BIOL 121 Chp 1: An Introduction to the Human Body


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This is a lecture presentation for my BIOL 121 Anatomy and Physiology I students on Chapter 1: An Introduction to the Human Body (Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, 14th Ed. by Tortora and Derrickson).

Rob Swatski, Associate Professor of Biology, Harrisburg Area Community College - York Campus, York, PA. Email:

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BIOL 121 Chp 1: An Introduction to the Human Body

  1. 1. An     Introduc+on     to  the     Human     Body     BIOL  121:  A&P  I   Chapter  1 Rob  Swatski   Associate  Professor  of  Biology   HACC  –  York  Campus   Textbook images - Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. Themes  organize  &  connect   biology  concepts   Chunk  it!!!  2  
  3. 3. 3   Anatomy   body   structures   organs  &   systems   Physiology   body   func+ons   chemical   reac5ons  
  4. 4. 4   Anatomy  is…  
  5. 5. 5   Physiology  is…  
  6. 6. Cell  biology   Histology   Surface   anatomy   Gross   anatomy   Systemic   anatomy   Regional   anatomy   Radiographic   anatomy   Pathological   anatomy   Embryology   Develop-­‐ mental   biology   6   Subspecial+es  of  Anatomy  
  7. 7. Cardiovascular   physiology   Respiratory   physiology   Immunology   Exercise   physiology   Endocrinology   Neuro-­‐ physiology   Renal  physiology   Pathophysiology   7   Subspecial+es  of  Physiology  
  8. 8. 8   Levels  of   Organiza+on  
  9. 9. Atoms (C, H, O, N, P) Digestive system CHEMICAL LEVEL CELLULAR LEVEL Molecule (DNA) Smooth muscle cell TISSUE LEVEL Smooth muscle tissue ORGAN LEVEL Epithelial and connective tissues Smooth muscle tissue layers Epithelial tissue Stomach Esophagus SYSTEM LEVEL Stomach Pancreas (behind stomach) Small intestine Salivary glands Gallbladder Large intestine ORGANISMAL LEVEL Mouth Liver Pharynx 1 2 3 4 5 6
  10. 10. Integu-­‐ mentary   system   Skeletal   system   Muscular   system   10  
  11. 11. Cardio-­‐ vascular   system   Lympha+c   system   Respiratory   system   11  
  12. 12. 12   Diges+ve   system   Urinary   system   Endocrine   system  
  13. 13. 13   Nervous   system   Female   reproduc+ve   system   Male   reproduc+ve   system  
  14. 14. 14   Life   Responsiveness   Movement   Growth   Differen+a+on   Reproduc+on   Metabolism  
  15. 15. 15  
  16. 16. 16  
  17. 17. 17  
  18. 18. Homeostasis   18  
  19. 19. 19   Intracellular  fluid   Extracellular  fluid   Inters++al  fluid  
  20. 20. 20   How  does  the  body  regulate  homeostasis?   • Nerve  impulses   (ac5on   poten5als)   • Fast   Nervous   System   • Hormones   • Slow  Endocrine   System  
  21. 21. 21   Disorder   Disease   Aging   Death   Disrup+ons  to   homeostasis  
  22. 22. Can  you   name  this   disease   from  these   general   symptoms ?   22  
  23. 23. How  about  now   using  these  specific   signs?   23   Fas+ng  plasma  glucose  test   >126  mg/dL   Hemoglobin  A1c  test   Avg  blood  glucose  over   6-­‐12  weeks  
  24. 24. STIMULUS CONTROLLED CONDITION RECEPTORS CONTROL CENTER that receives the input and provides nerve impulses or chemical signals to EFFECTORS that bring about a change or RESPONSE that alters the controlled condition Return to homeostasis when the response brings the controlled condition back to normal that send nerve impulses or chemical signals to a Input disrupts homeostasis by increasing or decreasing a Output that is monitored by What  makes   up  a   feedback   system?  
