Integrating sustainability and spatial planning

1,154 views

Published on

This is a lecture on the necessary integration of notions of sustainability and spatial planning. In this lecture I argue that overall sustainability is only possible with social justice and redistribution. Environmental sustainability cannot exist where there is poverty and inequality. Informal urbanization, the urbanization of the very poor, is not environmentally, socially and economically sustainable.

Published in: Education, Technology, Business
0 Comments
4 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,154
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
34
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
4
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Integrating sustainability and spatial planning

  1. 1. Integrating Sustainability andSpatial Planning from anInternational PerspectiveChallenge the futureSpatialPlanning&StrategyPrepared by Roberto RoccoChair of Spatial Planning and StrategyTU DelftImage source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/quidtum/3582643470
  2. 2. DesignHumanSciencesPhysicalSciencesIn this exercise, you will need to‘locate’yourself inthe hypothetical triangle that composes URBANISMat TU Delft. According to your previous education and aspirations for the future, where would you be?Mark a cross inside the triangle and write your name and country of origin near that cross. Would youadd another element to this geometrical form? Is it a polygon? A square? What other categories wouldyou add, if any?Urbanism?
  3. 3. Semester4Semester3Semester2Semester1Quarter1Quarter2Quarter3Quarter4R & D StudioR & D StudioR & D StudioAnalysis & Design of Urban Form(design practicethe urban scale)Social spatial processes in the city(design practice and researchthe neighbourhood scale)Spatial strategies for theGlobal Metropolis(design practice and researchmetropolitan/regional scale)History andTheory ofUrbanism(theoretical)Sustainable UrbanEngineering of theTerritory(theoretical +instrumental)Practice ofUrbanism(theoreticalexpositive)Research and designmethodology for urbanism(instrumental expositive)Free choice(varied)GraduationorientationTheory ofUrbanism(instrumentalexpositive)Methodol-ogy (ThesisPlan)(instrumentalexpositive)Graduation LabUrbanism(design practice + varyingdegrees of theoreticaland instrumentalcourses)Graduation LabUrbanism(almost exclusively design practice)TU Delft Urbanism Graduation Track (2012)
  4. 4. Why do we plan?For whom do we design?What do we want to achieve?
  5. 5. Consolidationof objectives of SpatialPlanning around the notionofsustainabilityImage source: Sarah Cass at sarahcass.blogspot.com
  6. 6. ‘Enhanced’ Sustainability“For sustainability to occur, it must occur simultaneously ineach of its three dimensions” (economic, social andenvironmental) Larsen, 2012sustainabilitysocial economicenvironmental
  7. 7. • the elaboration of visions and directions forsustainable and fair futuresthe elaboration of visions and directionsfor sustainable and fair futuresBurnham Place at Union Station Master Plan; Washington, D.C. (Image: Akridge & SBA)
  8. 8. Increased public goodsAerial view of the winning design for the European Spallation Source (ESS) by Henning Larsen Architects, COBE and SLA (Image: Henning Larsen Architects)
  9. 9. Redistribution of gainsttp://roarmag.org/2011/11/what-the-99-want-all-power-to-the-peoples-assemblies/
  10. 10. Increased life chances and prosperityresults in...
  11. 11. This has been guided by ideas like‘The right to the city’ (Lefebvre, 1998,Harvey, 2008), ‘Spatial justice’ (Harvey,2009) the ‘Just city’ (Fainstein, 2000)and ‘Spatial justice (Soja, 2010).Social sustainability
  12. 12. But why?
  13. 13. An understanding that without socialsustainability, overall sustainabilityis difficult to achieve, specially in viewof high rates of deprivation,informality and inequality around theworld.UN Millennium Development Report (2012)
  14. 14. Photo: Valéria Gonçalvez/Estadão
  15. 15. Social sustainabilitysustains the governancenecessary to achieveoverall sustainability
  16. 16. An environmentally sustainableworld cannot exist withoutspatial justice and redistribution.It is crucial to escape the simplistic view that slums andother forms of informal urbanization (people) are pollutingour water resources’.` C a n a n e n v i r o n m e n t a l l ysustainable world exist withoutspatial justice and redistribution?
