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Chapters 59 60


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Chapters 59 60

  1. 1. Geisler, Norman Systematic Theology II PPt by Mark E. Hargrove, PhD, DMin
  2. 2. Geisler, Norman Systematic Theology II Chapter 59 “The Origin of Salvation”
  3. 3. Biblical Basis for Salvation The Origin of God’s Decrees That the origin of salvation is God’s will is revealed through God’s decrees: Salvation is of the Lord (Jonah 2:9) Salvation originated in God’s decision to save us (Eph. 1:5).
  4. 4. Biblical Basis for Salvation Election according to God’s Foreknowledge Peter spoke of the “elect according to the foreknowledge of God the Father” (1 Peter 1:2). If God chooses to create moral creatures, then He must act consistently with His unchanging nature of love and justice and with the freedom He chose to give His creatures.
  5. 5. Biblical Basis for Salvation The Condition for Giving vs. Receiving The conditions God gave to save free moral agents must be in accordance with the freedom He gave them. Therefore there is no condition for God’s giving salvation, but there is one (and only one) condition for receiving the gift of eternal life: faith (Acts 16:31; Rom. 4:5; Eph. 2:8-9).
  6. 6. Biblical Basis for Salvation The Nature of God’s Decrees • The Nature of Grace: Unmerited Favour (Rom. 6:23) • The Object of Grace: Repentant Sinner (Eph. 2:8) • The Revelation of Grace and Wrath (the rejection of grace incurs wrath, and the acceptance of grace brings salvation).
  7. 7. The Order of God’s Decrees: Various Views Supralapsarianism 1. Elect some and reprobate others 2. Create both the elect and the non-elect 3. Permit the Fall 4. Provide salvation only for the elect 5. Apply salvation only to the elect
  8. 8. The Order of God’s Decrees: Various Views Infralapsarianism 1. Create all 2. Permit the Fall 3. Elect some and pass others by 4. Provide salvation only for the elect 5. Apply salvation only to the elect
  9. 9. The Order of God’s Decrees: Various Views Sublapsarianism 1. Create all 2. Permit the Fall 3. Provide salvation for all 4. Elect those who believe and pass those who don’t 5. Apply salvation only to believers (who cannot lose it.)
  10. 10. The Order of God’s Decrees: Various Views Wesleyanism 1. Create all 2. Permit the Fall 3. Provide salvation for all 4. Elect based on the foreseen faith of believers 5. Apply salvation only to believers (who can lose it.)
  11. 11. Geisler, Norman Systematic Theology II Chapter 60 “Theories of Salvation”
  12. 12. Theories of the Atonement The Recapitulation Theory of the Atonement As proposed by Irenaeus (c. 125-c. 202) is summed in this statement: The fully divine Christ become fully man in order to sum up all humanity in himself. What was lost through the disobedience of the fires dam was restored through the obedience of the second Adam. Christ when through all the stages of human life, resisted all temptations, died and arose a victor over death and the devil. [Hence,] all the benefits of Christ’s victory are available through participation in him. Irenaeus used Romans 5:18-21 to support this view.
  13. 13. Theories of the Atonement The Ransom Theory of the Atonement A view held by various church fathers, best articulated by Origen (c. 185-c. 254). This view proposes that Christ’s death was paid to Satan to purchase human beings, who were captive to sin. Mark 10:45 is used in support of this view. Origin wrote: “Now it was the devil that held us, to whose side we had been drawn away by our sins. He asked, therefore, as our price the blood of Christ” (CR, 2.3)
  14. 14. Theories of the Atonement The Moral-Example Theory of Atonement Pelagius (c. 354-c. 420) offered this view of atonement. According to this position, Christ’s death provided an example of faith and obedience that inspires others to be obedient to God. The exhortation of 1 Peter 2:21 is often used to support this view: To this you were called, because Christ suffered for you, leaving you an example, that you should follow in his steps.
