Brief Introduction to Strategic Planning


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This is a quite long presentation on strategic planning. It is composed by two main parts: recent shifts in the understanding of urban planning and design + basic elements of strategic planning. This presentation can be seen without a presenter (hence the text).

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Brief Introduction to Strategic Planning

  1. 1. Brief Introduction to Strategic Planning Roberto Rocco Chair Spatial Planning and Strategy TU Delft Challenge(the(future SpatialPlanning &Strategy
  2. 2. SpatialPlanning &Strategy Challenge(the(future
  3. 3. Introduction to general concepts of contemporary strategic planning
  4. 4. This lecture is composed of two parts 1 The shift in urban planning and design
  5. 5. This lecture is composed of two parts 2 click to part 2 A brief description of strategic planning
  6. 6. The shift in urban planning and design
  7. 7. Point of Departure: Space is Socially Produced Spatial planning deals with ‘inhabited’ space: a space of frictions but also a space of shared societal goals
  8. 8. Roots of Urbanism: Main concerns Hygiene/ Health Separation of activities Beauty/ grandeur/ monumentality/ representation of power Circulation/ accessibility (first connected to control and military purposes) Mobility (car/tram/train) and the Fordist mode of production
  9. 9. But lately, there is a radical change in how we approach urban development
  10. 10. URBANISM Broadly, urbanism focuses on INHABITED SPACES. It focuses on how people, structures and activities are distributed over space (a territory) and how they are articulated by spaces, structures and infrastructures, as well as rules. Because the task of URBANISM is very complex, the SCOPE of the discipline is very wide.
  11. 11. A very wide scope Mind map on urbanism, MSC2 students, TU Delft
  12. 12. So? Spatial planning deals with ‘inhabited’ space This is a space of social friction but also a space of shared societal goals
  13. 13. Peter Hall (UCL) said… Cities in Civilization: Culture, Technology, and Urban Order, London, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1998; New York, Pantheon Books, 1998
  14. 14. Peter Hall’s sending a man to the moon X planning and designing a city What’s so different?
  15. 15. Governance: positive tension creates some kind of equilibrium
  16. 16. In liberal democracies: there is friction and negotiation
  17. 17. Because it is all about people and how they use space, we need to have an ethical attitude (social responsibility) X
  18. 18. Ethics The field of ethics (or moral philosophy) involves systematising, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong behaviour. See more about ethics at the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy at http:// (this is a peer-reviewed resource, not Wikipedia. But the article at Wikipedia is not bad! If you want to understand the point being made at the lecture, albeit in a very simplified way, please have a look at “applied ethics”)
  19. 19. Increasing complexity ✤ ✤ The increasing complexity of living environments results in increasingly complex research paradigms. After all, there are new tools for analysis, new combinations of disciplines and new QUESTIONS that need to be answered.
  20. 20. Increasing complexity The increasing complexity of research paradigms in urbanism results in the perception that a practical education on design skills alone is insufficient to deal with the broader task at hand:
  21. 21. The broader task at hand To understand the context, the role and wishes of stakeholders and the sociopolitical forces that ultimately produce ‘real world’ space in order to be able to intervene effectively.
  22. 22. Increasing complexity?
  23. 23. Sao Paulo, Brazil, pop. 16 million (2010)
  24. 24. But THIS is not so complex... Or is it? Delft, The Netherlands, pop.: 96.000 (2008)
  25. 25. Delft Urbanisation in the Netherlands, 1950 Delft Urbanisation in the Netherlands, 2010
  26. 26. Delft Urbanisation in the Randstad, 1950 Delft Urbanisation in the Randstad, 2010
  27. 27. Complex enough for you? Commuting patterns in The Randstad (2008), source: VROM.
  28. 28. KLM Routes 1964 KLM Routes 2004
  29. 29. The future looks more like this Visualizing Friendships by Paul Butler on Tuesday, 14 December 2010 at 02:16
  30. 30. Metropolitain de Paris 2005 Tokyo Subway system 2008
  31. 31. The nature of Urbanism The stretched scope of urbanism, with its large range of inputs drawn from various disciplines, demands another approach by urban planners and designers, where communication and negotiation have a more central role.
  32. 32. A brief description of strategic planning
  33. 33. Introduction on Strategic Planning
  34. 34. Let us start with a analogy jump to 42
  35. 35. STRATEGY Military origins: Strategos in ancient Greek means “General of the Army”: The Strategos formulated the strategy to win the war
  36. 36. In many fields A strategy is a long term plan of action designed to achieve a particular goal. Strategy applies to many different fields, such as: *Military strategy*Marketing strategies*Strategic management*Football strategy*Game theoretical strategy*Economic strategy* etc.