  17. 17. Robust sustainabilityThe World Commission on Environment andDevelopment (WCED) emphasizes “(…)concerted attention to social, ecological andeconomic conditions” (World Commission onEnvironment and Development, 1987).
  18. 18. The expression ‘sustainableand fair futures’ refers tos o c i a l , e c o n o m i c a n denvironmental sustainability ofliving environments (UnitedNations, 1993).Sustainability studiesImage source: Sarah Cass at sarahcass.blogspot.com
  19. 19. Public goods refer to intangible public assets produced bycollective undertaking and whose costs are not imposed onany particular individual when making use of the good(Olson, 2009).Accessibility, clean air, security are examples of publicgoods created by collective undertaking or publicregulation and action.Public goodsImage source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/bearseye/8719343763/sizes/k/in/photostream/
  20. 20. While avoidingexternalitieshttp://www.flickr.com/photos/iulianionescu/2436448880/sizes/z/in/photostream/
  21. 21. Refers to the social function of property andproduction: ownership of property must reflectthe fact that land and other assets owe a largepart of their value to the existence of publicgoods, infrastructure and positive externalitiesthat benefit those assets.Redistribution of gainsImage source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/blacktulip06
  22. 22. Redistribution of gains ought to happen when privateproperty realizes gains that can be traced to theexistence of public goods produced by collectiveundertaking and that can be taxed by publicauthorities (as in the case of municipal taxes).Redistribution of gains
  23. 23. My plot!
  24. 24. DinoVabecNYC to LAMy plot!
  25. 25. I am not exaggerating!
  26. 26. Life chances refer to the understanding thathouseholds are spatially bound and life chancesare not equally present everywhere.Therefore it is necessary to promoteredistribution of gains and increase public goodswhere such life chances are not present (vanKempen, 1994).Life chances
  27. 27. AnhangueraPerusJaraguaS.DomingosPiritubaFreguesiado OBrasilandiaLimaoCachoei-rinhaMandaquiCasaVerde SantanaTrememb eTucuruviJacanaVilaMedeirosVila MariaVilaGuilhermeCangaibaPenhaTatuapeCarraoBelemMoocaAgua RasaVila MatildeVilaFormosaErmelinoMatarazzoItaqueraPonte RasaArturAlvimCidade LiderParque doCarmoJoseBonifacioCidadeTiradentesGuaianasesLajeadoVila CurucaItaim PaulistaJardimHelenaSaoMiguelVila JacuiIguatemiSao RafaelSao MateusSapopopembaembaAricanduvaSao LucasVilaPruden teIpirangaSacomaCursinoJabaquaraCidadeAdemarPedreiraCidade D utraGrajauSocorroCamp oGrandeSanto AmaroParelheirosJardim A ngelaJardimSao LuisCapaoRedondoCamp o LimpoVila AndradeVila SoniaMorumbiRaposo TavaresRio Pequeno ButantaJaguareVilaLeopoldinaLapaJaraguaAlto dePinheirosItaimBibiMoemaCamp oBeloSaudeVilaMarianaJardimPaulistaPinheirosPerdizesBarra FundaConsolacaoSantaCeciliaBelaVistaLib erdadeCambuciBrasPariBomRetiroSerepublicaNorwayNorwayIcelandIcelandAustraliaAustraliaSWEDENSWEDENNetherlandsJapanDenmarkFinlandFRanceAustriaAustriaNew ZealandgermanyspainspainHong kongHong kongsingaporesingaporeslovenias.KoreaDominican Rep.S. KoreaS.KOreaCypruscypruscypruscypruscypruscypruscyprusCzechRep.MaltaMALTAMALTAArgentinaArgentinaArgentinaArgentinaArgentinapolandpolandchilechileestoniaslovakiaqatarbahrainbahraincroatiacyprusuruguaylatviast kittsbahamasbahamasbahamasseychellesseychellescubacubacubamexicobulgariaPanamaPanamalybialybialybiaMalaysiaMalaysiaRussiamauritiusbosniaomanAlbaniathailandvenezuelasaudi arabiaukraineukraineukraineukraineperukazakhstanDominicanrepublicChinasri lankasri lankaturkeybulgariaSky high: SWEDENVery high: Spainhigh: Czech republicmoderately high: mexicoMedium: thailandMedium to low: kyrgystanUnequal life chancesHDIHumandevelopmentindex(2007(cityofsaopaulodistrictscompareddatasource:PMSPandIBGE/PNUD2007therearenodistrictsthatscorelessthan0.7,thereforenodistrictwithlowHDIthelowestHDIindexbelongstomarsilac(0.701
  28. 28. Life chances arei n t r i n s i c a l l yrelated to theconcept ofspatial justice.