  15. 15. Theories of the Atonement The Necessary-Satisfaction Theory of Atonement Anselm (1033-1109) offered this view of atonement. It affirms that it was necessary for God’s offended justice and honor be satisfied be a penalty only Christ could pay. Unlike Origen’s ransom theory, however, Anselm said that since God was offended, it was God who must be compensated. 1. Sin puts us in debt to God 2. God is just and cannot overlook sin 3. We cannot pay our own debt of sin. 4. God cannot forgive sins without the debt being paid. 5. Only the God-Man could pay the debt of sin.
  16. 16. Theories of the Atonement The Moral-Influence Theory of Atonement Peter Abelard (1079-1142) is credited with this theory. It holds that the primary effect of Christ’s death was as a demonstration of God’s great love for us. Abelard developed this theory in reaction to the necessary-satisfaction theory that some sort of payment to God was required.
  17. 17. Theories of the Atonement The Optimal-Satisfaction Theory of Atonement Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) offered is theory which allowed for but did not require satisfaction of God for the sinner. His argument is: (1) Christ’s passion caused God to be satisfied on behalf of our sins. (2) God could have forgiven us without Christ’s death. (3) However, there was no better or more fitting way to satisfy God than with the death of Christ. Aquinas argues that God is not an accountant, adding up our sins that must be paid for, but instead is a parent wanting to forgive us while also desiring to change us so that we will not choose evil again.
  18. 18. Theories of the Atonement The Substitution Theory of Atonement The roots of this theory are found in the ransom and the optimal-satisfaction theories. The substitution theory insists that satisfaction of God must be accomplished, but not just because God’s honor has been offended but also because His absolute justice has been violated, and therefore, a substitution for our sins had to be made by the sinless Son of God. John Calvin (1509-1564) is credited with giving expression to this view. He states: “God was the enemy of men until they were restored in favour by the death of Christ (Rom. 5:10); they were cursed until their iniquity was expiated by the sacrifice of Christ (Gal. 3:10).
  19. 19. Theories of the Atonement The Governmental Theory of Atonement Hugo Grotius (1583-1645) reacting to the moral-example view—which he felt lacked an emphasis upon God’s justice and holiness— formulated this theory. His argument is that in His holiness, God has established laws to which sin is in opposition. Grotius argued that any violation of these laws was a serious matter. The model follows this progression: God, as a sovereign ruler, has the right to punish sin, which is inherently deserving of punishment, but it is not mandatory that He do so. Love is God’s dominant attribute. He desires to forgive sins, but He wishes to do it in such a way as to maintain His moral government. Just as a creditor may cancel a debt is he chooses, God taking into account the best interest of humanity, sent Christ do die for our sins. The death of Christ was not a payment, but a substitute for the penalty. Christ’s sacrifice demonstrated that God’s justice will require us to suffer if we continue in sin.
  20. 20. Theories of the Atonement The Mystical Theory of Atonement Friedrich Schleiermacher (1768-1834) proposed that salvation is attained by a mystical union with Christ—in Him, the idea of humanity is fully realized. According to this theory, since Christ was the absolute unity of divinity an humanity, God became man that man bay become God. As “God-men,” the redeemed partake of the divine nature, or the life of Christ. Adherents to this theory believe that salvation is a mystical union with God in Christ (cf. Eph. 4:3-4). This theory alleges that there is no objective basis in any redemptive act of Christ on the cross that makes salvation possible.
  21. 21. Various Views of the Atonement Theories God’s Attribute Basic Goal Object Key Verses Propone nt Recapitu-lation Omni-potence Reverse the Fall Satan Romans 5:15-21 Irenaeus Ransom Wisdom Defeat Satan Satan Mark 10:45 Origen Moral- Love Show God’s Humanit Example love y Romans 5:8; 5:17- 19 Pelagius, Abelard Necessary- Satisfaction Majesty Pay the debt of sin God 1 John 2:1 Anselm Optimal- Satisfaction Mercy Restore the sinner Humanit y Luke 19:10 Aquinas Substitutio n Justice Appease wrath, release mercy God Isaiah 42:21 Calvin Govern-mental Sovereignt y Keep moral order God and humanity Isaiah 42:21 Grotius Mystical Oneness Unite us with Humanit Eph. 4:3-4; Schleier-macher