  25. 25. Nega+ve  Feedback  Systems   Decrease   s+mulus  if   too  high   Increase   s+mulus  if   too  low   25  
  26. 26. STIMULUS RECEPTORS Disrupts homeostasis by increasing CONTROLLED CONDITION Blood pressure Baroreceptors in certain blood vessels CONTROL CENTER Brain EFFECTORS Heart Blood vessels Nerve impulses Nerve impulses Input Output RESPONSE A decrease in heart rate and the dilation (widening) of blood vessels cause blood pressure to decrease Return to homeostasis when the response brings blood pressure back to normal Nega+ve   Feedback   System     Example:     blood  pressure   homeostasis  
  27. 27. 27   Posi+ve  Feedback  Systems  
  28. 28. Contractions of the wall of the uterus force the baby's head or body into the cervix Increasing Stretching of cervix Stretch- sensitive nerve cells in the cervix Brain Muscles in the wall of the uterus Baby’s body stretches the cervix more RECEPTORS Nerve impulses Brain interprets input and releases oxytocin Input Output CONTROL CENTER EFFECTORS Contract more forcefully RESPONSE Increased stretching of the cervix causes the release of more oxytocin, which results in more stretching of the cervix CONTROLLED CONDITION Interruption of the cycle: The birth of the baby decreases stretching of the cervix, thus breaking the positive feedback cycle Posi+ve   Feedback   System     Example:   childbirth  
  29. 29. 29   Anatomical   Terminology   Anatomical   posi+on   Body   regions   Planes  &   sec+ons   Direc+onal   terms  
  30. 30. Anatomical   Posi+on   30  
  31. 31. Reclining  Posi+ons   31   Prone   Supine  
  32. 32. Body   Regions,   anterior   view  1   32  
  33. 33. 33   Body   Regions,   anterior   view  2  
  34. 34. 34   Body   Regions,   posterior   view  1  
  35. 35. 35   Body   Regions,   posterior   view  2  
  36. 36. Esophagus (food tube) Trachea (windpipe) Rib Left lung Heart Diaphragm Stomach Transverse colon Small intestine Descending colon Urinary bladder Right lung Sternum (breastbone) Humerus Radius Ulna Liver Gallbladder Ascending colon Carpals Metacarpals Phalanges Anterior view of trunk and right upper limb SUPERIOR INFERIOR PROXIMAL DISTAL MEDIAL Midline LATERALLATERAL Spleen Direc+onal   Terms  
  37. 37. 37   Superior   Inferior   Anterior   Posterior  
  38. 38. 38   Medial   Lateral   Proximal   Distal  
  39. 39. 39   Midsagial   Parasagial   Frontal   Transverse   Oblique   Planes  &  Sec+ons   Frontal   plane   ParasagiXal   plane   Anterior  view   Transverse   plane   MidsagiXal   plane   (through   midline)   Oblique   plane  
  40. 40. 41   Planes  &   Sec+ons  of  the   Brain   Transverse   Frontal   Midsagial  
  41. 41. Noninvasive   Techniques  42   Aor5c   Abdominal   TMJ   Dorsalis   pedis   Palpa+on   Thorax   Abdominal   Percussion  
  42. 42. Cranial   cavity   Vertebral   canal   (b)  Anterior  view  (a)  Right  lateral  view   43   Cranial   cavity   Formed  by   cranium   Contains   brain   Vertebral   canal   Formed  by   vertebrae   Contains   spinal  cord   Dorsal  Body   Cavity  
  43. 43. Thoracic   cavity   Diaphragm   Abdominopelvic   cavity   Pelvic   cavity   (b)  Anterior  view   Abdominal   cavity   (a)  Right  lateral  view   44   Ventral   Body  Cavity   Thoracic   cavity   Abdomino-­‐ pelvic  cavity  
  44. 44. 45   Thoracic  Cavity   Pleural   cavity   Medias+num   Pericardial   cavity   MEDIASTINUM Parietal pericardium Pericardial cavity Visceral pericardium Left pleural cavity Right pleural cavity Parietal pleura Visceral pleura Diaphragm (a) Anterior view of thoracic cavity PLEURA PERICARDIUM
  45. 45. Thoracic  Cavity   46  
  46. 46. Sternum (breastbone) (b) Inferior view of transverse section of thoracic cavity POSTERIOR ANTERIOR Thymus Left lung Esophagus (food tube) Vertebral column (backbone) LEFT PLEURAL CAVITY Muscle Heart PERICARDIAL CAVITY Aorta RIGHT PLEURAL CAVITY Rib Right lung Transverse plane View Medias+num  
  47. 47. Anterior view Liver Gallbladder Large intestine Diaphragm Stomach Urinary bladder Small intestine Abdominal cavity Pelvic cavity Abdominopelvic   Cavity  
  48. 48. CAVITY COMMENTS Cranial cavity Vertebral canal Thoracic cavity* Pleural cavity Pericardial cavity Mediastinum Abdominopelvic cavity Abdominal cavity Pelvic cavity Formed by cranial bones and contains brain. Formed by vertebral column and contains spinal cord and the beginnings of spinal nerves. Chest cavity; contains pleural and pericardial cavities and mediastinum. A potential space between the layers of the pleura that surrounds a lung. A potential space between the layers of the pericardium that surrounds the heart. Central portion of thoracic cavity between the lungs; extends from sternum to vertebral column and from first rib to diaphragm; contains heart, thymus, esophagus, trachea, and several large blood vessels. Subdivided into abdominal and pelvic cavities. Contains stomach, spleen, liver, gallbladder, small intestine, and most of large intestine; the serous membrane of the abdominal cavity is the peritoneum. Contains urinary bladder, portions of large intestine, and internal organs of reproduction * See Figure 1.10 for details of the thoracic cavity.