  29. 29. Prosperity refers to societaladvancements, as opposed toindividual gains (profit).Finally: Prosperity!
  30. 30. This is a reference to the three Ps in sustainability studies(planet, people and profit), in which the term profit has beenreplaced by ‘prosperity’ in order to reflect the public nature ofsocial advancement (Hammond, 2006).ProfitPeople ProsperityPlanet
  31. 31. Challenges and failuresThe challenges and failures in developmentover the past decades have demonstratedthat “for sustainability to occur, it mustoccur simultaneously in each of the threedimensions” (economic, social andenvironmental) (Larsen, 2012).
  32. 32. Integration of sustainability andspatial planningThe integration of these sustainabilitydimensions into spatial planning requires athorough understanding of policy-making andpolicy-implementation processes concerningthe management of territories in general andof natural resources in particular.
  33. 33. Understanding territorial governanceIt is necessary to understand governancestructures and arrangements in relevantterritorial units in relation to the objectivesdescribed above (i.e. redistribution of gainsand increase of life chances) and to themanagement of natural resources.
  34. 34. Effectiveness + democracy buildingThis is necessary because understandinggovernance structures is crucial in order toachieve effectiveness of policymaking andimplementation, while strengthening civilsociety.
  35. 35. Crucially, this approach addressesthe issue of democracy-building,which we see as a condition sinequa non for social sustainability.
  36. 36. Governance is at the centre... of spatial planningprocesses.  
  37. 37. Governance
  38. 38. Governance (normative)PrivateSectorCivilSocietyPublicSectorPositive tension: checks and balances
  39. 39. Governance (descriptive)PrivateSectorCivilSocietyPublicSectorCivilPublicSectorCoalitionsbetween sectorsand within sectorsUrban planners&Designers
  40. 40. Governance entailsan understanding ofhow policy makingand implementationhappens in complexsocieties
  41. 41. Changes in governing(& planning)Emergence of a particular style ofgoverning where there must besustained co-ordination andcoherence among a wide variety ofactors with different purposes andobjectives from all sectors ofsociety.Papadopoulos, 2007
  42. 42. Multilevel governance‘Involves a large numberof decision-makingarenas, differentiatedalong both functional andterritorial lines andinterlinked in a non-hierarchical way’Eberlein and Kerwer, 2004
  43. 43. Network governancePolicy-making and implementation is‘shared’ bypoliticians, technocrats, experts,dedicated agencies, authorities, semiprivate and private companies, thepublic, NGOs, etcwhich constitute NETWORKS of policyand decision making across levels,territories, mandates
  44. 44. The rise of the cityregion as a relevant unitfor planning
  45. 45. RandstadSources: http://vervoersplanoloog.blogspot.nl/ and http://www.randarchief.blogspot.nl
  46. 46. BosWashSource: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Boswash.png
  47. 47. Pearl River Delta
  48. 48. Rhur Valley
  49. 49. These new kinds of citiespresent new challengesfor spatial planners
  50. 50. Planning happens inmuch more complex sociopolitical arenas
  51. 51. Our case: Sao PauloOur case: Sao Paulo
  52. 52. Sao Paulo in South AmericaPacificA m a z o nB a s i nnsMato GrossoPlateauAndesMountai nsAtacamaDesertampasMacapaAntofagastaAricaConcepcionIquiqueValparaisoCucutaMituPunoTalaraBahiaBlancaMendozaResistenciaSaltaSan MiguelDe TucumanSanRafaelSan SalvadorDe JujuyTarijaAracajuBoa VistaCampoGrandeCuiabaImperatrizPorto VelhoRioBrancoSantaremTarauacaTeresinaPastoApoteriBluefieldsConcepcionC. OviedoArequipaAyacuchoCerro De PascoCocamaCuzcoHuanucoIcaIquitosOrellanaSullanaTacnaDuraznoPaysanduTacuaremboCiudad BolivarMaturinPuertoAyacuchoSan CristobalFoz Do IguacuPuertoCabezasBarquisimetoBrazilArgentinaUruguayParaguayBoliviaPeruChileEcuadorColombiaVenezuelaGuianaSurinameFrench Guiana> than 10 million inh.(megalopolis)> than 5 million inh.(continental metropolis)> than 3 million inh.(metropolis)> than 1 million inh.(big city)São Paulo > than 18 million inh.BogotaMedellinLimaCaliMaracaiboCaracasBelemSao Luis FortalezaRecifeSalvadorGoianiaBelo HorizonteRio de JaneiroSão PauloCuritibaBuenos AiresMontevideoFlorianopolisPorto AlegreManausBrasiliaVitoriaSantosCampinasNatalMaceioJoinvilleCordobaRosarioSantiagoLa PazSanta CruzAsuncionBarranquillaQuitoGuayaquilValenciaCallao
  53. 53. Please,click for movie
  54. 54. Sao Paulo is a divided global cityin a fast growing developing countryWhat is Sao Paulo?
