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Chapter 11

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Chapter 11

  1. 1. Revelation 11 Bi 622 Mark E. Hardgrove, Ph.D., D.Min., M.Div.
  2. 2. REVELATION CHAPTER 11
  3. 3. Chapters 11-13:The Four Views Historicist Approach: • The measuring of the temple represents the determining of the true remnant church in the midst of the papal church at the time of the Reformation. • The 1260 days is actually 1260 years, being the duration of the power of papal Rome.
  4. 4. Chapters 11-13:The Four Views Historicist Approach: • The two witnesses represent the Waldenses, Albigenses, and others who resisted the papacy in the years before the Reformation. • The woman is the visible church persecuted by imperial Rome prior to A. D. 313, and her male child is the true church within her, vindicated by the enthronement of Constantine. • The beasts each represent different aspects of the papacy.
  5. 5. Chapters 11-13:The Four Views Preterist Approach: • The 1260 days is the period of the Jewish War, of Nero’s persecution, or both. • The two witnesses are either historic prophetic witnesses against the Jews prior to the downfall of Jerusalem or a representation of the civil and religious authority of Israel.
  6. 6. Chapters 11-13:The Four Views Preterist Approach: • The woman (Israel), gives birth to a child (the church), which flees Jerusalem (during the Jewish War) and is afterward persecuted by the devil. • The first beast is Rome (or possibly Nero, or both), persecuting the church. • The second beast is either the cult of emperor worship, some zealous Roman procurator, or false prophets in Israel.
  7. 7. Chapters 11-13:The Four Views Futurist Approach: • The 1260 days refer either to a period of literal three and one-half years at the end of the Tribulation or to two different periods of that length totaling seven years. • The two witnesses are two individual prophets yet to appear in Jerusalem— possibly Moses and Elijah, or Enoch and Elijah. Alternatively, they may represent a larger witnessing body.
  8. 8. Chapters 11-13:The Four Views Futurist Approach: • The woman (faithful Israel) will be forced by persecution from the Antichrist to flee into the wilderness during the Tribulation. • The first beast is a political world-leader, and the second beast is his religious counterpart, who enforces universal worship of the first beast. (Some futurists take an approach to this section more like that of the spiritual approach.)
  9. 9. Chapters 11-13:The Four Views Spiritual Approach: • The 1260 days symbolize the entire church age. • The two witnesses are the church throughout the church age. • The woman sustained in the wilderness represents the same.
  10. 10. Chapters 11-13:The Four Views Spiritual Approach: • The first beast signifies political power that persecutes the church at any time in history. • The second beast is false religion and especially that which venerates political power.
  11. 11. Revelation 11 ~ Measuring the Temple 1 Then I was given a reed like a measuring rod. And the angel stood, saying, "Rise and measure the temple of God, the altar, and those who worship there. For the second time John becomes an active participant in the vision, and not merely an observer. John actively participates in the vision a total of seven times (cf. 1:12; 5:4; 7:14; 10:9-11; 11:1-2; 19:10; 22:8). Similar instructions are given to Ezekiel (40-43) and Zechariah (2:4). It is usually a prelude to restoration.
  12. 12. Which Temple is Measured? OPTIONS 1. The Temple of Herod is still standing, that is, before AD 70. However, John is on the Isle of Patmos, so it is not the literal Temple in Jerusalem that he is measuring unless he had been spiritually transported to that location. This option seems unlikely.
  13. 13. Which Temple is Measured? OPTIONS 2. The Temple is symbolic of something else besides the Temple. Some have argued that it symbolizes the church, which is protected and preserved. Others take it to represent the Jews who are still upon the earth. However, the text includes the altar and the worshippers in the task. This option is not very appealing.
  14. 14. Which Temple is Measured? OPTIONS 3. The Temple is a Temple that is yet to be built. If, as has been the case in the vision, John is addressing future events, then this Temple is placed in the future and may well be a literal Temple that is going to be built. This position fits well with other references to the Temple that are yet to come.
  15. 15. Revelation 11 ~ Measuring the Temple 2 But leave out the court which is outside the temple, and do not measure it, for it has been given to the Gentiles. And they will tread the holy city underfoot for forty-two months. John was told not to measure the Court of the Gentiles for it had been given to them to be trod underfoot for 42 months, that is, three and a half years.
  16. 16. Revelation 11 ~ The Outer Court • The area not measured represents those outside of the promise of protection that the act of measuring represented, i.e., Gentiles. • If the church has been raptured then the focus of the evangelistic ministry of the 144,000 will be other Jews. Jewish converts will be saved, but not through the Temple, they will have to accept Jesus as the Messiah, as their Redeemer and Savior. Given that the focus is on the Jews during the Tribulation Period (the time of Jacob's trouble), there will probably not be many Gentiles come to faith in Christ during this time.
  17. 17. Revelation 11 ~ The Two Witnesses 3 And I will give power to my two witnesses, and they will prophesy one thousand two hundred and sixty days, clothed in sackcloth." 4 These are the two olive trees and the two lampstands standing before the God. The “two witnesses”: 1) symbolic figures representing the church--believing Jews and Gentiles; 2) literal men who are witnesses upon the earth during this time; 3) the Old and New Testaments.
