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Evaluation criteria for Urbanism based on Sustainability and Spatial Justice

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What if we could evaluate projects, plans and designs using an enhanced concept of sustainability? “For sustainability to occur, it must occur simultaneously in each of its three dimensions” (economic, social and environmental) Larsen, 2012. These three crucial and necessary dimensions of sustainability are, each of them, connected to big traditions of study and analysis that must be integrated. My claim here is that this enhanced concept of sustainability help us derive solid criteria to evaluate plans, project and designs in Urbanism through the idea of Spatial Justice, and to connect this evaluation to larger academic traditions.

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Evaluation criteria for Urbanism based on Sustainability and Spatial Justice

  1. 1. Evaluating projects and designs through essential dimensions of SUSTAINABILITY and SPATIAL JUSTICE Prepared by Roberto Rocco Chair Spatial Planning and Strategy Delft University of Technology U URBANISM Complex Cities SpatialPlanning&Strategy@DelftUniversityofTechnology https://complexcitiesstudio.wordpress.com SpatialPlanning &Strategy
  2. 2. URBANISM Delft University of Technology UURBANISM
  3. 3. aesthetic /function technique process
  4. 4. Consolidation of objectives of Urbanism around the notion of sustainability Image source: Sarah Cass at sarahcass.blogspot.com
  5. 5. ‘Enhanced’ Sustainability • “For sustainability to occur, it must occur simultaneously in each of its three dimensions” (economic, social and environmental) Larsen, 2012 sustainability social economic environmental
  6. 6. IF WE WANT PROJECTS TO BE ‘SUSTAINABLE’ AND ‘FAIR’, WE NEED TO DISCUSS ETHICAL DIMENSION •Related to questions of right and wrong, just and unjust actions •Consequences for others than the agent •Related to ethical norms, values and rules
  7. 7. SOCIAL ECONOMIC LET’S GO BACK TO THE DIMENSIONS OF SUSTAINABILITY ENVIRONMENTAL PEOPLE PROFIT* PLANET
  8. 8. PUBLIC SECTOR PRIVATE SECTOR CIVIL SOCIETY GOVERNANCE (WHO DOES WHAT ?)
  9. 9. A REDEFINITION OF THE ROLES AND CAPABILITIES OF PLANNERS AND DESIGNERS managers articulators negotiators facilitators directors process designers There are a variety of new roles you can have as a planner and designer of the built environment
  10. 10. But in order to be able to find your role you need to answer the question WHY do we plan and WHY do we design?
  11. 11. the elaboration of visions and directions for sustainable and fair futures Burnham Place at Union Station Master Plan; Washington, D.C. (Image: Akridge & SBA)
  12. 12. Increased public goods Aerial view of the winning design for the European Spallation Source (ESS) by Henning Larsen Architects, COBE and SLA (Image: Henning Larsen Architects)
  13. 13. Redistribution of gains http://roarmag.org/2011/11/what-the-99-want-all-power-to-the-peoples-assemblies/
  14. 14. Increased life chances and prosperity
  15. 15. Urban planners and designers are no longer the all powerful figures they once thought they were. We have moved away from ideas like the ideal city
  16. 16. The main task for urban planners and designers is to act as articulators of spatial visions and solutions for a sustainable and fair future Foster + Partners, Duisburg City Masterplan, Duisburg, Germany, 2007. The new masterplan for the inner city of Duisburg builds on the success of Foster + Partners’ Inner Harbour redevelopment and will strengthen Duisburg’s transformation into a vibrant, green and sustainable city. Available at: http://www.fosterandpartners.com/Projects/1443/Default.aspx 