  55. 55. Issues of spatial justice,redistribution and equallife chances are are urgent
  56. 56. Sao Paulo is this
  57. 57. But also this...
  58. 58. Human DevelopmentCompared0 20kmNAnhangueraPerusJaraguaS.DomingosPiritubaFreguesiado OBrasilandiaLimaoCachoei-rinhaMandaquiCasaVerde SantanaTrememb eTucuruviJacanaVilaMedeirosVila MariaVilaGuilhermeCangaibaPenhaTatuapeCarraoBelemMoocaAgua RasaVila MatildeVilaFormosaErmelinoMatarazzoItaqueraPonte RasaArturAlvimCidade LiderParque doCarmoJoseBonifacioCidadeTiradentesGuaianasesLajeadoVila CurucaItaim PaulistaJardimHelenaSaoMiguelVila JacuiIguatemiSao RafaelSao MateusSapopopembaembaAricanduvaSao LucasVilaPruden teIpirangaSacomaCursinoJabaquaraCidadeAdemarPedreiraCidade D utraGrajauSocorroCamp oGrandeSanto AmaroParelheirosMarsilacJardim A ngelaJardimSao LuisCapaoRedondoCamp o LimpoVila AndradeVila SoniaMorumbiRaposo TavaresRio Pequeno ButantaJaguareVilaLeopoldinaLapaJaraguaAlto dePinheirosItaimBibiMoemaCamp oBeloSaudeVilaMarianaJardimPaulistaPinheirosPerdizesBarra FundaConsolacaoSantaCeciliaBelaVistaLib erdadeCambuciBrasPariBomRetiroSerepublicaNorwayNorwayIcelandIcelandAustraliaAustraliaSWEDENSWEDENNetherlandsJapanDenmarkFinlandFRanceAustriaAustriaNew ZealandgermanyspainspainHong kongHong kongsingaporesingaporeslovenias.KoreakyrgyztanDominican Rep.S. KoreaS.KOreaCypruscypruscypruscypruscypruscypruscyprusCzechRep.MaltaMALTAMALTAArgentinaArgentinaArgentinaArgentinaArgentinapolandpolandchilechileestoniaslovakiaqatarbahrainbahraincroatiacyprusuruguaylatviast kittsbahamasbahamasbahamasseychellesseychellescubacubacubamexicobulgariaPanamaPanamalybialybialybiaMalaysiaMalaysiaRussiamauritiusbosniaomanAlbaniathailandvenezuelasaudi arabiaukraineukraineukraineukraineperukazakhstanDominicanrepublicChinasri lankasri lankaturkeybulgariaSky high: SWEDENVery high: Spainhigh: Czech republicmoderately high: mexicoMedium: thailandMedium to low: kyrgystanHDI Human development index (2007(city of sao paulo districts compareddata source: PMSP and IBGE/PNUD 2007there are no districts that score less than 0.7, therefore no district with low HDIthe lowest HDI index belongs to marsilac (0.701
  59. 59. AnhangueraPerusJaraguaS.DomingosPiritubaFreguesiado OBrasilandiaLimaoCachoei-rinhaMandaquiCasaVerde SantanaTrememb eTucuruviJacanaVilaMedeirosVila MariaVilaGuilhermeCangaibaPenhaTatuapeCarraoBelemMoocaAgua RasaVila MatildeVilaFormosaErmelinoMatarazzoItaqueraPonte RasaArturAlvimCidade LiderParque doCarmoJoseBonifacioCidadeTiradentesGuaianasesLajeadoVila CurucaItaim PaulistaJardimHelenaSaoMiguelVila JacuiIguatemiSao RafaelSao MateusSapopopembaembaAricanduvaSao LucasVilaPruden teIpirangaSacomaCursinoJabaquaraCidadeAdemarPedreiraCidade D utraGrajauSocorroCamp oGrandeSanto AmaroParelheirosJardim A ngelaJardimSao LuisCapaoRedondoCamp o LimpoVila AndradeVila SoniaMorumbiRaposo TavaresRio Pequeno ButantaJaguareVilaLeopoldinaLapaJaraguaAlto dePinheirosItaimBibiMoemaCamp oBeloSaudeVilaMarianaJardimPaulistaPinheirosPerdizesBarra FundaConsolacaoSantaCeciliaBelaVistaLib erdadeCambuciBrasPariBomRetiroSerepublicaNorwayNorwayIcelandIcelandAustraliaAustraliaSWEDENSWEDENNetherlandsJapanDenmarkFinlandFRanceAustriaAustriaNew