BIOL 101 Chp 2: The Chemical Context of Life

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This is a lecture presentation for my BIOL 101 General Biology I students on Chapter 2: The Chemical Context of Life. (Campbell Biology, 10th Ed. by Reece et al).

Rob Swatski, Associate Professor of Biology, Harrisburg Area Community College - York Campus, York, PA. Email: rjswatsk@hacc.edu

Please visit my website for more anatomy and biology learning resources: http://robswatski.virb.com/

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BIOL 101 Chp 2: The Chemical Context of Life

  1. 1. The Chemical Context of Life BIOL 101 General Biology I Chapter 2 Rob Swatski Associate Professor of Biology HACC - York Campus 1
  2. 2. 2
  3. 3. 3
  4. 4. 4 Contains Mass Occupies Space Matter
  5. 5. 5 Matter is Made of… Elements Compounds
  6. 6. Sodium Chlorine Sodium chloride 6
  7. 7. 7 The 4 Most Abundant Elements of Life O C H N
  8. 8. 8 The Next 4 Most Abundant Elements of Life Ca P K S
  9. 9. 9
  10. 10. 10
  11. 11. 11 Atomic Structure Nucleus Protons (+) Neutrons (0) Electron Cloud Electrons (-)
  12. 12. Electron Cloud Nucleus Electrons 12
  13. 13. 13
  14. 14. 14 How Are an Atom’s Electrons Organized? 3rd Shell 2nd Shell 1st Shell Atomic Nucleus
  15. 15. 15 Atomic Number # of Protons
  16. 16. 16 # of Neutrons # of Protons Atomic Mass
  17. 17. Electrons = Energy 17
  18. 18. 18 # of Protons # of Electrons Electrically Neutral Atom
  19. 19. Electron-distribution diagrams Hydrogen 1H Lithium 3Li Beryllium 4Be Boron 5B Carbon 6C Nitrogen 7N Oxygen 8O Fluorine 9F Neon 10Ne Helium 2He Atomic number Atomic mass 2 He 4.00 First shell Second shell Third shell Sodium 11Na Magnesium 12Mg Aluminum 13Al Silicon 14Si Phosphorus 15P Sulfur 16S Chlorine 17Cl Argon 18Ar 19
  20. 20. 20 Isotopes Same # of protons Different # of neutrons
  21. 21. 21 Isotopes of carbon
  22. 22. 22 Research Applications of Radioactive Isotopes Dating fossils Tracers in metabolism studies Diagnosing medical disorders
  23. 23. 23 Radioactive isotopes (tracers) I-131 thyroid study
  24. 24. Various compounds + 3H radioactive tracer Human cells Incubators 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 50ºC 45ºC 40ºC 25ºC 30ºC 35ºC 15ºC 20ºC 10ºC 1 2 DNA (old and new) TECHNIQUE 24
  25. 25. TECHNIQUE The test tubes are placed in a scintillation counter. 3 25
  26. 26. RESULTS Counts per minute ( 1,000) 0 10 20 30 40 50 10 20 30 Temperature (ºC) Optimum temperature for DNA synthesis 26
  27. 27. 27 Energy Potential Chemical Kinetic
  28. 28. 28
  29. 29. 29
  30. 30. 30
  31. 31. 31
  32. 32. 32 How Are an Atom’s Electrons Organized? 3rd Shell 2nd Shell 1st Shell Atomic Nucleus
  33. 33. 33
  34. 34. 34 1st 2nd 3rd Energy absorbed Energy lost
  35. 35. 35 Valence
  36. 36. 36
  37. 37. 37
  38. 38. 38 Stable Atoms 8 valence e- Unstable Atoms < 8 valence e-
  39. 39. 39
  40. 40. 40
  41. 41. 41 1s orbital 2s orbital Three 2p orbitals
  42. 42. 42 1s, 2s, and 2p orbitals
  43. 43. 43 Covalent Bonds Hydrogen molecule (H2)
  44. 44. 44 Molecules
  45. 45. 45 Covalent Bonds Single Double Triple
  46. 46. 46 H2 Molecular formula Structural formula O2 H2O CH4
  47. 47. (a) Hydrogen (H2) Name and Molecular Formula Electron Distribution Diagram Lewis Dot Structure and Structural Formula Space- Filling Model 47
  48. 48. (b) Oxygen (O2) Name and Molecular Formula Electron Distribution Diagram Lewis Dot Structure and Structural Formula Space- Filling Model 48
  49. 49. 49
  50. 50. 50 Electronegativity
  51. 51. 51 Types of Covalent Bonds Nonpolar Polar
  52. 52. (d) Methane (CH4) Name and Molecular Formula Electron Distribution Diagram Lewis Dot Structure and Structural Formula Space- Filling Model 52
  53. 53. Name and Molecular Formula Electron Distribution Diagram Lewis Dot Structure and Structural Formula Space- Filling Model (c) Water (H2O) 53
  54. 54.  – + + H H O 54
  55. 55. 55 Ions Anions (-) Cations (+) Gain e- Lose e-
  56. 56. Na Cl Na Cl 56 Ionic Bonds
  57. 57. 57 Ionic Compounds
  58. 58.   + +   + + + 58 Hydrogen Bonds
  59. 59. 59
  60. 60. 60 Van der Waals Interactions
  61. 61. 61
  62. 62. 62
  63. 63. Substrates Active Site Enzyme 63 Enzymes = Catalysts
  64. 64. 64
  65. 65. Natural endorphin Morphine Carbon Hydrogen Nitrogen Sulfur Oxygen (a) Structures of endorphin and morphine (b) Binding to endorphin receptors Brain cell Morphine Natural endorphin Endorphin receptors 65
  66. 66. Reactants Products 2 H2 O2 2 H2O 66 Chemical Reactions
  67. 67. A B AB 67 Synthesis (Anabolism)
  68. 68. 68
  69. 69. 69 6 CO2 + 6 H20 → C6H12O6 + 6 O2 Photosynthesis
  70. 70. 70
  71. 71. AB A B Decomposition (Catabolism) 71
  72. 72. 72
  73. 73. A B AB Reversible 73
  74. 74. 74 Chemical Equilibrium

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