Muscles of the Upper Extremity Anatomy Atlas

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Muscles of the Upper Extremity Anatomy Atlas

This is a visual guide I created as a laboratory study resource for my BIOL 121 Anatomy and Physiology I students on the muscles of the upper extremity.

Credits: All photography, text, and labels by Rob Swatski, Associate Professor of Biology, Harrisburg Area Community College - York Campus, York, PA. Email: rjswatsk@hacc.edu

This work bears an Attribution-Noncommercial Share Alike Creative Commons license, and is also available as individual pages (.jpg) on my Flickr site: http://www.flickr.com/photos/rswatski

Published in: Education
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Muscles of the Upper Extremity Anatomy Atlas

  1. 1. The Muscles of the Upper Extremity - A Visual Guide - Anatomy & Physiology I BIOL 121 Rob Swatski Associate Professor of Biology HACC - York Campus
  2. 2. Frontalis Elevates eyebrows, wrinkles forehead horizontally (surprised look), draws scalp forward (anteriorly)2
  3. 3. Frontalis 3
  4. 4. Occipitalis Draws scalp backward (posteriorly) 4
  5. 5. Orbicularis oculi Closes eyelids; used in blinking, winking, and squinting5
  6. 6. Orbicularis oculi 6
  7. 7. Zygomaticus major Draws angles of mouth superiorly and laterally; major muscle used in smiling and laughing7
  8. 8. Zygomaticus major 8
  9. 9. Zygomaticus major 9
  10. 10. Orbicularis oris Closes and protrudes lips; the "kissing muscle“; used in whistling and forming many letters during speech10
  11. 11. Orbicularis oris 11
  12. 12. Risorius Draws angles of mouth laterally (grimacing)12
  13. 13. Depressor anguli oris (Triangularis) Draws angles of mouth inferiorly and laterally when opening mouth; used in frowning13
  14. 14. Depressor anguli oris (Triangularis) 14
  15. 15. Buccinator Pulls in lips and cheeks; used in whistling, blowing, sucking15
  16. 16. Mentalis Elevates and protrudes lower lip (pouting)16
  17. 17. Platysma http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Platysma.png Depresses mandible; draws lower lip inferiorly and posteriorly (pouting) 17
  18. 18. Masseter Elevates mandible (closes mouth) when chewing and slightly protracts it18
  19. 19. Masseter 19
  20. 20. Temporalis Elevates, retracts, and assists in side-to-side movement of mandible 20
  21. 21. Genioglossus http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Genioglossus.png Protracts and depresses tongue 21
  22. 22. Styloglossus http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Styloglossus.png Retracts and elevates tongue 22
  23. 23. Stylohyoid http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Musculi_colli_stylohyoideus.svg Retracts and elevates the hyoid bone 23
  24. 24. Sternocleidomastoid Both sides contract: flexes neck on chest One side contracts: laterally flex neck and head to same side and rotate head to opposite side 24
  25. 25. Sternocleidomastoid 25
  26. 26. Semispinalis capitis Both sides contract: extends head One side contracts: rotates head to opposite side 26
  27. 27. Splenius capitis Extends head 27
  28. 28. Splenius capitis 28
  29. 29. Trapezius Rotates, adducts, depresses, and elevates scapulae; extends head29
  30. 30. Trapezius 30
  31. 31. Trapezius 31
  32. 32. Latissimus dorsi Extends, adducts, and medially rotates arm at shoulder; draws arm inferiorly and posteriorly32
  33. 33. Latissimus dorsi 33
  34. 34. Pectoralis major Adducts and medially rotates arm at shoulder; flexes arm34
  35. 35. Pectoralis major 35
  36. 36. Serratus anterior Abducts scapula and rotates it upward; elevates ribs; “the boxer’s muscle” 36
  37. 37. Serratus anterior 37
  38. 38. Deltoid Abducts, flexes, extends, medially and laterally rotates arm at shoulder 38
  39. 39. Coracobrachialis Adducts and flexes arm at shoulder 39
  40. 40. Coracobrachialis 40
  41. 41. Supraspinatus Abducts arm at shoulder; rotator cuff muscle 41
  42. 42. Infraspinatus Laterally rotates arm at shoulder; rotator cuff muscle 42
  43. 43. Teres minor Laterally rotates and extends arm at shoulder; rotator cuff muscle 43
  44. 44. Teres major Extends, adducts, and medially rotates arm at shoulder 44