ZealandgermanyspainspainHong kongHong kongsingaporesingaporeslovenias.KoreaDominican Rep.S. KoreaS.KOreaCypruscypruscypruscypruscypruscypruscyprusCzechRep.MaltaMALTAMALTAArgentinaArgentinaArgentinaArgentinaArgentinapolandpolandchilechileestoniaslovakiaqatarbahrainbahraincroatiacyprusuruguaylatviast kittsbahamasbahamasbahamasseychellesseychellescubacubacubamexicobulgariaPanamaPanamalybialybialybiaMalaysiaMalaysiaRussiamauritiusbosniaomanAlbaniathailandvenezuela ukraineukraineukraineukraineperukazakhstanDominicanrepublicChinasri lankasri lankaturkeybulgariaSky high: SWEDENVery high: Spainhigh: Czech republicmoderately high: mexicoMedium: thailandMedium to low: kyrgystan
  60. 60. Avenida Paulista: one of 5 main business districts
  61. 61. Marginal Pinheiros: The newest and biggest CBD
  62. 62. An extended metropolitan complex with 5contiguous metropolitan areas27.6 million
  63. 63. The metropolitan area19.8 million
  64. 64. The metropolitan areaThe municipality11.2 million
  65. 65. Main municipalities in the Expanded Metropolitan ComplexOther municipalities in the Expanded Metropolitan ComplexOther municipalities in the State of Sao PauloMain highwayRegional highwayViracopos AirportSorocaba AirportCongonhas AirportCampo de Marte AirportSao Paulo International AirportErnesto Stumpf AirpotPort of Santos11.Alto Paraiba5.Paraiba Macro- Axis13.Mantiqueira10.Bocaina14.Litoral Norte3.Santos1.Core 2.MASP4.Campinas6.Sorocaba7.Jundiai8.Bragantina9.Sao Roque12.Water Sources CircuitSantosSao RoqueJundiaiCampinasSorocabaSao Jose dos CamposMultilevel governance in emerging city-regions
  66. 66. Multilevel governance in emerging city-regions0 15 30 45 km1:1 500 0001 CM = 15 KM11.Alto Paraiba5.Paraiba Macro- Axis13.Mantiqueira10.Bocaina14.Litoral Norte3.Santos1.Core 2.MASP4.Campinas6.Sorocaba7.Jundiai8.Bragantina9.Sao Roque12.Water Sources CircuitSantosSao RoqueJundiaiCampinasSorocabaSao Jose dos Campos1.Core Municipality2.Greater Sao Paulo (MASP)3.Metropolitan Santos4.Metropolitan Campinas5.Paraiba Macro Axis Proto Metropolis6.Sorocaba Proto Metropolis7.Jundiai Peri-Metropolitan Regional Unit8.Bragantina Peri-Metro Regional Unit9.Sao Roque Peri-Metro Regional Unit10.Bocaina Peri-Metro Regional Unit12.The Water Circuit Homogeneous Outer Metro Unit13.Mantiqueira Homogeneous Outer Metro Unit14.Litoral Norte Homogeneous Outer Metro Unit11.Alto Paraiba Peri-Metro Regional UnitMain unit urban nodeOther important urban nodeAirportCore: 11.3 million (31 sub-municipalities)Metro: 19.9 million (39 municipalities)Macro-metro: 27.6 million (95 municipalities)
  67. 67. 175 kmPhotobySãoPaulo,Brazil,atNighNASAEarthObservatorycity-region in amiddle-incomecountry
  68. 68. Areas where multi-levelnetworked governance isrequired
  69. 69. + 928 local bus lines on core municipalityMetropolitan mobilitySaoPauloCompnhiaMetropolitanadeTransportes
  70. 70. Water and wastemanagementSource: Google EarthInformal development around one of Sao Paulo’s waterreservoirs
  71. 71. Large Regional InfrastructureSource: Google EarthCongonhas: the busiest airport in South America andits integration in the city
