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A New Urban Agenda in Times of Financial Capitalism

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Keynote presentation by Roberto Rocco at the LANDAC Conference (Land Governance for Equitable and Sustainable Development), Muntgebouw, Utrecht, June 30 2016.

The 2016 LANDac Annual International Land Conference ‘Land governance in the context of urbanisation and climate change: Linking the rural and the urban’ will take place on Thursday 30 June and Friday 1 July in Utrecht, the Netherlands (Muntgebouw). The conference builds on the success of the 2015 International Conference in which LANDac brought together stakeholders from around the world, from a variety of backgrounds. The 2016 conference focuses on topics related to rural-urban land governance and climate change. For more information, visit http://www.landgovernance.org

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A New Urban Agenda in Times of Financial Capitalism

  1. 1. SpatialPlanning &StrategyU URBANISM Delft University of Technology Land Governance for Equitable and Sustainable Development Conference A New Urban Agenda in times of financial capitalism
  2. 2. Cities are cultural artefacts and they embody livelihoods and economies
  3. 3. Cities are cultural artefacts and they embody livelihoods and economies
  4. 4. The association of the production of urban space and capitalism
  5. 5. The association of the production of urban space and capitalism
  6. 6. The association of the production of urban space and capitalism
  7. 7. The association of the production of urban space and capitalism
  8. 8. Lefebvre and then Harvey: The Urbanisation of Capital
  9. 9. Las Vegas
  10. 10. The Dutch version of suburbanisation: home ownership as a mechanism to promote growth and prosperity (don’t forget the Netherlands is a very particular type of entrepreneurial welfare state!)
  11. 11. VINEX: the updated suburban dream (compact, connected to public transportation)
  12. 12. But there are more spectacular embodiments of the financialisation of urban space Dubai
  13. 13. Hong Kong
  14. 14. Pudong
  15. 15. Sao Paulo: global city in the semi-periphery of capitalism
  16. 16. Houses and offices need to be furnished
  17. 17. Infrastructure needs to be built to connect suburbs and new corporate centralities
  18. 18. and cars need to be bought but there are limits to real estate speculation
  19. 19. Thai 1997 Crisis: ‘Monuments to Speculators’
  20. 20. Spanish 2008 Real Estate Bubble: ‘The Cities That Never Were’
  21. 21. United States Subprime Mortgage Crisis ‘House of Cards’
  22. 22. The Big Short
  23. 23. Chinese Ghost Cities the next chapter
  24. 24. Chinese Ghost Cities
  25. 25. Meanwhile
  26. 26. Favela Paraisopolis, Sao Paulo, Brazil Brazil: 100 million new urban dwellers in the post-war alone!
  27. 27. Favela da Rocinha, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Complementarity of formal and informal INSIDE THE SAME LOGIC OF PRODUCTION OF URBAN SPACE: RIGHTS DEFICIT
  28. 28. Torre David, Caracas , Venezuela
  29. 29. Petare Slum, Caracas Venezuela
  30. 30. Slum in Jakarta, Indonesia (c. 2000)
  31. 31. Slum in Haiti after 2010 earthquake
  32. 32. globalisation
  33. 33. globalisation of production means that countries all over the word are inserted in production chains that promote some sort of ‘subordinate’, incomplete or defective modernisation in the periphery of capitalism
  34. 34. Subordinate modernisation has triggered unchecked rural to urban migration
  35. 35. This happens (mostly) in weak institutional contexts , where the rule of law is defective and there is a deficit in civil rights
  36. 36. Exclusive urbanisation
  37. 37. Urban exclusion is not the result of poverty (only). It is the result of complex ecosystems of world production in which some countries or regions have a subordinate role, with some groups of people taking the blunt of the prevailing unequal distributions of gains
  38. 38. SaoPaulo Poor official responses
  39. 39. ‘Minha casa minha vida’ federal programme Poor official responses
  40. 40. Mexico Poor official responses
  41. 41. Mumbai Poor official responses
  42. 42. SaoPaulo Poor official responses
  43. 43. socially environmentally economically unsustainable
  44. 44. Sustainable urbanisation is key to successful development (…) “ If well managed, cities offer important opportunities for economic development and for expanding access to basic services, including health care and education, for large numbers of people. Providing public transportation, as well as housing, electricity, water and sanitation for a densely settled urban population is typically cheaper and less environmentally damaging than providing a similar level of services to a dispersed rural population”. Source: http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/news/population/world-urbanization-prospects-2014.html
  45. 45. Planning Urgencies in Latin American Cities
  46. 46. 1. How to bridge the social=spatial divide that characterises the capitalist city? Source: Instituto Pereira Passos, http://portalgeo.rio.rj.gov.br
  47. 47. 2.How to integrate millions (billions?) of new city dwellers while respecting citizens’ ‘right to the city’?
  48. 48. 3.How to harmonise urgent environmental issues (climate change) with social needs?
  49. 49. 4.Howtopreservethesocialfunctionofpropertyinfaceof savageunregulatedrealestatemarket?
  50. 50. 51 5. How to harmonise housing, liveability and sustainability in explosively growing cities in weak governance environments 24
  51. 51. 52 6. How to improve the quality of city management and promote good and fair governance 27
  52. 52. 53 7. How to promote fair access, use, regulation, and taxation of urban land 25 Urban Reform?
  53. 53. 54 25 How to promote urban reform without fundamentally changing the way we deal with urban land and urban property in the city produced by financial capitalism ?
  54. 54. Any questions?

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