BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry

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This is a lecture presentation for my BIOL 101 General Biology I students on Chapter 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry. (Campbell Biology, 10th Ed. by Reece et al).

Rob Swatski, Associate Professor of Biology, Harrisburg Area Community College - York Campus, York, PA. Email: rjswatsk@hacc.edu

Please visit my website for more anatomy and biology learning resources: http://robswatski.virb.com/

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BIOL 101 Chp 1: Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry

  1. 1. Intro: Themes in the Study of Life BIOL 101 General Biology I Chapter 1 Rob Swatski Associate Professor of Biology HACC - York Campus 1
  2. 2. Biologists ask questions … 2
  3. 3. 3
  4. 4. 4 Life is… Order
  5. 5. 5 Evolutionary adaptation
  6. 6. 6 Response to the environment
  7. 7. 7 Reproduction
  8. 8. 8 Growth and development
  9. 9. 9 Energy processing
  10. 10. 10 Regulation
  11. 11. Themes organize & connect biology concepts Chunk it!!! 11
  12. 12. 12 “Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution” Theodosius Dobzhansky
  13. 13. The biosphere Ecosystems Tissues Organs and organ systems Communities Populations Organisms Organelles Cells Atoms Molecules 13
  14. 14. 14 Levels of Organization Organ systems Organs Tissue Cell Molecule Atom
  15. 15. 15 Biosphere Ecosystems Communities Populations Organisms
  16. 16. Emergent Properties 16
  17. 17. 17
  18. 18. 18
  19. 19. 19 Complex Simple Reductionism
  20. 20. Systems Biology 20
  21. 21. 21 Interactions
  22. 22. 22 Ecosystem Dynamics Nutrient Cycling Energy Flow
  23. 23. 23
  24. 24. Animals eat leaves and fruit from the tree. Leaves take in carbon dioxide from the air and release oxygen. Sunlight CO2 O2 Cycling of chemical nutrients Leaves fall to the ground and are decomposed by organisms that return minerals to the soil. Water and minerals in the soil are taken up by the tree through its roots. Leaves absorb light energy from the sun. 24
  25. 25. Chemical energy (a) Energy flow from sunlight to producers to consumers Sunlight Producers absorb light energy and transform it into chemical energy. Chemical energy in food is transferred from plants to consumers. 25
  26. 26. Heat (b) Using energy to do work When energy is used to do work, some energy is converted to thermal energy, which is lost as heat. An animal’s muscle cells convert chemical energy from food to kinetic energy, the energy of motion. A plant’s cells use chemical energy to do work such as growing new leaves. 26
  27. 27. 27 Energy Potential Chemical Kinetic
  28. 28. 28
  29. 29. 29
  30. 30. 30
  31. 31. 31 Structure vs. Function
  32. 32. 100 μm 32
  33. 33. 33
  34. 34. 34 Cell Structure & Function Plasma membrane Contain DNA Able to divide
  35. 35. 35
  36. 36. 36 Prokaryotes No organelles No nucleus Bacteria & Archaea Eukaryotes Organelles present Nucleus present Protists, fungi, plants, animals
  37. 37. 37
  38. 38. Eukaryotic cell Prokaryotic cell Cytoplasm DNA (no nucleus) Membrane Nucleus (membrane- enclosed) Membrane Membrane- enclosed organelles DNA (throughout nucleus) 1 m 38
  39. 39. 39 DNA Chromosomes Genes
  40. 40. Nucleus DNA Cell Nucleotide (b) Single strand of DNA A C T A A T C C G T A G T (a) DNA double helix A 40
  41. 41. 41
  42. 42. Genome  Gene  DNA  RNA  Protein 42 TRANSCRIPTION DNA mRNA TRANSLATION Protein
  43. 43. 43
  44. 44. 44
  45. 45. Systems Biology 45 Bioinformatics
  46. 46. 46
  47. 47. Homeostasis 47
  48. 48. 48 Negative Feedback Positive Feedback
  49. 49. Negative Feedback System Decreases stimulus if too high Increases stimulus if too low 49
  50. 50. Excess D blocks a step Negative feedback Negative feedback D D D D C B A Enzyme 1 Enzyme 2 Enzyme 3 – 50
  51. 51. 51 Positive Feedback System
  52. 52. Excess Z stimulates a step Positive feedback Z Positive feedback Enzyme 4 Enzyme 5 Enzyme 6 Z Z Z Y X W + 52 Z Z
  53. 53. 53 Evolution accounts for the unity & diversity of life
