1. Major contributions of F. W. Taylor and Henry Fayol to theDevelopment of Management.Answer:                            ...
 He identified the causes for losses in productivity as:1 The ignorance of employers and workmen about what a proper time...
Contribution of Hanry FayolFayol’s Biography (1841-1925)Henri Fayol, a French industrialist is regarded as the founder of ...
Communication should go along this chain. To avoid delays, cross communications canbe allowed if agreed by all involved pa...
 Here’s a table is given to show the contribution of F.W. Taylor and Hanry Fayolat a glance;Name and Major work          ...
2. Elton Mayo & the major phases of Hawthorne Studies.Elton Mayo’s Biography (1880-1949)Elton Mayo was born in 1880 in Ade...
The Hawthorne StudiesThese Studies were conducted during 1924-1932. The initial objective was to study theeffect of illumi...
 Second Relay Assembly Group:The researcher was devised to re-test some other factors on other groups. For testing theeff...
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A study on management

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Mohammad Robiul Alam
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A study on management

  1. 1. 1. Major contributions of F. W. Taylor and Henry Fayol to theDevelopment of Management.Answer: Contribution of F.W. TaylorTaylor’s Biography (1856-1915)Frederick Taylor is known as the "father of scientific management." Taylor began workat the age of 18 as an apprentice to a pattern maker, and as a machinist. He later joinedthe Midvale Steel Company as a laborer rising in eight years to chief engineer. Duringthis period at the steel mill, he performed exhaustive experiments on worker productivity,and tested what he called the "task system," later developing into the Taylor System,and eventually progressing into scientific management. His experiments involveddetermining the best way of performing each work operation, the time it required,materials needed, and the work sequence. He sought to establish a clear division of laborbetween management and employees.Taylors task management methodology rests on a fundamental belief that management,the entrepreneurs in Taylors day, were not only superior intellectually to the averageemployee, but had a positive duty to supervise them and organize their work activities toeliminate what Taylor called "the natural tendency of workers to soldier" on the job.In 1911, a paper Taylor originally prepared for presentation to the American Society ofMechanical Engineers was published as The Principles of Scientific Management.Taylor positioned scientific management as the best management approach for achievingproductivity increases. It rested on the managers superior ability and responsibility toapply systematic knowledge to the organizational work setting. Key thoughtsTaylor saw that enormous amounts of resources, both material and human, weredilapidated through sub-optimum usage. He thought that replacing rule-of-thumb withscientifically developed methods and promoting cooperation between labor andmanagement, those productivity losses could be overcome, and at the same time thehighest degree of prosperity for employer, employees and society obtained.He maintained that “The principal object of management should be to secure themaximum prosperity for the employer coupled with the maximum prosperity for theemployees”. Those highest wages and highest profits would only be obtained at the peakproductivity of men and machines. The four necessary conditions for achievingmaximum productivity were “a large daily task, standard conditions, pay for success andloss in case of failure”.He also pointed out that the principal recipients of the lower production costs achievedwhen working at maximum efficiency were the general public, profiting from thereduction of prices and widespread affordability of goods. A Study of Mohammad Robiul Alam 1
  2. 2.  He identified the causes for losses in productivity as:1 The ignorance of employers and workmen about what a proper time for doing aspecific job is.2 The indifference of the employers and their ignorance as to the proper system ofmanagement to use, and furthermore their indifference as to the individual character oftheir men.He further stated four general principles upon which a scientific management systemshould be built:1. develop a science for each element of an individual’s work, which is to replacethe old rule-of-thumb judgment.2. scientifically select and then train and develop the worker3. heartily cooperate with the workers as to assure that the work is continuously beingdone in accordance to the scientific principles under it was designed.4. divide equally the burden of work, leaving the actual work to the men and giving themanagement the responsibility for most other tasks.As for the first principle, the management would first gather all the information about thebest current practice for a particular job, by the observation of the very best men in thespecialty. Then reduce every single job into components, then analyze for each of themthe best possible way, with least waste in motion and time, and lastly rearrange the piecesinto an optimum work sequence. The resultant optimized job would yield the maximumefficiency, since it had been stripped out of unnecessary movements and it would beperformed in the least possible time. Tools, jigs and aids should be redesigned in order tobe congruent with an optimum efficacy. This has been called “time and motion study”,and is often unfairly viewed as the only thing the Taylor system is about. A Study of Mohammad Robiul Alam 2