  37. 37. Origins of Strategic Planning WAR + BUSINESS = COMPETITION (M. Porter: Competitive Advantages)
  38. 38. Origins of Strategic Planning 1920: Harvard Business School: New Policy Model for Businesses: emphasis on organisational policy and structure 1950s: emphasis on risk, growth and competitiveness: strategic decisions derive from analyses of competitive power relationships Mid 1980s: leakage into the public sector and public management ▶ “run the government like business” ► city competitiveness ▶strategic planning
  39. 39. In the 1980s and 90s Rapid Transition From Land Use Planning to Strategic Planning & From Hard Planning to ‘Soft Planning’ & From ‘master plans’ to ‘Strategic Plans’ & From ‘Zones’ to ‘Networks’ & from ‘government’ to ‘governance’
  40. 40. Le Plan Voisin Le Corbusier: Paris 1925
  41. 41. Bijlmermeer, Amsterdam, 1966-1970 Siegfried Nassuth, urban designer
  42. 42. Today: A new Paradigm Strategic Planning today is based on social and environmental sustainability and global awareness ✤Planning is an instrument to increase participation and strengthen societal cohesion. ✤
  43. 43. Today: A new Paradigm The Three Ps People Planet Profit Prosperity!
  44. 44. New Emphasis in Strategic Planning SYNERGY + PARTICIPATION Strategic urban planning is a process that allows the articulation of the initiatives of public and private stakeholders which seek synergies for the development of a city. (Source: Steinberg, 2003)
  45. 45. TODAY Strategic Planning is about… 1. A tool for local development which conceives strategic interventions that guarantee the quality of life, and economic and social progress 2. A mechanism to promote progressive forms of governance, substantially improving local democracy through collaboration between public and private urban stakeholders 3. A modern, participatory and democratic form of thinking about urban development which allows the establishment of references for all economic and social actors 4. A new instrument which facilitates the management of a city in a period of frequent and substantial changes (various sources)
  46. 46. So what is ‘Strategic Planning’? Long-term plans based on overall objectives. Strategic plans are typically long term plans that use Scenarios and Visions in order to: Test Assumptions ✤Set Specific Goals ✤Investigate Strengths ✤Examine Weaknesses ✤Check Risks ✤ Generally, strategic planning involves continuous/ periodical/reassessment of these aspects
  47. 47. Spatial strategy H e t k a b in e t k ie s t - V e ilig h e id te g e n o v e r s tr o m in g e n - V a n G r o e n e H a r t n a a r G r o e n b la u w e D e lta w a t e r r ijk e r, a a n t r e k k e lijk e r, g r o t e r - In z e t o p in te r n a tio n a le , e c o n o m is c h e k r a c h te n in d e R a n d s ta d m e t r o p o lit a n e p o s it ie A m s t e r d a m , s p e c if ie k e k r a c h t e n R o t t e r d a m , D e n H a a g e n U t r e c h t , h a v e n s , lu c h t h a v e n , g r e e n p o r t s , k e n n is c lu s t e r s , a a n s lu it in g o p in t e r n a t io n a a l v e r v o e r s n e t w e r k - B r u is e n d e s te d e n in e e n a a n tr e k k e lijk e o m g e v in g v e r d ic h t in g , h o o g b o u w , u it b r e id in g v a n A lm e r e , k a n s e n v o o r O V , m e t r o p o lit a n e p a r k e n e n g r o e n b la u w e w o o n -w e r k m ilie u s
  48. 48. National spatial structure
  49. 49. A quick overview Based on socio economic trends Importance of research understands the role and the wishes of stakeholders
  50. 50. The spatial plan Possible scenario Based on socio economic trends Alternative or desirable scenarios understands the role and the wishes of stakeholders Desirable scenario Probable scenario
  51. 51. Scenarios (a metaphor) Today In 2 weeks
  52. 52. Divergent scenarios (but I eliminated already several possibilities!) Scheveningen Most desirable Shopping TV! Most probable
  53. 53. OUTSIDE The perfect tan scenario Active in the water scenario RAINY ! SUNNY! Cozy and cuddly scenario Cozy and sticky scenario INSIDE
  54. 54. Active in the water
  55. 55. Cosy and cuddly
  56. 56. The Perfect Tan
  57. 57. VISION: Active and healthy in all weather scenario
  58. 58. The scenario The ‘scenario’ (perspective) is “a plausible description of how the future may develop, based on a coherent and internally consistent set of assumptions about key relationships and driving forces” (Watson et al., 1996)
  59. 59. Scenarios are tools for the formulation of a vision. But why do we need a vision?
