BIOL 121 Chp 2: The Chemical Level of Organization

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This is a lecture presentation for my BIOL 121 Anatomy and Physiology I students on Chapter 2: The Chemical Level of Organization (Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, 14th Ed. by Tortora and Derrickson).

Rob Swatski, Associate Professor of Biology, Harrisburg Area Community College - York Campus, York, PA. Email: rjswatsk@hacc.edu

Please visit my website for more anatomy and biology learning resources: http://robswatski.virb.com/

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BIOL 121 Chp 2: The Chemical Level of Organization

  1. 1. 1   The  Chemical   Level  of   Organiza4on     BIOL  121:  A&P  I   Chapter  2 Rob  Swatski   Associate  Professor  of  Biology   HACC  –  York  Campus   Part  1:  Inorganic   Chemistry   Textbook images - Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. 2  
  3. 3. 3   Contains   Mass   Occupies   Space  MaKer  
  4. 4. 4   How  is  MaKer   Organized?   Elements   Trace   Elements  
  5. 5. 5   The  4  Most   Abundant   Elements  of   Life   O   C   H   N  
  6. 6. 6   The  Next  4   Most   Abundant   Elements  of   Life   Ca   P   K   S  
  7. 7. MAJOR ELEMENTS (about 96% of total) LESSER ELEMENTS (about 3.6% of total) TRACE ELEMENTS (about 0.4% of total)
  8. 8. 8  
  9. 9. 9  
  10. 10. 10   Atomic   Structure   Nucleus   Protons   (+)   Neutrons   (0)   Electron   Cloud   Electrons   (-­‐)  
  11. 11. 11  
  12. 12. How  Are  an  Atom’s  Electrons   Organized?   3rd  Shell   2nd  Shell   1st  Shell   Nucleus   12  
  13. 13. 13   #  of   Protons   #  of   Electrons   Electrically  Neutral  Atom  
  14. 14. 14   Atomic   Number   #  of   Protons  
  15. 15. 15   #  of   Neutrons   #  of   Protons   Atomic   Mass  
  16. 16. 16  
  17. 17. 17  
  18. 18. 18   Isotopes   Same  #  of   protons   Different  #   of  neutrons  
  19. 19. 19   Radioisotopes  (tracers)   I-­‐131  thyroid  study  
  20. 20. 20   Ions   Anions   (-­‐)   Ca4ons   (+)   Gain  e-­‐   Lose  e-­‐  
  21. 21. 21  
  22. 22. Free  Radicals   22  
  23. 23. 23  
  24. 24. 24   Stable   Atoms   8   valence   e-­‐   Unstable   Atoms   <  8   valence   e-­‐  
  25. 25. 25  
  26. 26. 26  
  27. 27. 27  
  28. 28. 28  
  29. 29. 29   Ionic   Bonds  
  30. 30. 30   dissocia4on  à  electrolytes  
  31. 31. 31   Covalent  Bonds   Single   Double   Triple  
  32. 32. 32   Types  of  Covalent   Bonds   Nonpolar   Polar  
  33. 33. Molecules   33  
  34. 34. Nonpolar  Covalent  Bonds   34  
  35. 35. 35  
  36. 36. Polar  Covalent  Bonds   36  
  37. 37. 37  
  38. 38. 38   Chemical   Reac4ons   Metabolism   Physiology  
  39. 39. 39   Chemical  Equa4ons  
  40. 40. 40   Total   Mass  of   Reactants   Total   Mass  of   Products   Law  of  Conserva4on  of  Mass  
  41. 41. 41   Total   Energy  of   Reactants   Total   Energy  of   Products   Law  of  Conserva4on  of  Energy  
  42. 42. 42   Energy   Poten4al   Chemical  Kine4c  
  43. 43. 43  
  44. 44. 44  
  45. 45. 45  
  46. 46. 46  