  49. 49. 50   Serous   Membranes   of  the   Ventral  Body   Cavity   Pleura   Pericardium  Peritoneum  
  50. 50. 51   Parietal   layer   Serous   fluid   Visceral   layer   How  are  Serous  Membranes  Organized?  
  51. 51. 52   Serous  membrane   visual  analogy  
  53. 53. Median line LEFT UPPER QUADRANT (LUQ) Transumbilical line LEFT LOWER QUADRANT (LLQ) RIGHT UPPER QUADRANT (RUQ) RIGHT LOWER QUADRANT (RLQ) (b) Anterior view showing location of abdominopelvic quadrants Abdominopelvic   Quadrants  
  54. 54. Medical  Imaging   55  
  55. 55. The  Anatomy  Theater   56  
  56. 56. 57  
  57. 57. 58   Vesalius   “De  Humani   Corporis   Fabrica…”   (1543)  
  58. 58. “Anatomy  Lesson  by  Professor  Deyman”     Rembrandt  (1606-­‐1669)   59  
  59. 59. “The  Anatomy  Lesson  of  Dr.  Tulp”   Rembrandt  (1632)   60  
  60. 60. “The  Anatomy  Lesson  of  Dr.   Tulp”  (with  Legos)     61  
  61. 61. Wilhelm  Rontgen   The  first  ever  x-­‐ray  photograph  (1895)   62   ?  
  62. 62. Left clavicle Radiograph of the thorax in anterior view Left rib Left lung Heart Diaphragm Vertebral column
  63. 63. 64   Conven+onal   Radiography   2-­‐D   radiograph   Cheap,   quick,  simple   White,  gray,   black  
  64. 64. Contrast  X-­‐rays   65   Stenosis  of  lel  subclavian  artery   Angiography   Intravenous  urography   Barium  contrast  x-­‐ray  
  65. 65. 66   Computed   Tomography   CAT  scan   Moving  x-­‐ray  beam   Transverse  sec5on   à3-­‐D  views   More  soa  5ssue   details  
  66. 66. 67  
  67. 67. 68   Ultrasound   High-­‐freq  sound   waves  à   sonogram   Safe,   noninvasive,   painless,  no  dyes   Doppler   ultrasound  
  68. 68. 69  
  69. 69. 70   Endoscopy   Colonoscopy   Laparoscopy   Arthroscopy  
  70. 70. 71   Magne+c  Resonance   Imaging  (MRI)   High-­‐energy   magne5c  field   aligns  protons   2-­‐D  or  3-­‐D   blueprint  of   cellular  chemistry   Fine  soa  5ssue   details   Tumors,  plaques,   brain  imaging,   blood  flow,  liver  &   kidney  disorders  
  71. 71. 72   Radionuclide   Scanning   Color  intensity  =   ac5vity  level   Single-­‐ photoemission   computerized   tomography  (SPECT)   Brain,  heart,  lungs,   liver,  tumors  
  72. 72. 73  
  73. 73. 74   Positron  Emission   Tomography  (PET)   +/-­‐  charges   collide   Color   intensity  =   ac5vity  level   Brain  &  heart   physiology  
  74. 74. 75