  60. 60. The VISION In the Dutch language, the use of the word ‘visie’ (vision) refers to a vsualization of one or various desirable aspects of ‘scenarios’. The ‘vision’ is an ‘image of the future’ which articulates an individual’s or group's values, ideals, and goals.
  61. 61. But what do I need to do to get there? The STRATEGY!
  62. 62. The STRATEGY is... a flexible set of steps and actions taken over a certain time frame, within the . framework of a desirable VISION, used in order to fulfil the achievement of societal goals connected to the organisation of space
  63. 63. In other words, A strategy is... composed by several actions and interventions laid down in a time frame (short term/ middle term/ long term) which will probably lead you to the most desirable outcome within the constraints given
  64. 64. But… But the vision (the objective) is likely to change over time. Moreover, we cannot control all factors, so the role of the strategy is to STEER towards a desirable overall outcome, rather than FIX a precise objective.
  65. 65. In spatial planning The steps are represented by ACTIONS and INTERVENTIONS, many times in the form of PROJECTS or DESIGNS, but also in the form of policies
  66. 66. Steps or Co-ordinated Actions These steps and actions must have ‘strategic value’; they must be part of a systematic plan. In other words, each step or action must be part of a coherent and co-ordinated strategy designed to achieve those goals.
  67. 67. Flexible sequence of steps Therefore, strategic planning involves a flexible sequence of steps and co-ordinated processes, rather than a rigid set of actions towards a strict target. In strategic planning, once each step is completed, the whole strategy is re-evaluated and the targets are readjusted.
  68. 68. Not all steps are the same Some steps (projects) are more important than others. Some steps are ESSENTIAL for the strategy, other support the strategy but are not ESSENTIAL One or more steps are the TRIGGERS of change (after all, you need to give the first step. If it is a good one, others will follow and you will mobilize support
  69. 69. Bilbao Ria 2000 project: The trigger All rights reserved by johnjohn1974 at FLICKR
  70. 70. Bilbao 1992 2009
  71. 71. Bilbao: Aban 1992 2009
  72. 72. Bilbao 1992 2009
  73. 73. Please visit! Bilbao Ria 2000 http://
  74. 74. Randstad Key projects Den Haag centraal Utrecht centraal Rotterdam centraal
  75. 75. STEP 1: Analysis/ Research: Problem Statement 1. Analysis: The analysis of the political, social, economic and technical environment and The consideration of various driving forces in the environment considered (for example, increasing complexity of flows, technological advancements, changing demographics, etc.).
  76. 76. STEP 1: Analysis/ Research: Problem Statement Planners also look at the various Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (the SWOT analysis) regarding the position of a region or a city (McNamara, 2000). The analysis helps building up possible ‘scenarios’ (a description of possible developments) which will ground the ‘vision’ (the societal aspirations).
  77. 77. STEP 3: SCENARIOS► Vision 1. Planners come to conclusions about possible scenarios and desirable visions. 2. Typically, scenarios can be very different from one another. Sometimes, planners make use of opposite scenarios or extreme scenarios in order to establish strategic goals.
  78. 78. STEP 2: SCENARIOS► Vision 1. Planners work with various possible and desirable scenarios in order to talk to several stakeholders and find out what are their wishes and objectives and to ENGAGE them in the process. 2. By engaging stakeholders you warrant support (political/economic/) to your strategy later on. 3. You also deal with real world forces that will effectively support or benefit from your strategy.
  79. 79. STEP 4: VISION▶Strategy The ‘vision statement’ should be designed and explained in full detail. It is usually an inspiring and compelling description of the benefits society will draw from the overall plan, and it is often used to engage support and participation among different actors in society. In order to be effective, the vision statement must be specific, measurable and realistic; and it must contain a detailed explanation of the strategic goals (steps) used in order to achieve it.
  80. 80. STEP 4: VISION▶ Strategy Setting a clear vision is important to engage different stakeholders in a process called ‘participatory planning’. Very shortly put, participatory planning concerns the participation of various stakeholders at the establishment or reformulation of the vision and the elaboration of the strategy.