  17. 17. They do that by understanding human activity on space and by proposing interventions that might improve existing conditions James Bell: Visualising Social Space, All rights reserved by jamvlog. Available at Flickr
  18. 18. http://www.beyondsims.com/44663/new-simcity-screenshot-2/ Urbanists (or architects) don’t ‘make’ cities. They are part of a network of actors who build cities.
  19. 19. But how do we get there? How do we know we are in the right direction?
  20. 20. What are possible evaluation criteria derived from the 3 essential dimensions of sustainability?
  21. 21. Spatial Justice
  22. 22. Spatial Justice is a framework that enables ACTION to improve our cities and make them more liveable and socially sustainable.
  23. 23. Spatial Justice refers to the promotion of access to public goods, basic services, culture, economic opportunity and healthy environments through fair and inclusive spatial planning, design and management of urban and rural spaces and resources.
  24. 24. This has been guided by ideas like ‘The right to the city’ (Lefebvre, 1998, Harvey, 2008), ‘Spatial justice’ (Harvey, 2009, Soja, 2010) the ‘Just city’ (Fainstein, 2000) Spatial Justice
  25. 25. (Spatial) Justice+ (Social, Economic and Environmental) Sustainability + (Intervention/Design of) Governance We have some directions
  26. 26. but what is ‘justice’?
  27. 27. WHAT IS JUSTICE? It is all about the achievement of the principles of equity , fraternity and solidarity, understanding human rights, and recognizing the dignity of every human being. Source: http://www.buildingequality.leprosyblog.ca/2011/01/world-day-of-social- justice.html
  28. 28. JUSTICE Social Justice stems from the democratic principle that all are born equal and deserve EQUAL ACCESS TO OPPORTUNITY
  29. 29. JUSTICE KEY CONCEPTS •Human rights •Equality •Greater degree of economic egalitarianism through progressive taxation, income redistribution, and other democratic tools of redistribution.
  30. 30. AIMS OF SOCIAL JUSTICE •more equality of opportunity than may currently exist in some societies •equality of outcome in democratic societies
  31. 31. WHAT IS SPATIAL JUSTICE IN URBAN DEVELOPMENT? “To take no part in the running of the community's affairs is to be either a beast or a god!” Aristotle
  32. 32. WHAT IS SPATIAL JUSTICE IN URBAN DEVELOPMENT? “Cities have the capability of providing something for everybody only because, and only when, they are created by everybody” Jane Jacobs
  33. 33. WHERE DOES JUSTICE COME FROM? Ethics (moral philosophy) Law Natural law Religion Rationality
  34. 34. OPPORTUNITY AND SPACE •Because opportunity (‘life chances’) is specifically bound to space (location, accessibility, mobility) and •Because ‘who owns what’/ ‘who finances what’ is a big part of urban development, we need to democratically deal with redistribution of resources and spatial advantages in creative ways.
  35. 35. Is it fair/just? Does it promote redistribution? Is it environmentally friendly? Is it economically feasible? Does it promote prosperity? Does it enhance culture/ identity? Is it aesthetically pleasing? Does it promote democracy/participation?
  36. 36. Does it promote redistribution and spatial justice? kiddingthecity.org by Paolo Cardullo is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
  37. 37. Is it environmentally friendly? Does it promote effective and durable use of resources? Image source: http://techandscience.com/techblog/ShowArticle.aspx?ID=108
  38. 38. Does it promote economic prosperity? Image source: http://www.dallaschamber.org/index.aspx?id=strategicplan
  39. 39. Does it create public goods?
  40. 40. Does it avoid or reduce negative externalities?
  41. 41. CALCUTTA HAS BANNED BIKES IN THE CENTRE OF THE CITY BECAUSE THEY HINDER TRAFFIC
  42. 42. MEDELLIN HAS INSTALLED CABLE CARS IN SLUMS •
  43. 43. NIGERIA IS BUILDING A NEW CITY OUTSIDE OF LAGOS
  44. 44. IF YOU HAVE SPARE ROOMS IN SOCIAL HOUSING IN ENGLAND, YOU ARE NOT ENTITLED TO HAVE SOME BENEFITS
  45. 45. MUMBAI IS BUILDING SOCIAL HOUSING IN EXCHANGE FOR LAND FOR DEVELOPMENT
  46. 46. RAPID ECONOMIC GROWTH ALLOWS CHINESE FAMILIES TO OWN CARS
  47. 47. The municipality of Sao Paulo supports the occupation of empty buildings in the centre of the city by homeless people
  48. 48. CURITIBA REDESIGNS AVENUES FOR PUBLIC TRANSPORT AND TAKES AWAY SPACE FOR PRIVATE CARS
  49. 49. Some examples 1/2 Lynch’ performance dimensions in Good City Form: vitality, sense, fit, access, control, efficiency, justice Criteria in the Netzstadt-model: identification, diversity, flexibility, degree of self-sufficiency, resource efficiency New Urbanism: walkability, connectivity, mixed-use & diversity, mixed housing, quality architecture & urban design, traditional neighbourhood structure, increased density, green transportation, sustainability, quality of life (www.newurbanism.org) Lynch, K. 1981. A theory of good city form, Cambridge, Mass., MIT Press. Oswald, F., Baccini, P. & Michaeli, M. 2003. Netzstadt : designing the urban, Basel ; Boston, Birkhäuser
  50. 50. Carmona, M., Heath, T., Taner, O. & Tiesdell, S. 2010. Public Places - Urban Spaces: the dimensions of Urban Design - 2nd Edition, Amsterdam, Architectural Press. Some examples 2/2
  51. 51. www.spatialjustice.net
  52. 52. Thanks for watching & listening! Should you have any doubts, please contact Roberto Rocco, Department of Urbanism, TU Delft r.c.rocco@tudelft.nl Challenge(the(future SpatialPlanning &Strategy

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