvard MBA) • Static
  7. 7. Non-Ability Factors’Role: "…individuals with identical IQ's may differ very markedly in regard to their effective ability to cope with their environment…It is not possible to account for more than 50% to 70% of the intertest correlational variance after all recognizable intellectual factors are eliminated. This leaves any where from 30% to 50% of the total factorial variance unaccounted for. It is suggested that this residual variance is largely contributed by such factors as drive, energy, impulsiveness, etc." What is Emotionally Intelligent Behaviour?
  8. 8. Where Did the Concept of Emotional Intelligence Come From? • In 1983, Gardner first published his theory, derived from extensive brain research, on Multiple Intelligence including intrapersonal (self awareness/self management) and interpersonal (relationship awareness/management) • Reuven Bar-On (1988) has placed EI in the context of personality theory, specifically a model of well-being • Peter Salovey and John Mayer first proposed their theory of emotional intelligence (EI) in 1990 and defined it • Goleman (1995-2003) has popularized the concept of emotional intelligence and formulated EI in terms of a theory of job and work performance
  9. 9. Intelligence Core Components End-States Logical- mathematical Linguistic Musical Spatial Sensitivity to, and capacity to discern, logical or numerical patterns; ability to handle long chains of reasoning. Sensitivity to the sounds, rhythms, and meanings of words; sensitivity to the different functions of language. Abilities to produce and appreciate rhythm, pitch, and timbre; appreciation of the forms of musical expressiveness. Capacities to perceive the visual-spatial world accurately and to perform transformations on ones initial perceptions. Scientist Mathematician Poet Journalist Violinist Composer Sculptor Navigator Gardner’s Seven Intelligences
  10. 10. Gardner’s Seven Intelligences Intelligence Core Components End-States Bodily- Kinesthetic Interpersonal Intrapersonal Abilities to control ones body movements and to handle objects skillfully. Capacities to discern and respond appropriately to the moods, temperaments, motivations, and desires of other people. Access to ones own feelings and the ability to discriminate among them and draw upon them to guide behavior; knowledge of one’s own strengths, weaknesses, desires, and intelligences. Dancer Athlete Therapist Salesman Person with detailed accurate self- knowledge
  11. 11. Is There Multiple Intelligence?  Social Intelligence  the know-how involved in comprehending social situations and managing oneself successfully  Emotional Intelligence  ability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate emotions
  12. 12. What is Emotionally Intelligent Behaviour? Intelligence Does Not = Behaviour “I look upon intelligence as an effect rather than a cause, that is, as a resultant of interacting abilities - nonintellective included. The problem confronting psychologists today is how these abilities interact to give the resultant effect we call intelligence."
  13. 13. Mayer-Salovey Model MSCEIT Performance or ability measure Bar-On Model EQ-I Self-report measure Goleman Model ECI - Self Report Measure 360 measure What Is Emotional Intelligence?
  14. 14. Emotional intelligence involves the “abilities to perceive, appraise, and express emotion; to access and/or generate feelings when they facilitate thought; to understand emotion and emotional knowledge; and to regulate emotions to promote emotional and intellectual growth” - Mayer & Salovey (1997) What Is Emotional Intelligence?
  15. 15. • Social communications requires accurate perception of content, as well as tone and non- verbal signals such as posture and facial expression • Emotions are complex, and people can experience a combination of different emotions •Many theorists agree that basic emotions have universal meaning - universal across cultures and even across certain species. Mayer - Salovey Model
  16. 16. Testing Emotional Intelligence • How should you measure an intelligence? • With an ability test –Ask person to solve problems –Gauge their ability to do so accurately and/or quickly
  17. 17. Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Model (MSCEIT) • MSCEIT is an ability based measure designed to assess Emotional Intelligence. • It is a performance based scale, meaning it measures how well an individual performs tasks and solves emotional problems - instead of simply just asking individuals for their subjective assessment of their emotional skills. • It was developed from an intelligence testing What Is Emotional Intelligence?