  3. 3. Contribution of Hanry FayolFayol’s Biography (1841-1925)Henri Fayol, a French industrialist is regarded as the founder of the classical school andmodern management in general. He developed the framework for the study ofmanagement, as he was the first to investigate into managerial behavior and provided asystematic approach to management study. Fayol believed that such a formal, systematicand organized approach to management, combined with scientific forecasting was boundto yield positive results for the organization. Fayol worked on organization structure fromthe top down and developed the first rational approach to the organization of anenterprise. Henri Fayols management theory is a simple model of how managementinteracts with personnel. Fayols management theory covers concepts in a broad way, soalmost any business can apply his theory of management. Henri Fayol laid down thefoundation for further works in the development of management. His contributions aregenerally referred to as Administrative Management. He also established his 14 Principles of Management, which are discussed below;1. Division of work. Output can be increased by specialization, making employees more efficient.2. Authority. The right or power to give orders to subordinates is authority. Wherever authority exists, responsibility arises.3. Discipline. Employees must obey the organizational rules. Good discipline must result from an agreement between firm and employees with fairness and clear understanding of both sides. Penalties can be applied to violations of rule.4. Unity of Command. Each subordinate should receive orders from one superior.5. Unity of Direction. Organizational activities that have the same objective should be guided by one manager, using one plan.6. Subordination of individual Interests to the General Interest. The interests of one employee (or group of employees) should not precede over the interests of the organization as a whole.7. Remuneration. Employees must be paid a fair wage. Rewards should be used as a tool of encouragement.8. Centralization. The degree to which subordinates are involved in decision-making. Whether the decision is centralized or decentralized is a question of proportion.9. Scalar Chain. The line of authority from top to the lowest ranks of management. A Study of Mohammad Robiul Alam 3
  4. 4. Communication should go along this chain. To avoid delays, cross communications canbe allowed if agreed by all involved parties.10. Order. Materials and people should be in right place at right time.11. Equity. Managers should be kind and fair to their subordinates12. Stability of Tenure of Personnel. High employee turnover causes inefficiency. Managers should ensure replacements at hand when vacancies arise.13. Initiative. The power of thinking out, proposing and executing. Management should encourage employees to originate and carry out plans. This urging tends to boost levels of effort.14. Esprit de Corps. Fostering team spirit is the way to construct harmony and unity among employees.Faylor’s General and Industrial Management was a singular and significantcontribution to management thought in that it presented three (3) revolutionary aspectshighly important to the development of management. The concept that management has a separate body of knowledge is applicable to theform of group activity – The University of Management A first complete and comprehensive theory of management which could applied to allendeavors. The concept of teaching and developing management curricula in colleges anduniversities. A Study of Mohammad Robiul Alam 4
  5. 5.  Here’s a table is given to show the contribution of F.W. Taylor and Hanry Fayolat a glance;Name and Major work Major contribution to managementFederic Winslow Taylor Scientific Management(U.S. Engineer), 1856-1915 Shop Management Acknowledge as the father of Principles of Scientific Management Scientific Management, his primary Work with Bottom-Up approach concern was to increase productivity through greater efficiency in production and increase pay for the workers through the application of scientific methodHenry Fayol Modern Operational Management(French Industrialist), 1841-1925 Theory Work with Top-Down approach Referred to as the father of “Modern Management Theory” Technic Comme He divided industrial activities into six al rcial groups : Technical, Commercial, Financial, Security, Accounting, Managerial. Manage Financi rial al Accoun Securit ting y A Study of Mohammad Robiul Alam 5
