Demand Flow Technology:


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Lean manufacturing - Takt Time

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  • Demand Flow Technology:

    1. 1. Welcome To Demand Flow Technology Workshop Principles of Lean Manufacturing
    2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Develop the knowledge of what the philosophies and techniques are and why they are important </li></ul><ul><li>Total picture of the the demand flow technology business strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Understand and establish how to perform the techniques and skills learned </li></ul><ul><li>Exercises and feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Technical information and examples </li></ul>
    3. 3. Cycle Time <ul><li>One of the most noteworthy accomplishments in keeping the price of Ford products low is the gradual shortening of the production cycle. The longer an article is in the process of manufacture and the more it is moved about, the greater is its ultimate cost. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Lean Is Market Driven <ul><li>Every morning in Africa, a gazelle wakes up. It knows it must run faster than the fastest lion or it will be killed. Every morning a lion wakes up. It knows it must outrun the slowest gazelle or it will starve to death. </li></ul><ul><li>It doesn’t matter whether you are a lion or a gazelle – when the sun comes up, you had better be running. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Defining DFT <ul><li>DFT has been defined in many different ways: </li></ul><ul><li>A systematic approach to identifying and eliminating waste (non-value-added-activities) through continuous improvement by flowing the product at the pull of the customer in pursuit of perfection. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Defining DFT <ul><li>A manufacturing technology that focuses an aggressive flow process that seeks to eliminate or minimize non-value added work in the production process while emphasizing quality throughout the process. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Primary Objective <ul><li>to build a HIGH QUALITY product in the </li></ul><ul><li>SHORTEST PRODUCTION time and at the LOWEST POSSIBLE COST </li></ul>
    9. 9. What are the advantages of DFT <ul><li>People – the number of people needed to produce the daily rate is calculated daily </li></ul><ul><li>Processes and quality checks are documented (A.I., OMS & SOE’s)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Quality built into the product </li></ul><ul><li>Kanban </li></ul><ul><li>Less material in WIP and RIP </li></ul>
    10. 10. What are the advantages of DFT <ul><li>Component kanban – two-bin system </li></ul><ul><li>NVA work is minimized or eliminated </li></ul><ul><li>Processes are in a constant continuous improvement state </li></ul><ul><li>Speed-to-market </li></ul><ul><li>Next day </li></ul><ul><li>Customer Responsiveness </li></ul>
    11. 11. Cost Distribution <ul><li>Labor – 10% </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pay Cut </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Layoff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work Harder </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Overhead – 20% </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training & Education </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Material – 70% </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminate Scrap </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminate Inventory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demand Flow Business Strategy </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. <ul><li>Station 1 </li></ul><ul><li>One-Down Operation </li></ul><ul><li>Out-of-Box </li></ul><ul><li>FG’s </li></ul><ul><li>Customer </li></ul>Cost to the Company Defect Found At …..
    13. 13. Traditional Mfg. Vs. Demand Flow Mfg. <ul><li>Scheduling techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Fabrication & subassembly production </li></ul><ul><li>Departmental build </li></ul><ul><li>Schedule, queue and batch work time </li></ul><ul><li>Material movement </li></ul><ul><li>External Inspection </li></ul><ul><li>Mathematical technology </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed-model flow process </li></ul><ul><li>Flow line design </li></ul><ul><li>Build the product in total work content time or less </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum material movement </li></ul><ul><li>TQC & verify </li></ul>
    14. 14. Product Synchronization <ul><li>A relationship of the processes in a flow to produce a product. </li></ul>
    15. 15. Product Synch
    16. 16. Process Mapping <ul><li>Matrix of products across the top and processes along the side </li></ul>
    17. 18. Sequence of Events <ul><li>Defines quality criteria against each work element, value-added steps and time estimates. </li></ul>