  47. 47. 47   Energy   Energy  Exergonic   Reac4on  
  48. 48. 48   Energy   Energy  Endergonic   Reac4on  
  49. 49. Coupled  Reac4ons   49  
  50. 50. 50   Ac4va4on   Energy  
  51. 51. 51   Increase   Reac4on  Rate   Decrease   Ac4va4on   Energy   Catalysts  
  52. 52. Enzymes  as   Catalysts   52  
  53. 53. 53  
  54. 54. 54  
  55. 55. 55   Types  of   Chemical   Reac4ons   Synthesis   Decomposi4on   Exchange   Reversible  
  56. 56. A   B   AB   Synthesis  (Anabolism)   56  
  57. 57. 57  
  58. 58. Two hydrogen molecules One oxygen molecule Two water molecules Combine to form Synthesis  (Anabolism)  
  59. 59. AB   A   B   Decomposi4on  (Catabolism)   59  
  60. 60. Breaks down into One methane molecule One carbon atom Two hydrogen molecules Decomposi4on  (Catabolism)  
  61. 61. AB   CD   AC   BD   Exchange   HCl  +  NaHCO3                  H2CO3  +  Na+Cl-­‐   61  
  62. 62. Hydrochloric acid Sodium bicarbonate Carbonic acid Sodium chloride Exchange  
  63. 63. A   B   AB   Reversible   63  
  64. 64. 64   Oxida4on   e-­‐   e-­‐  e-­‐   HIGH   low  
  65. 65. 65   Reduc4on   e-­‐   e-­‐   e-­‐   HIGH   low  
  66. 66. 66  
  67. 67. Compounds   Inorganic   No   Carbon   Small   Simple   Ionic   bonds   Organic   Carbon-­‐ based   Large   Complex   Covalent   bonds   67  
  68. 68. 68   Water  
  69. 69. 69   Dehydra4on   Synthesis  
  70. 70. 70   Hydrolysis  
  71. 71. 71   Solute   Solvent   Solu4on  
  72. 72. 72   Hydrophilic   Polar   covalent   Water-­‐ soluble   Hydrophobic   Nonpolar   covalent   Water-­‐ insoluble  
  73. 73. 73  
  74. 74. Proper4es  of   Water   74   High  Heat  Capacity   High  Heat  of   Vaporiza4on   How  do  they   benefit  the  human   body?  
  75. 75. 75   Cohesion   How?  
  76. 76. 76   Surface  Tension   How?  
  77. 77. 77   Mixtures   Solu4on   Colloid  Suspension  
  78. 78. 78  
  79. 79. 79  
  80. 80. 80  
  81. 81. 81  anions   ca4ons   both  
  82. 82. pH   82  
  83. 83. Acidic   [H+]  >  [OH–] Neutral   [H+]  =  [OH–] Basic   [H+]  <  [OH–] 7 0 14 83  
  84. 84. 84  
  85. 85. 85  
  86. 86. 86   Buffering   Systems  
  87. 87. 87   Carbonic   Acid   H2CO3   Bicarbonate   ion     HCO3 -­‐     Carbonic  acid-­‐Bicarbonate   buffer  system   H+   OH+  
  88. 88. 88   The  Chemical   Level  of   Organiza4on     BIOL  121:  A&P  I   Chapter  2 Rob  Swatski   Associate  Professor  of  Biology   HACC  –  York  Campus   Part  2:  Organic   Chemistry   Textbook images - Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  89. 89. 89  
  90. 90. 90   Bonds  with   variety  of   elements   Diverse  sizes  &   shapes   More  insoluble   in  water   Many  covalent   bonds   Organic   molecules   Monomers  à   Macromolecules   Proper4es  of  Carbon-­‐Based  Molecules  
  91. 91. 91  
  92. 92. Func4onal  Groups   92   Estradiol Testosterone
  93. 93. 93  
  94. 94. Carbon  Molecules   94  
  95. 95. 95   Carbohydrates:   Func4ons   Energy   Structure   Storage  
  96. 96. 96   Structure   C,  H,  O   C-­‐H2O   Size   Simple:   glucose   Complex:   starch  