  45. 45. Biceps brachii Flexes forearm at elbow; supinates forearm; flexes arm at shoulder 45
  46. 46. Biceps brachii 46
  47. 47. Brachialis Flexes forearm at elbow 47
  48. 48. Triceps brachii Extends forearm at elbow; extends arm at shoulder 48
  49. 49. Triceps brachii 49
  50. 50. Anconeus Extends forearm at elbow 50
  51. 51. Anconeus 51
  52. 52. Brachioradialis Flexes forearm at elbow 52
  53. 53. Pronator teres Pronates forearm; weakly flexes forearm at elbow 53
  54. 54. Flexor carpi radialis Flexes and abducts hand at wrist 54
  55. 55. Palmaris longus Flexes hand at wrist 55
  56. 56. Flexor carpi ulnaris Flexes and adducts hand at wrist 56
  57. 57. Extensor carpi radialis longus Extends and abducts hand at wrist 57
  58. 58. Extensor digitorum Extends fingers and hand at wrist 58
  59. 59. External intercostals Contraction: Elevates ribs and enlarges thoracic cavity (inhalation); Relaxation: Depresses ribs and reduces thoracic cavity (exhalation) 59
  60. 60. Internal intercostals Contraction: Reduces thoracic cavity (forced exhalation) 60
  61. 61. Pectoralis minor Abducts shoulder; elevates ribs 3-5 during forced inhalation 61
  62. 62. Diaphragm Contraction: Flattens and enlarges thoracic cavity (inhalation); Relaxation: Raises superiorly to reduce thoracic cavity (exhalation)62
  63. 63. External oblique Both sides contract: Compresses abdomen and flexes vertebral column; One side contracts: Laterally flexes and rotates vertebral column 63
  64. 64. External oblique 64
  65. 65. Internal oblique Both sides contract: Compresses abdomen and flexes vertebral column; One side contracts: Laterally flexes and rotates vertebral column 65
  66. 66. Transversus abdominis Compresses abdomen 66
  67. 67. Transversus abdominis 67
  68. 68. Rectus abdominis Flexes vertebral column; compresses abdomen to aid in defecation, urination, childbirth, and forced exhalation 68
  69. 69. Quadratus lumborum Both sides contract: Depresses 12th ribs during forced exhalation; One side contracts: Laterally flexes vertebral column69
  70. 70. Quadratus lumborum 70
  71. 71. Spinalis group of erector spinae http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Spinalis.pngExtends head and vertebral column 71
  72. 72. Longissimus group of erector spinae Extends head and vertebral column 72
  73. 73. Iliocostalis group of erector spinae http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Longissimus.pngExtends head and vertebral column 73
  74. 74. Levator ani http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Levator_ani.png Supports pelvic viscera; stabilizes pressure during forced exhalation, coughing, vomiting, urination, and defecation; constricts anus, urethra, and vagina; assists in defecation 74
  75. 75. Anconeus: 51-52 Auricularis anterior: 5 Biceps brachii: 46-47 Brachialis: 48 Brachioradialis: 53 Buccinator: 16 Coracobrachialis: 40-41 Deltoid: 39 Depressor anguli oris: 14-15 Diaphragm: 63 Extensor carpi radialis longus: 58 Extensor digitorum: 59 External intercostals: 60 External oblique: 64-65 Flexor carpi radialis: 55 Flexor carpi ulnaris: 57 Frontalis: 2-3 Genioglossus: 22 Iliocostalis group of erector spinae: 74 Infraspinatus: 43 Internal intercostals: 61 Internal oblique: 66 Latissimus dorsi: 33-34 Levator ani: 75 Longissimus group of erector spinae: 73 Masseter: 19-20 Mentalis: 17 Occipitalis: 4 Orbicularis oculi: 6-7 Orbicularis oris: 11-12 Palmaris longus: 56 Pectoralis major: 35-36 Pectoralis minor: 62 Platysma: 18 Pronator teres: 54 Quadratus lumborum: 70-71 Rectus abdominis: 69 Risorius: 13 Semispinalis capitis: 27 Serratus anterior: 37-38 Spinalis group of erector spinae: 72 Splenius capitis: 28-29 Sternocleidomastoid: 25-26 Styloglossus: 23 Stylohyoid: 24 Supraspinatus: 42 Temporalis: 21 Teres major: 45 Teres minor: 44 Transversus abdominis: 67-68 Trapezius: 30-32 Triceps brachii: 49-50 Zygomaticus major: 8-10 I N D E X
  76. 76. Credits Photographs and labels by Rob Swatski. http://robswatski.virb.com/ This work bears an Attribution-Noncommercial Share Alike Creative Commons license. Visit my website for more Anatomy study resources! http://www.flickr.com/photos/rswatski 76 Please send your comments and feedback to: rjswatsk@hacc.edu

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