  18. 18. Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Model (MSCEIT) Scales Identifying Emotions: identify emotions in faces Using Emotions to Facilitate Thought: use emotions to solve problems Understanding Emotions: figure out what makes people “tick” Managing Emotions: make optimal decisions What Is Emotional Intelligence?
  20. 20. MSCEIT Structure Identify Emotions - Faces: 3 faces (4 5-part Q’s) - Pictures: 6 designs (6 5-part Q’s) Facilitating Thought (Use Emotions) - Sensations: 5 situations (5 3-part Q’s) - Facilitation: 5 problems (5 3-part Q’s) Understand Emotions - Changes: 20 item (20 Q’s) - Blends: 12 items (12 Q’s) Manage Emotions - Emotion Management: 5 situations (5 4-part) - Emotional Relationships: 3 situations (3 3-part)
  21. 21. Ability • Accurately identify emotions in people and objects Question Types • Identify emotions in faces, landscapes, and designs. How the Ability May Be Used • "Read" people's moods for feedback. Identify Emotions
  22. 22. MSCEIT What Is Emotional Intelligence? 1 2 3 4 5 1. No Happiness 1 2 3 4 5 2. No Fear Extreme Happiness Extreme Fear How much is each feeling below expressed by this face?
  23. 23. INSTRUCTIONS: How much is each feeling expressed by this picture? 1. Happiness 1 2 3 4 5 2. Sadness Ability Accurately identify emotions in people and objects How the Ability May Be Used "Read" people's moods for feedback.
  24. 24. Ability • Generate an emotion and solve problems with that emotion Question Types • How moods impact thinking; relating feelings to thoughts How the Ability May Be Used • Creating the right feeling to assist in problem solving, communicating a vision, leading people. Facilitate Thought
  25. 25. 1. What mood(s) might be helpful to feel when meeting in-laws for the very first time? a. tension 1 2 3 4 5 b. surprise 1 2 3 4 5 c. joy 1 2 3 4 5 Not Useful Useful Ability Generate an emotion and solve problems with that emotion How the Ability May Be Used Creating the right feeling to assist in problem solving, communicating a vision, leading people.
  26. 26. Ability • Understand the causes of emotions Question Types • Multiple choice emotion vocabulary questions. How the Ability May Be Used • Being able to predict how people will emotionally react. Understand Emotions
  27. 27. Tom felt anxious, and became a bit stressed when he thought about all the work he needed to do. When his supervisor brought him an additional project, he felt_______________. 1. a. overwhelmed b. depressed c. ashamed d. self-conscious e. jittery Ability Understand the causes of emotions How the Ability May Be Used Being able to predict how people will emotionally react.
  28. 28. Ability • Stay open to emotions and blend with thinking. Question Types • Indicate effectiveness of various solutions to problems. How the Ability May Be Used • Integrate emotion and thought to make effective decisions. Manage Emotions
  29. 29. Scoring an Ability Test of Emotional Intelligence • An intelligence implies that there are better and worse answers or responses. • Problem with the ability approach: –Is there a right way to feel? • Indeed, there are emotional issues that cannot be measured this way! –What’s the “right” response to someone shouting?
  30. 30. Scoring an Ability Test of Emotional Intelligence
  31. 31. Scoring The MSCEIT • Consensus scoring is used based on the full standardization sample • Expert scoring is used based on a sample of 21 members of the International Society for Research in Emotions
  32. 32. • Consensus scoring has been used with great success. •It is based upon the agreement of a large number of people. • For example, if 70 percent of people felt that a photo was of a very happy person, then the best answer for the photo would be “happiness”. Consensus Scoring
  33. 33. •Based on Wechsler intelligence tests • Responses to intelligence test questions are categorized • Experts (psychologists) rate quality of responses •Compare test-taker’s response to experts’ ratings Expert Scoring
  34. 34. Consensus and Expert Scoring Converge • Consensus and expert choices for the right answers are in general agreement! The MSCEIT r for agreement ranges from .90 upward • So, there are better and worse answers in general. When there are enough experts, both general and expert participants now mostly agree.
