This is a presentation on general issues of methodology in the human sciences applied to an education in Urbanism. Our position is that in order to design and plan our cities and regions, students and professionals must underpin their assumptions with solid research. There are basic criteria for any academic endeavour and a set of basic elements in any research project. This presentation discusses these issues and suggests ways to go about the initial literature research. (this presentation is directed to TU Delft Urbanism students).
ANY Academic endeavour starts with
a question Generic criteria Biggs & Buchler, 2008 • Question (and answer) • Methods • Knowledge • Audience questions answers methods AUDIENCE
But a good question comes
from a problem or issue you want to explore The problem statement is a carefully laid out ACCOUNT (a story) where you need to set the CONTEXT and the MAIN ELEMENTS that play a role in your project. In short, you need to “problematize”. Generally, one starts by DESCRIBING a certain spatial entity (a neighbourhood, a city or a region), including its advantages. But then one introduces a CONTRADICTION, expressing a spatial problem that needs to be tackled.
Context The problem statement provides
the context for the research study and typically generates QUESTIONS which the research hopes to answer (objective of the research). In considering whether or not to move forward with a research project, you will generally spend some time considering the problem.
Hooking the reader •In your
research project, the statement of the problem is the ﬁrst part of the proposal to be read [apart from the title and the abstract, if you decide to have one]. The problem statement should "hook" the reader and establish a persuasive context for what follows.
What is the problem? You
need to be able to clearly answer the question: "what is the problem"? and "why is this problem worth my attention"? (this helps you deﬁne the RELEVANCE) At the same time, the problem statement limits scope by focusing on some variables and not others. It also provides an opportunity for you to demonstrate why these variables are important. (ditto)
Is it transferable? It is
also important to be able to make your problem ‘”transferable”. Does it happen in other places (even with slight variations)? This means that the problem at hand is not only a problem perceived by you as an individual (although you might have a special interest in it), but a problem that is recognized by society or by other members of the academic world. It can also be integrated and built upon by other people.
Remember: nothing is completely transferable
• But the main elements, MIGHT be. For instance: • Regeneration strategies can be used by various cities with the same problems. • Solutions for urbanization in ﬂood-able areas in the Dutch Deltametropolis might be transferable to other Delta regions. • Spatial solutions for urbanization in Haiti after the big earthquake of 2010 might be transferable to other areas afﬂicted by similar natural disasters.
What is the logic of
enquiry? MOST IMPORTANT, your problem must have some connection with spatial planning and design. Remember the LOGICS OF ENQUIRY. This means that the problem you want to analyze has some connection with space!
For example Utrecht is the
fourth largest city in the Randstad (west part of the Netherlands) with approximately 300.000 inhabitants in 2009 (CBS, 2010). It is centrally located in the network of highways and railways of the country (Gemeente Utrecht, 2007). It possesses the largest university of the country and a diversiﬁed service oriented economy. In the last few years, the city has gained approximately 30.000 new dwellings (CBS, 2010).
However... However, Utrecht does not
take full advantage of its central position because of the chronic congestion of the roads surrounding the city. Inhabitants AND COMMUTERS complain that it is very difﬁcult to reach the city centre from the CITY ring ROAD. Transferia (the Dutch concept of car parking near the ring roads) are unattractive and not so well connected. This is making Utrecht less competitive in the Randstad in terms of ofﬁce location and is hampering city growth. SEE THE REAL PROBLEM STATEMENT AT THE END OF THIS document
How did they do it?
- ADOBE SUITE to put things together - PREMIERE for the ﬁlm - ILLUSTRATOR for stills, plans and some of the 'stop-motion graphics' - INDESIGN for 'stop motion graphics' - PHOTOSHOP for perspectives - AFTER EFFECTS for some sequences - SOUNDBOOTH for the sound - SKETCHUP with a plugin called PODIUM - GOOGLE DOCS for the script + sharing info - WORDPRESS.com for the website.
When is it Ok to
quote? “As long as you met certain conditions, you are allowed to quote directly from a published article written by someone else: • The text must not be too long • The citation must be printed using quotation marks • The source must be stated Source: TU DELFT 2009, Cheating, don’t be tempted, Delft, TBM.