  72. 72. Large Regional InfrastructureSource: http://upgradesemanal.blogspot.nl/2011/04/trem-bala-no-brasil.htmlThe route of the proposed speed train between Rio deJaneiro and the city of Campinas
  73. 73. Environmental protection andmanagementSource: Google EarthThe new external ring road of Sao Paulo crossing thewater reservoirs of the city and large parts of theAtlantic Forest
  74. 74. Who plans the region?The State of Sao PauloSecretary of Metropolitan DevelopmentState System of Metropolitan DevelopmentChamber of Metropolitan Development
  75. 75. Ministry of Cities: The Statute of Cities+Ministry of Planning and DevelopmentSecretary of MetropolitanDevelopment (+EMPLASA)95 municipalities of Macro-metropolis + 5metropolitan councils+ sectorial enterprises
  76. 76. Main partnerEMPLASA: Paulista Enterprise forMetropolitan Planninghttp://www.emplasa.sp.gov.br/
  77. 77. Main tasksInstitutional organisationCoordination and feasibilityPlanning foundationsTerritorial PlanningCoordination of Regional Projects
  78. 78. Integrated waterresources managementPerhaps the most urgent regionalgovernance challenge is themanagement ofwaterresources
  79. 79. Water management :organisecd in river basincommitteesSource: Google Earth
  80. 80. Governance (normative)PrivateSectorCivilSocietyPublicSectorPositive tension: checks and balances
  81. 81. Alto Tiete River Basin CommitteeRiver BasinCommittee PlenaryExecutiveBoardTechnicalCommitteesAreaSubcommitteesStateCitiesCivilSociety
  82. 82. CivilSociety
  83. 83. Composition of the River Water basinCommittee Plenary16 municipalities representatives16 State agencies or departments16 Civil Society representatives
  84. 84. Civil Society?Slum Federation of the State of SaoPaulo >Industry Federation of the State ofSao Paulo
  85. 85. FeaturesA literal translation of the governancemodel, with integral participation ofstakeholders (including the privateinitiative) in the decision makingprocess, but...lack of integration with active spatial planning
  86. 86. Metropolitanmobility andconnectivity
  87. 87. Main problems in regionalplanning and design1. GOVERNANCEa. excessive sectorialization: lack ofintegration of policiesb. lack of transparence andaccountabilityc. too many levels of decisionmaking + too many administrativeunits: bureaucratic nightmares
  88. 88. Main problems in regionalplanning and design2. LACK OF REGIONAL STRATEGICVISIONReactive planning rather than activeplanningThe regions develops faster thanplanners can plan it
  89. 89. Policy formulation and implementationNetworks involving:• public actors (politicians andadministrators) in different decision levels• technocrats• economic agents• interest representatives (civil + corporate)• other stakeholders• experts (e.g. planners)
  90. 90. New forms of steering complex governancenetworksDeliberationBargainingCompromise-seeking
  91. 91. Thanks for listening!Questions?
  92. 92. This presentation is available atwww.issuu.com/robertoroccoPrepared by Roberto RoccoChair of Spatial Planning and Strategy,TU Delftfor information, please contact r.c.rocco@tudelft.nl

×