  81. 81. Rotterdam Feijnoord (gebiedsvisie)
  82. 82. The Olympic legacy, London
  83. 83. London Olympic legacy Olympic Legacy London [UK] The Olympic Legacy Masterplan can be considered as one of the biggest London’s redevelopment projects from the last decades; it consists on the redevelopment of the Olympic Park and Lea Vally, after the 2012 Summer Olympic Games. KCAP’s vision for the Legacy is based on an urban mosaic structure that develops on a flexible way, from time to time. The mosaic will become an organism, concentrations of social groups and functional differentiations, an overlapping archipelago of social and urban islands. The ‘open city’ will emerge through the interaction, cross-fertilization and friction among these groups and networks, which leads to the emergence of new architecture, networks and urban cultures. KCAP Architects&Planners Client London Development Agency Program Vision for the structural development of the Lower Lea Valley following the Olympic games; 7 ha Time 2007 - present Role Masterplanner Olympic Legacy London
  84. 84. London legacy development corporation http:// .uk/ http:// learninglegacy.indep
  85. 85. But there are serious concerns: v=6MiBv72WP4o v=2BsZxDAaTE0
  86. 86. STEP 5: Strategic goals Strategic goals are overall accomplishments or steps in a general plan that must be accomplished in order to arrive at the VISION (but the objectives change along the way!)
  87. 87. STEP 6 : Spatial Interventions Spatial Planning means laying out how the strategic goals will be accomplished in order to arrive at the ‘vision’ using spatial interventions. Spatial interventions can be part of a broader strategy which involves other tools (nonspatial strategies and interventions) for the achievement of the vision. However, it is the specific task of spatial planners to plan and design space. Spatial interventions are therefore a crucial part of any spatial planning strategy.
  88. 88. Regeneration of EAST LONDON • The future of eight out of eight retained Olympic Park venues has been secured within one year of the Games. • Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park is re-opening to the public between summer 2013 and spring 2014. • iCity has been confirmed as the occupier of the Press and Broadcast Centre with tenants including BT Sport, Loughborough University and Infinity. • £6.5 billion of transport investment has supported development across London. • 11,000 homes are planned and more than 10,000 jobs will be created on the Park – conversion of the Athletes’ Village into homes is well advanced and developers are preparing to start building on Chobham Manor. Inspired by 2012: The legacy from the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games A joint UK Government and Mayor of London report JULY 2013
  89. 89. STEP 7 : Repositioning Assessment and Repositioning Strategic planning often includes specifying intermediate objectives, which will produce specific midway results. These midway results typically imply an assessment and a repositioning of the strategy and sometimes also the vision itself.
  90. 90. STEP 7 : Repositioning Assessment and Repositioning Thus, reaching a strategic goal involves accomplishing a set of objectives along the way. Once the strategic goal is reached, the whole strategy is assessed, re-evaluated and then adjusted. Spatial interventions must be coherent and coordinated within the framework of the overall strategy and the vision.
  91. 91. But: What about Governance? Planning also includes specifying responsibilities and timelines for each objective. In other words: who needs to do what and by when? It should also include methods to monitor and evaluate the plan: [1] how society will control the process [2] how different stakeholders can participate, influence and adjust the plan (adapted from McNamara, 2000)
  92. 92. Governance
  93. 93. Thanks for listening Any questions?
  94. 94. Prepared by Roberto Rocco Chair Spatial Planning and Strategy, TU Delft
  95. 95. APPENDIX: Evolution of the object of urbanism according to different ideologies
  96. 96. Urbanism of Monumentality, Hygiene and Military Strategy Haussmann Renovations : Paris1852-1870
  97. 97. Haussmann: Urbanisme Militariste et Higieniste New road system in Paris under the Second Empire (Histoire de la France urbaine, tome 4, p. 90)
  98. 98. Haussmanization
  99. 99. Haussmanization
  100. 100. The Urbanism of Technical Networks: Cerda: Barcelona 1897
  101. 101. The Cerda block
  102. 102. The Urbanism of Technical Networks: Cerda: Barcelona 1897
  103. 103. The messiah charles-Édouard Jeanneret, who chose to be known as Le Corbusier, October 6, 1887 – August 27, 1965)
  104. 104. Le Plan Voisin Le Corbusier: Paris 1925 Modernism: Rationality, order and the motorcar
  105. 105. The modulor The Modulor is an anthropometric scale of proportions devised by the Swiss-born French architect Le Corbusier (1887–1965). It was developed as a visual bridge between two incompatible scales, the Imperial system and the Metric system. It is based on the height of an English man with his arm raised. Source: wikipedia.
  106. 106. Le Plan Voisin Le Corbusier: Paris 1925
  107. 107. Brasilia: brazil, 1956-1960
  108. 108. Bijlmermeer, Amsterdam, 1966-1970 Siegfried Nassuth, urban designer