Quoting “Copying a passage from
an article or book, word for word. Mark the passage with quotation marks and state the source correctly” (TU Delft, 2009) Source: TU DELFT 2009, Cheating, don’t be tempted, Delft, TBM.
Paraphrasing • “Reproducing the content
of someone else’s work in your own words” (TU Delft, 2009). You can change the original text slightly or change it completely: if you are using the central idea from someone, you NEED to state the source! • Paraphrasing allows you to interpret a text while you use it. Source: TU DELFT 2009, Cheating, don’t be tempted, Delft, TBM.
Theory paper Eroded public spaces:
Impacts on public space by socio-economic transformations in Eastern Europe. Eroded public spaces: Impacts on public space by rapid socio-economic transformations in Eastern Europe. Tadas Jonauskis Study number 1535536 _ firstname.lastname@example.org Delft University of Technology, Department of Urbanism 5th Graduation Lab Urbanism Conference January 28th 2010 Abstract – This paper will review the literature regarding to socio-economic changes on public spaces in Easter European countries after the fall of USSR. It covers the topics of privatization, commercialization, virtualization and mobilization that are the main process affecting the use of public space. Public space is the main focus of this paper and the main question to be answered is how public space was impacted and changed by rapid socio-economic transformations in Eastern Europe. Therefore this paper investigates the way society have changed and the way new elements which were introduced, such as car and virtual networks, after the fall of Soviet Union affect the behaviour and life style of the people which resulted how differently people started to use pubic space. Literature review on these elements and aspects will give an overview and suggestions how the public space is used and what are the threats and negative elements created by the processes of transformation that can be avoided or solved in later graduation project stages. Key words – Public space, urban life, street vitality, meeting place, shifted centralities, Eastern Europe, urban society, privatization, car culture, commercialization 1 Introduction This paper will explore the reasons why public space have changed and is still changing in state of transition from socialism system to capitalism one in Eastern European countries after the fall of USSR. Socialist cities had strict rules on how the public space had to be used and how society had to look like and to be shaped. The use of public space was not only different in physical characteristics from the Western cities but also it was different how society was seeing it and using it. A sudden change after the fall of USSR led to number of interpretations and unplanned and chaotic changes in the way people were using public space. Soon after former limitations of public realm, public opinion and public politics in Soviet Union society was free to express itself in a way it could imagine. However ‘western culture’ didn’t bring only wealth and life quality, but on contrary it resulted in number of negative effects which are expressed in the way people are using public space. This paper will cover main reasons of the public space to be changing. Literature review will help to identify the changes and the affects on public space. The main question to be answered with this paper is how public space was impacted and changed by rapid socio-economic transformations in Eastern European countries. This paper will start investigating the privatization of land together with privatization of former state economic activities was provoked by the need of relaying of your own. It resulted in physical shrinkage of space and shifted balance between Tadas Jonauskis
References! Eroded public spaces: Impacts
on public space by socio-economic transformations in Eastern Europe. away from physical space to a virtual. Increased mobility created separation of the people from each other and segregated areas which are monofunctional and pedestrian unfriendly and car oriented. In the end we can conclude that cities started to change from open and collective to closed and individual cities. It changed from open city in terms of open and well accessible public space to a closed city in terms of privately owned and fenced city. Accordingly collective way of living was changed to a private ‘western lifestyle’ with the importance if individual rather than society as such. To sum up, public space was important tool to create collective communist society but now it is not used and not understood as a tool to create and promote social interactions but in opposite it is resulted to be used as a tool to separate and alienate people and create the city for individualities. 