  97. 97. 97   3  Major  Groups  of   Carbohydrates   Mono-­‐ saccharides   Disaccharides   Polysaccharides  
  98. 98. Monosaccharides   98   C6H12O6  
  99. 99. Glucose (C6H12O6) Sucrose (C12H22O11) Dehydra4on  synthesis   and  hydrolysis  of  sucrose   Dehydration synthesis Fructose (C6H12O6) Hydrolysis Water Disaccharides  
  100. 100. Lactose  Intolerance   100  
  101. 101. 101   Polysaccharides   largest   carb   100’s  of   mono’s   glycogen  
  102. 102. 102   C,  H,  O   hydrophobic   few  polar   covalent   bonds   insoluble  in   water   glycerol  &  1-­‐3   faZy  acids   fats  &  oils   Lipids  –  General  Characteris4cs  
  103. 103. 103   Lipid  Structure  
  104. 104. 104   Triglyceride  Structure  
  105. 105. 105   Func4ons  of  Triglycerides   Protec4on   Insula4on   Energy   source   short-­‐  or   long-­‐term  
  106. 106. 106  
  107. 107. 107   Phospholipids   Cell  structure   &  func[on   Plasma   membrane   Amphipathic  
  108. 108. 108   Head   Polar   Hydrophilic   Glycerol  &   phosphate   Tails   Nonpolar   Hydrophobic   2  FaZy  acids   Phospholipid   Structure  
  109. 109. 109  
  110. 110. 110  
  111. 111. Steroids   111  
  112. 112. 112  
  113. 113. 113   Proteins   C,  H,  O,  N   Diverse   shapes  &   sizes   Amino  acids  
  114. 114. 114   Func4ons  of  Proteins   Structure  &   protec[on   Regulate   metabolism   Muscle   contrac[on   Chemical  &   organelle   transport  
  115. 115. 115   Amino  Acids   Amino  group   -­‐  NH2   Carboxyl   group   -­‐  COOH   R  group  
  116. 116. 116  
  117. 117. 117  
  118. 118. 118  
  119. 119. 119   Primary   Secondary   Ter4ary   Quaternary   Levels  of  Protein  Structure  
  120. 120. 120   Primary  Structure  
  121. 121. 121   Secondary  Structure  
  122. 122. 122   Ter4ary  Structure  
  123. 123. 123   Quaternary  Structure  
  124. 124. 124  
  125. 125. 125   Denatura4on  
  126. 126. Enzymes  =  Catalysts   126  
  127. 127. Substrates   Ac4ve   Site   Enzyme   127   Enzymes  =  Catalysts  
  128. 128. 128   How  do  Enzymes  Increase   Reac4on  Rate?   Increase   collision   frequency   Lower   ac[va[on   energy   Properly   orient   molecules  
  129. 129. 129  
  130. 130. 130   C,  H,  O,  N,  P   Nucleo[des   DNA   RNA   Regulates  cell   ac[vi[es   Guides   protein   synthesis   Nucleic  Acids  
  131. 131. 131   Nucleo4des   Nitrogenous   Base   Pentose   Sugar   Phosphate   Group  
  132. 132. 132  
  133. 133. 133  
  134. 134. 134   RNA   Single   stranded   Ribose  =   sugar   Uracil  =   base  
  135. 135. 135   3  Types  of  RNA   mRNA   rRNA   tRNA  
  136. 136. 136   Adenosine  Triphosphate  (ATP)   Primary   source  of   chemical   poten[al   energy   Powers   muscle   contrac[on,   chemical   transport,   organelle   movement   Adenine,   ribose,  and  3   phosphate   groups  
  137. 137. 137  
  138. 138. 138  
  139. 139. Energy P P P P  i P P Adenosine Adenosine ADP ATP Reacts  with   H2O Energy   139  
  140. 140. ATP  Cycle   P  i  ADP   +   H2O  ATP   +  ATP   ATP  hydrolysis   ATP  synthesis   140  

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