    18. 19. SOE
    19. 20. Operational Method Sheet (OMS)‏ <ul><li>A “colored” graphic representation of quality criteria and work content defined by the S.O.E. to be performed at an operation </li></ul><ul><li>Work Content </li></ul><ul><li>TQC – check someone else work </li></ul><ul><li>Verify – check your own work </li></ul>
    20. 21. Demand at Capacity - Dc <ul><li>The highest targeted volume output of products that is planned to be achieved by a demand flow manufacturing process </li></ul>
    21. 22. Dc <ul><li>Dc = Pv </li></ul><ul><li> Wd </li></ul><ul><li>100 units per month </li></ul><ul><li>20 days = </li></ul><ul><li>5 units/day </li></ul><ul><li>Dc = Designed Daily Rate </li></ul><ul><li>He = Effective Work Hours </li></ul><ul><li>S = Shifts per day </li></ul><ul><li>400 units per month </li></ul><ul><li>20 days = </li></ul><ul><li>20 units/day </li></ul>
    22. 23. Total Product Cycle Time (TPCT)‏ <ul><li>The calculated work content through the longest path of the processes required to build a product </li></ul><ul><li>Money Picker (6633D) = 30 min/prs 0.5 </li></ul><ul><li>Stacker (7835H) = 42 min/prs 0.7 </li></ul><ul><li>Transport (7836B) = 23min/prs 0.383 </li></ul><ul><li>Printer (1670A) = 40 min/prs 0.66 </li></ul>
    23. 24. TAKT <ul><li>The calculated target of work content time to be performed independently by a person or machine in a demand flow line </li></ul>
    24. 25. TAKT Conversion 100’s or Minutes <ul><li>7.66/5 = 1.532 hr/unit (IDM)‏ </li></ul><ul><li> 92 min/unit </li></ul><ul><li>7.66/20 = 0.383 hr/unit (R/L transport)‏ </li></ul><ul><li> 23 min/unit </li></ul><ul><li>7.66/111 = 0.069 (Picker)‏ </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4.14 min/unit </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    25. 26. Stations <ul><li>Actual Time </li></ul><ul><li>TAKT Time </li></ul><ul><li>Money Picker </li></ul><ul><li>30 minutes assembly time </li></ul><ul><li>4.14 TAKT </li></ul><ul><li>= 7.24 </li></ul><ul><li>= 7 stations </li></ul>
    26. 27. Resources <ul><li>Resources can be: </li></ul><ul><li>Operations – labor </li></ul><ul><li>Machines </li></ul><ul><li>Pieces – batch equipment </li></ul><ul><li>People - flexible </li></ul>
    27. 28. Flexible Employees <ul><li>Employees in a DFT line have a minimum flexibility of three operations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One up-stream </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One down-stream </li></ul></ul>
    28. 29. People (Dr)‏ <ul><li>Resources are calculated daily to determine the requirement to produce the daily rate </li></ul><ul><li>Dc x L </li></ul><ul><li>H x S </li></ul><ul><li>Money picker </li></ul><ul><li>50 x .50 </li></ul><ul><li>(8) X (1)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>=3.125 </li></ul><ul><li>3 people </li></ul>
    29. 30. Line Balancing Tools <ul><li>Tools used when actual time at an operation exceed TAKT </li></ul><ul><li>Relocate work </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce or eliminate non-value added work content </li></ul><ul><li>Add resources or duplicate resources </li></ul><ul><li>Move inventory and time (Kanban)‏ </li></ul>
    30. 31. Certification <ul><li>Meet TAKT </li></ul><ul><li>Train others </li></ul><ul><li>Meet quality criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Flex </li></ul>
    31. 32. In-Process Kanban (IPK)‏ <ul><li>A visual signal that identifies when work needs to be performed in a line </li></ul>
    32. 33. Kanban Card <ul><li>A card used as a communications signal to pull material based on demand </li></ul>
    33. 34. Pull Sequence <ul><li>Every part that is kanban pulled must have a definable path that identifies the supply and consumption points </li></ul><ul><li>(e.g Line, Rip, Wip, FG’s)‏ </li></ul>
    34. 35. Mixed Model Line <ul><li>A primary goal of demand flow manufacturing is to design flow lines to produce families of similar products. The mixed model line has the ability to build a range of volumes of any product, any day, based on the direction of actual customer demand. </li></ul>
    35. 36. Backflush <ul><li>The method used to relieve RIP (Raw in Process) inventory of a product’s bill of material quantity when a product is complete </li></ul>
    36. 37. Communication Lights <ul><li>Management Light – A light that can be seen from a wide area to identify if action needs to be taken on the line </li></ul><ul><li>e.g Andon </li></ul>
    37. 38. Measuring Linearity <ul><li>Example: during a nine-day period the production rate is (4) per day: </li></ul><ul><li>4+4+4+4+4+4+4+4+4=36 </li></ul><ul><li>Actual production was: </li></ul><ul><li>3+4+5+3+4+5+3+4+5=36 </li></ul><ul><li>Traditionally we would say this is o.k. </li></ul><ul><li>Actually the sum of the total deviation is 6 or 84% </li></ul><ul><li>Suggested Goal = 90% </li></ul>
    38. 39. Formula Recap
    39. 40. QUESTIONS???