10 Recommendations References are the books and ar0cles used to write THIS paper The main intention of this paper is to determine the processes that are affecting the use of public space after the fall of USSR in Eastern European countries. It showed the way people are using public space under new social and economic conditions and how public space has changed in past couple decades. This given overview will give literature based argumentation for further site specific empirical research and will play a theoretical underpinning role in graduation project. Acknowledgements I would like to express my appreciation to mine main mentor Stephen Read who gave well structured support on the topic of public space. Also I would like to appreciate Remon Rooij and Ana Maria Fernandez-Maldonado for a support and lessons on writing this paper. Bibliography ANDREWS, KALIOPA DIMITROVSKA, 2002, Mastering the post-socialist city: impacts on planning and the built environment, International Conferences A Greater Europe, Rome. AUGÉ, MARC, 2008, Non-places an introduction to supermodernity, Verso, London BOGLE, SALLY, 1996 August, Invasions of the Market Snatchers, Energy Economist, formations, by Ilka Ruby and Andreas Ruby, 138145, Ruby Press, Berlin GEHL, JAN, 2001, Life between buildings : using public space, Danish Architectural Press, Copenhagen HAJER, MAARTEN, ARNOLD REIJNDORP, AND ELS BRINKMAN, 2001, In search of new public domain : analysis and strategy, NAi Publishers, Rotterdam HANASZ, WALDEMAR, November 30, 1999, "Engines of liberty. Cars and the collapse of communism in eastern europe." JACOBS, JANE, 1998, The death and life of great American cities, Random House, New York KAREN A. FRANCK , QUENTIN STEVENS, 2007, Loose space, Routledge, New York LEFEBVRE, HENRI, 2003, The urban revolution, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis MOISEEVA, ANASTASIA, 2007, "Network city. Urban transformations." Master thesis, Delft READ, STEPHEN, 2009, "Technicity and Publicness: Steps toward an Urban Space.", Footprint, pages:7-22 SASSEN, SASKIA, 2001, The global city : New York, London, Tokyo / by Saskia Sassen, Princeton University Press, Princeton SIK, ENDRE, AND CLAIRE WALLACE, 1999, "The Development of Open-air Markets in EastCentral Europe." International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, pages: 697-714 STANILOV, KIRIL, 2007, The Post-Socialist city, Springer, Dordrecht TEERDS, HANS, 2009, "Public Realm, Public space", In OASE 77, Into the open. Accomodating the public, by Tom Avermaete, Klaske Havik and Hans Teerds, pages: 21-31, NAi Publishers, Rotterdam WAGENAAR, COR, 2004, Happy : cities and public happiness in post-war Europe, NAi Publishers, Rotterdam Tadas Jonauskis Never write the ﬁrst name of the author(s). Instead, use his/her/ their ini0als. This was not done using ENDNOTE!
Google scholar Here I searched
for the name of an author: Vincent Nadin This is the main book wriJen by Vincent. It has been cited in 222 papers or ar0cles This is a journal ar0cle. Normally, it would not be accessible, but because you are on campus, you can access it for free (you don’t have to do anything: the program will recognise the fact that you are logged in via TU DelP
PEER REVIEWED ACADEMIC JOURNALS •
THE MAIN SOURCE OF VALID AND AUTHORITATIVE KNOWLEDGE ARE PAPERS PUBLISHED IN PEERREVIEWED JOURNALS. • PEER REVIEWED JOURNALS GO TO GREAT LENGTHS TO ENSURE THE VALIDITY AND RELEVANCE OF ARTICLES BEING PUBLISHED IN THEIR PAGES. • IT IS QUITE A LABORIOUS PROCESS TO PUBLISH IN PEER-REVIEWED JOURNALS, BUT ONCE YOU DO, YOU KNOW YOU HAVE DONE A GOOD JOB AS A RESEARCHER.
• CLICK HERE TO SEE
A VERY COMPREHENSIVE LIST OF ACADEMIC PEER REVIEWED JOURNALS IN URBAN STUDIES
Check list • Try to
navigate in the Library’s website and locate the electronic journals (only available for on-campus consultation • Download the program ENDNOTE (available at Blackboard) • • Use “Google scholar” for a more accurate search. Remember: Wikipedia is NOT a valid scientiﬁc source (it is not reviewed by an accredited person or institution), but it can often give you an idea or provide you with valid scientiﬁc sources.
Writing skills: main problems to
tackle • Language (style, grammar, ﬂow of ideas and logical thread) • Lack of clear structure of the text: Introduction/ Context/ Background/ + Problem Statement + Context/ Background + Discussion + Conclusion/ Recommendations) • Flow: ideas being developed in different paragraphs are not logically connected
AVOID at all costs: PUB
TALK • Use of poorly supported popular ideas (“pub talk”) or ideas circulating in the popular mind without any critique. • Use of clichés/ prejudices/ sexism/ racial, cultural or religious bias. These are often the product of unawareness and lack of critique on one’s own position.