  6. 6. 2. Elton Mayo & the major phases of Hawthorne Studies.Elton Mayo’s Biography (1880-1949)Elton Mayo was born in 1880 in Adelaide of Australia, in a middle class family. Hegraduated from Adelaide University and became a teacher in logics, ethics, andphilosophy. Later on he studied on medicine in Edinburgh, Scotland In 1922 he went tothe United States. He was feed up too much vocational educational system of Australia.In U.S.A. he joined a research position at the Wharton Business School, in the Universityof Pennsylvania. He was recruited in the industrial research pogramme of the graduateSchool of Business at Harvard University, in 1926. Here Mayo became interested inclassical sociology, social anthropology and human factor studies. Elton Mayo is one of the pioneers of the human relations movement, and created theconcept of “social man”. By using scientific methods, Mayo carried out his famousHawthorne studies at the Hawthorne Plants of the Western Electric Company inChicago. The conclusion from the Hawthorne experiments is that employee performanceincreased where:• Workers had good relationship within themselves and with management• Workers worked in groups, rather than working on their own• There was recognition for the good work that they do.Elton Mayo and his colleagues are known as human relations theorists.A more detailed discussion of Mayo’s research can be found in the chapter on Motivationand Job satisfaction.His two great books are;  Human problems of an Industrial Civilization  The Social Problems of an Industrial Civilization A Study of Mohammad Robiul Alam 6
  7. 7. The Hawthorne StudiesThese Studies were conducted during 1924-1932. The initial objective was to study theeffect of illumination on output. The research project was sponsored by “NationalResearch Council” and was initiated in November 1924 at the Hawthorne works of the“Western Electric Company” near Cicero, Illinois.There were four (4) major phases of this study; The illumination Experiment Relay Assembly Test Room Massive Interviewing Programme Bank Wiring Observation Room Illumination Experiment (1924-1927)This was an orthodox experiment. The influence of illumination upon the levels andmaintenance of output were observed. The experiments were conducted on two groups ofoperatives. For one group, variations in intensity of lighting were made periodically.Incase of the second group, the lighting was not changed and was kept constantthroughout the experiment. Surprisingly the output of both the groups increased steadily.It was concluded that, the cause of increased output must be found elsewhere. Lightingwas only a factor affecting output. Relay Assembly Test Room (1927-1932)The relay assembly test was conducted into three steps, which were elaborated below; First Relay Assembly Test Room :In this experiment six woman operatives were placed in a separate test room. Beforeseparating this group of six, their output of relays (switch board components) weremeasured and recorded secretly. They told to work in natural way in the test room and inbriefing meeting with research team they were allowed to comment freely about thearrangement. An observer for ensuring the girls attitude to the it was also posted in thetest room.After this, rest pauses of varying duration, shorter hours of work, shorter working week,free snacks and other changes were introduced. During twelfth period all privileges weretemporarily withdrawn however in the thirteenth these were restored. It was found thatduring all this periods the hourly rate of output increased. A Study of Mohammad Robiul Alam 7
  8. 8.  Second Relay Assembly Group:The researcher was devised to re-test some other factors on other groups. For testing theeffects of incentives, five experienced relay men were selected and were allowed to workwhere they were working,During the nine weeks there was 13 percent increased in output on average per person. The Mica Splitting Group :This experiment as a matter of fact, had started three months before the above experimentand continued even after the conclusion of the second relay assembly group. Again agroup of five girls were placed in the other test room. They were expose to changes inworking conditions. Over a period of two years changes were introduced in the workingconditions five times. Massive Interviewing Programme : (1928-1930)This programme was undertaken as a plan for improving supervision. The interviewerswere more or less structured. Eighty topics were selected and replies on these on thesetopics were analyzed, which reflected the nature of attitudes of respondents towards theseeighty topics. It was found that the male workers were more economically oriented thanthe female workers.Important discoveries were made about the attitudes of various employees. It was foundthat at this stage of enquiry that “Many problems of worker- management co-operationwere the result of the emotionally based attitudes of the workers rather than the objectivedifficulties in the situations” The Bank Wiring Observation Group : (1931-1932)In this group there were fourteen men, including nine wiremen, three soldier men and twoinspectors. They all were paid on group basis. They were working well according to, theircapabilities. This stage of enquiry is known as bank wiring observation room studies.It was found that the workers group had standard for output of their own and they stuckto this standard. Workers were indifferent towards the company’s financial incentivescheme. It was highly integrated cohesive group. There was solidarity among theworkers. The solidarity was directed against management. The workers believe in neithertoo much work or too less work. Mayo concluded that the informal social groupingplayed a significant role in determining the level of output. A Study of Mohammad Robiul Alam 8

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