  35. 35. How Was the MSCEIT Standardized? • Standardized on 5000 Participants Across over 50 English- speaking data sites in: –Australia –Canada –India –South Africa –United Kingdom –United States • Ages 17 to 79 • Reports matched to United States Census Data on age, gender, ethnicity and education
  36. 36. Faces .80 IDENTIFY .91 FACIL/USE .79 UNDERSTAND .80 MANAGE .83 Pictures .88 Synesthesia .64 Facilitation .65 Blends .66 Changes .70 Emtn Mangmt .69 Emtn Rltns .67 EXPERIENCE .90 STRATEGIC .88 MSCEIT .93 MSCEIT Reliability
  37. 37. Split-Half Reliabilities of the MSCEIT (Odd-even split; N = 1,985) Perceiving Emotion r = .91 Using Emotion r = .79 Experiential Area r = .90 Understanding Emotion r = .80 Managing Emotion r = .83 Reasoning Area r = .88 Overall EIQ r = .93 Source: Mayer, Salovey, Caruso, & Sitarenios (2003), Emotion
  38. 38. In Two Large-Sample Studies (N > 1700), Confirmatory Factor Analyses Show Good Fits for the 1, 2, and 4 Factor Models Perceiving Emotion Using Emotion Experiential Area Understanding Emotion Managing Emotion Reasoning Area Overall EIQ
  39. 39. T MSCEIT is Essentially Independent of the Following Tests (N’s > 100): r = .00 to .35Self-report Scales of EQ, optimism, empathy  Sources: Bracket & Mayer, in press; Caruso, Mayer, & Salovey, 2002; Ciarrochi, Chan & Caputo, 2000; Mayer, Caruso, & Salovey, 1999; Roberts, Zeidner, & Mathews, forthcoming; Salovey, Mayer, Caruso,& Lopez, in press. r = .00 to .35Big Five Personality Scales r = .00 to .40Intelligence Tests
  40. 40. Low Scores on the MSCEIT Predicted these Negative Aspects of Relationships: r = .20 to .46, p < .001 Higher ratings of aggression by peers at school  Sources: Brackett & Mayer, in press; Brackett, Mayer, & Warner, under review; Formica, 1999; Trinidad & Johnson, 2001; Rubin, 2000; N = 48. r = .15 to 24, p < .05 More alcohol and tobacco use r = .21 to .40, p < .05 More fights, drug use
  41. 41. MSCEIT’S Criterion Validity Criterion: • Behavior –Self-Improvement -.16** 503 –Rational Control -.39** 208 –Life Enthusiasm .22** 208 Relatedness .30** 208 –Destructive Behavior -.33** 208
  42. 42. Emotional intelligence is “an array of noncognitive capabilities, competencies, and skills that influence one’s ability to succeed in coping with environmental demands and pressures” - Bar-On (1997) What Is Emotional Intelligence?
  43. 43. Why Was the BarOn EQ-i Developed? To help answer a basic question: Why do some people with high IQ fail in life, while others with moderate IQ succeed?