‘Insider's’ expressions • Use of
acronyms without explaining the meaning or the function. Example: RPB: Ruimtelijke Plan Bureau (Dutch Spatial Planning Bureau). • Use of non-English expressions without explaining the meaning. Example: “structuurvisie” or “besteemingsplan”
A common problem statement •
New developments in ICT and transport teknologies have create new spacial developments in network cities. Connectivity has increase, created new nodes in the network city. They aren’t well connected and connection needs to be improved thru new intrastrucuture coz this will improve connectivity. 12
How to get rid of
spelling mistakes? • GO TO WORD FIRST • • • • Set language (English UK) Set grammar corrector Set Thesaurus Proof-read! (have a break before)
What’s plagiarism? “Many people think
of plagiarism as copying another's work, or borrowing someone else's original ideas. But terms like "copying" and "borrowing" can disguise the seriousness of the offense:
What’s plagiarism again? “In other
words, plagiarism is an act of fraud. It involves both stealing someone else's work and lying about it afterwards. But can words and ideas really be stolen? According to U.S. law (and European Union laws), the answer is YES! The expression of original ideas is considered intellectual property, and is protected by copyright laws, just like original inventions”.
And this? "The Associated Press
has determined that the photograph used in the poster is an AP photo and that its use required permission," the AP's director of media relations, Paul Colford, said in a statement. "We believe fair use protects Shepard's right to do what he did here," says Fairey's attorney, Anthony Falzone, executive director of the Fair Use Project at Stanford University and a lecturer at the Stanford Law School. "It wouldn't be appropriate to comment beyond that at this time because we are in discussions about this with the AP. "AP safeguards its assets and looks at these events on a case-by-case basis. We have reached out to Mr. Fairey's attorney and are in discussions. We hope for an amicable solution." The Associated Press thinks it is! Source: http://chicagoist.com/2009/02/05/ap_in_a_snit_over_iconic_obama_post.php
Plagiarism in architecture: some articles
:: When Architects Plagiarize, It's not always bad by Witold Rybczynski :: Brother from Another Mother by Clay Risen :: Hi, Gorgeous. Haven't I Seen You Somewhere? by Fred A. Bernstein (this article is now in the New York Times' pay-per-view archive, though I'll update the link if and when Mr. Bernstein puts it on his own site) :: Gutterland Police Blotter
How is plagiarism different from
researching? • Science works by building on the knowledge of others. This means that you will regularly use and refer to texts written by other people. • It is important that you make a clear distinction between your own ideas and those of others. To put it simply, plagiarism is copying someone else’s work and claiming it as your own, while researching is INTEGRATING knowledge into a new narrative and acknowledging the sources. Source: TU DELFT 2009, Cheating, don’t be tempted, Delft, TBM.
Plagiarism may lead to lack
of integration of ideas Including ideas from famous authors either out of context or without trying to interpret what is being said within the context being analysed. QUESTION TO ASK YOURSELF: Is this absolutely relevant to understand the problem at hand? WHY? Then say it! (And quote!!!) This is relevant for this work because...
And then QUOTE IT! Rocco,
in his methodology class, said that copying without citing is not only a crime, it is plain stupid!(Rocco, 2011) And include the full citation in references Rocco, R. 2011, Tools for research, Oxford: Oxford University Press *. Oxford University Press? He wishes..* This is just an illustration. This book does not exist!
Tutorials on plagiarism Penn State
University http://tlt.its.psu.edu/plagiarism/tutorial/deﬁnition Princeton http://www.princeton.edu/pr/pub/integrity/08/intro/ index.htm
Thanks! Questions? Write to email@example.com
With special thanks to Matt Smith (ChernobylBob) of Gloucester, UK, whose photos adorn these pages. Matt’s photographs are available at: www.flickr.com/photos/chernobylbob/ Prepared by Roberto Rocco, TU Delft firstname.lastname@example.org