  54. 54. 54
  55. 55. 55
  56. 56. Suedberg Fossil Pit Devonian 375 MYA 56
  57. 57. 57
  58. 58. 58
  59. 59. Species Genus Family Order Class Phylum Kingdom Domain Ursus americanus (American black bear) Ursus Ursidae Carnivora Mammalia Chordata Animalia Eukarya 59 Taxonomy
  60. 60. 3 Domains of Life Bacteria Archaea Eukarya 60
  61. 61. Domain Bacteria 61
  62. 62. 62 Domain Archaea
  63. 63. 63 Domain Eukarya Kingdom Protista Kingdom Fungi Kingdom Plantae Kingdom Animalia
  64. 64. Kingdom Protista 64
  65. 65. Kingdom Fungi 65
  66. 66. 66 Kingdom Plantae
  67. 67. Kingdom Animalia 67
  68. 68. Cilia of Paramecium Cilia of windpipe cells 15 μm 5 μm 68 Unity in the Diversity of Life
  69. 69. 69
  70. 70. 70
  71. 71. 71
  72. 72. 72
  73. 73. 1859: The Origin of Species by Charles Darwin 73
  74. 74. Don’t Listen to Your Parents “You care for nothing but shooting, dogs, and rat-catching and you will be a disgrace to yourself and your family.” Dr. Robert Darwin 74
  75. 75. 75 Two Main Points of Origin of Species Descent with modification Natural Selection
  76. 76. 76
  77. 77. Individuals in a population have traits that vary Traits are heritable More offspring are produced then actually survive Competition is inevitable Species are generally well adapted to their environment 77
  78. 78. 78
  79. 79. 79
  80. 80. Adaptations: evidence of natural selection 80
  81. 81. 81
  82. 82. 82
  83. 83. 83
  84. 84. COMMON ANCESTOR Green warbler finch Certhidea olivacea Gray warbler finch Certhidea fusca Sharp-beaked ground finch Geospiza difficilis Vegetarian finch Platyspiza crassirostris Mangrove finch Cactospiza heliobates Woodpecker finch Cactospiza pallida Medium tree finch Camarhynchus pauper Large tree finch Camarhynchus psittacula Small tree finch Camarhynchus parvulus Large cactus ground finch Geospiza conirostris Cactus ground finch Geospiza scandens Small ground finch Geospiza fuliginosa Medium ground finch Geospiza fortis Large ground finch Geospiza magnirostris Insect-eaters Seed-eater Bud-eater Insect-eaters Tree finches Ground finches Seed-eaters Cactus-flower- eaters Warbler finches 84
  85. 85. 85
  86. 86. 86 Two Main Types of Scientific Inquiry Discovery science Hypothesis-Based science
  87. 87. 87 Descriptive Natural structures & processes Observation Inductive reasoning Data analysis Discovery Science
  88. 88. 88 Inductive Reasoning Generalizations are derived from a large number of specific observations
  89. 89. 89 Qualitative Quantitative Types of Data
  90. 90. 90 Qualitative Data
  91. 91. 91 Quantitative Data
  92. 92. 92 Hypothesis-Based Science Observe Question Hypothesize Predict
  93. 93. Observations Question Hypothesis #1: Dead batteries Hypothesis #2: Burnt-out bulb 93
  94. 94. Hypothesis #1: Dead batteries Hypothesis #2: Burnt-out bulb Prediction: Replacing bulb will fix problem Test of prediction Test falsifies hypothesis Test does not falsify hypothesis Prediction: Replacing batteries will fix problem Test of prediction 94
  95. 95. 95 Deductive Reasoning
  96. 96. Eastern Coral Snake 96 Scarlet Kingsnake (nonvenomous)
  97. 97. Eastern coral snake (venomous) 97
  98. 98. South Carolina North Carolina Key Scarlet kingsnake (nonvenomous) Scarlet kingsnake (nonvenomous) Eastern coral snake (venomous) Range of scarlet kingsnake only Overlapping ranges of scarlet kingsnake & eastern coral snake 98
  99. 99. (a) Artificial kingsnake (b) Brown artificial snake that has been attacked 99
  100. 100. Artificial kingsnakes Brown artificial snakes 83% 84% 17% 16% Coral snakes absent Coral snakes present Percent of total attacks on artificial snakes 100 80 60 40 20 0 RESULTS 100
  101. 101. 101
  102. 102. 102 What is a Theory? Broad and general Supported by lots of evidence Generates new testable hypotheses
  103. 103. 103 Models 3-D objects Diagrams Math equations Computer programs
  104. 104. The Culture of Science: Creativity The Culture of Science: Communication 104 Teamwork

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