  44. 44. Steps in the Development of BarOn EQ-i • Identified key determinants of success • Clustered determinants of success into factors • Operationally defined the factors • Constructed the EQ-i • Examined the factor structure, reliability, & validity • Validated the EQ-i across cultures • Extensively normed (>10,000) • Continued validation
  45. 45. How Does the EQ-i Work? • 133 brief items answered on a 5-point scale from “Not True of Me” to “True of Me” • 30 minutes to complete • Standard scores based on “100” as the average, Standard Deviation of 15 • Includes the following scales: –Total EQ –5 EQ Composite Scales –15 EQ Content Scales –4 Validity Scales
  46. 46. BarOn/EQ-i Factors Intra-Personal Emotional Self- Awareness Assertiveness Self-Regard Self-Actualization Independence Inter-Personal Interpersonal Relationship Empathy Social Responsibility Adaptability Problem Solving Flexibility Reality Testing Stress Management Stress Tolerance Impulse Control General Mood Optimism Happiness
  47. 47. Sample Test Items: I have good relations with others I’m fun to be with I like helping people Rating Scale: 1 = Very Seldom or Not True of me 5 = Very Often True of Me or True of Me BarOn/EQ-i
  48. 48. EQ-I Scoring Standard Score Guideline 130+ Markedly High Atypically well developed emotional capacity 120-129 Very High Extremely well developed emotional capacity 110-119 High Well developed emotional capacity 90-109 Average Adequate emotional capacity 80-89 Low Under-developed emotional capacity 70-79 Very Low Extremely under-developed emotional capacity Under 70 Markedly Low Atypically impaired emotional capacity
  49. 49. Sample Sizes - Over 10,000 used during R&D - 3,831 used for the norms Age Males Females Less than 30 678 814 30 to 39 432 404 40 to 49 452 420 50 or over 214 229
  50. 50. Subgroup Representation Subgroup % of Sample Caucasian 77% Hispanic 3% Asian 8% Black 7% Other 5%
  51. 51. Reliability and Validity • Good reliability –test-retest (>.6 @ 4mths) –Cronbach’s alpha (.75 to .89) • Good validity –construct (with other psych. tests) »varying relationships (weak to strong) »correlation with coping, IQ, and occupational success
  52. 52. EQ and Age (n=3831)EQ-I and Age Differences
  53. 53. Some of the Applications of the EQ-i® • Recruiting high performers • Retaining high performers • Teambuilding • Managing diversity • Leadership development • Coaching • Performance management • Risk management • Self development • Change management • Merger integration & re-shaping culture • Restructuring & realignment • Stress management • Career planning
  54. 54. EQ-i Seems Similar to Existing Models EQ-i - Bar-On’s test Intrapersonal Emotional self-awareness, assertiveness, self-regard, self- actualization, independence Interpersonal Empathy, interpersonal relationship, social responsibility Stress Management Problem solving, reality testing, flexibility Adaptability Stress tolerance, impulse control General Mood happiness, optimism NEO PI-R - Costa & McCrae Extraversion Warmth, gregariousness, optimism, assertiveness, high-energy Neuroticism Stress tolerance, impulse control, anger, depression, anxiety
  55. 55. What Is Emotional Intelligence? MSCEIT EQ-i Predicted r = + .50 or more If these are measuring the same thing, there should be a significant, positive correlation amongst the measures.
  56. 56. What Is Emotional Intelligence? MSCEIT EQ-i Actual r = .00 to .15 However, the measures are not highly related.
  57. 57. What Does This Mean? EQ-I and the MSCEIT measure relatively different things. How can they both be predicting emotional intelligence? How do we use the EQ-I and the MSCEIT? What Is Emotional Intelligence?
  58. 58. The answers lie in the intelligence / IQ models of Wechsler: - Bar-On influenced by Wechsler’s search for non-intellective factors. - Mayer & Salovey working in an intelligence ability framework. What Is Emotional Intelligence?
  59. 59. MSCEIT measures fundamental abilities of emotional intelligence as measured in an objective manner. EQ-I measures the non-intellective factors that impact emotionally- intelligent behavior as reported by the person. What Is Emotional Intelligence?
  60. 60. Research on the Effects of Intelligence (EI) on Career Success “IQ” “EI” CAREER ADVANCEMENT LOW “EI” CAREER DERAILMENT
  61. 61. EQ & Work Success (n = 100) Source: A scientific study of 100 university-educated bank employees using the Bar-On EQ-i® conducted by Joseph Hee-Woo Jae, Ateneo Manila University, Philippines.
  62. 62. What Emotional Intelligence Is Not • Cognitive Intelligence (IQ) –IQ is necessary but EQ allows the stars to rise to the top –EQ and IQ are not highly correlated (about r = .1) –estimated that 1% of the variance accounting for occupational success can be attributed to IQ –EQ is estimated to account for 3 to 27% of occupational success