  18. 18. Revelation 11 ~ The Two Witnesses 5 And if anyone wants to harm them, fire proceeds from their mouth and devours their enemies. And if anyone wants to harm them, he must be killed in this manner. 6 These have power to shut heaven, so that no rain falls in the days of their prophecy; and they have power over waters to turn them to blood, and to strike the earth with all plagues, as often as they desire.
  19. 19. Revelation 11 ~ The Two Witnesses These witnesses are powerful agents of God. Like Elijah on Mount Carmel (1 Kings 18), they have the power to use fire as a witness that their ministry is ordained of God, and to call a famine upon the earth (James 5:17). The reference to the olive trees and lampstands in verse 4 indicates that these men are empowered by the Holy Spirit to fulfill their ministry.
  20. 20. Revelation 11 ~ The Two Witnesses 7 Now when they finish their testimony, the beast that ascends out of the bottomless pit will make war against them, overcome them, and kill them. 8 And their dead bodies will lie in the street of the great city which spiritually is called Sodom and Egypt, where also our Lord was crucified. It is interesting that Jerusalem is now called “spiritually”, Sodom and Egypt—sin and captivity.
  21. 21. Revelation 11 ~ The Two Witnesses Notice that while Jesus descended from heaven (from above) to earth, and then ascended from earth to heaven, the beast ascends from the pit (or from below) to earth. This represents the fact that the beast is the antithesis of Jesus. The beast comes to make war against the two witnesses, overcomes and kills them and their bodies lie in the street of Jerusalem.
  22. 22. Revelation 11 ~The Two Witnesses 9 Then those from the peoples, tribes, tongues, and nations will see their dead bodies three-and-a-half days, and not allow their dead bodies to be put into graves. 10 And those who dwell on the earth will rejoice over them, make merry, and send gifts to one another, because these two prophets tormented those who dwell on the earth.
  23. 23. Revelation 11 ~The Two Witnesses Their death results in a worldwide party as sinful humanity rejoices over the death of these whose words and ministry brought judgment upon the earth. These witnesses, like all witnesses, come with the intent of turning the heart of humanity to God, but they are rejected and killed and their death is hailed as an occasion for celebration.
  24. 24. Revelation 11~ The Two Witnesses 11 Now after the three-and-a-half days the breath of life from God entered them, and they stood on their feet, and great fear fell on those who saw them. 12 And they heard a loud voice from heaven saying to them, "Come up here." And they ascended to heaven in a cloud, and their enemies saw them.
  25. 25. Revelation 11~ The Two Witnesses Hindson asks the following questions to those who see everything as symbolic concerning the witnesses: If the Church is meant by “Israel,” what is meant by “Jerusalem”? If the two witnesses symbolize the ministry of the churches, why are they killing people with fire out of their mouths? If the 1,260 days are not literal, what in the world do they symbolize? If the witnesses are killed and raptured to heaven, does that mean all true Christians will by martyred?
  26. 26. Revelation 11 ~ The Second Woe 13 In the same hour there was a great earthquake, and a tenth of the city fell. In the earthquake seven thousand men were killed, and the rest were afraid and gave glory to the God of heaven. 14 The second woe is past. Behold, the third woe is coming quickly.
  27. 27. Revelation 11 ~ The Second Woe The second “woe” is the sixth trumpet. The two witnesses ascend into heaven and an earthquake follows destroying a tenth of the city (Jerusalem) and kills seven thousand men. The remaining inhabitants of the city are afraid and begin to give glory to the God of heaven. What the witness of the two martyrs did not do, the power of God in judgment was able to do.
  28. 28. Revelation 11 ~ The Second Woe The second “woe” is the sixth trumpet. The two witnesses ascend into heaven and an earthquake follows destroying a tenth of the city (Jerusalem) and kills seven thousand men. The remaining inhabitants of the city are afraid and begin to give glory to the God of heaven. What the witness of the two martyrs did not do, the power of God in judgment will do.
  29. 29. Revelation 11 ~ The Seventh Seal 15 Then the seventh angel sounded: And there were loud voices in heaven, saying, "The kingdoms of this world have become the kingdoms of our Lord and of His Christ, and He shall reign forever and ever!" If one takes the words of praise to God as a massive worldwide repentance, then the message of the voices is easy enough to understand. However, the third woe has not yet passed, more judgment is coming.
  30. 30. Revelation 11 ~ The Seventh Seal The grammar does not necessarily mean an historical fact at this point in the vision, but may mean to convey an absolute certainty. Hindson observes, “One cannot read these verses without realizing that we have come to some great conclusion. It is all over except the shouting!” Horton “Those in heaven see the victory as good as won.”
  31. 31. Revelation 11 ~ The 24 Elders 16 And the twenty-four elders who sat before God on their thrones fell on their faces and worshiped God, 17 saying: "We give You thanks, O Lord God Almighty, The One who is and who was and who is to come, Because You have taken Your great power and reigned. 18 The nations were angry, and Your wrath has come, And the time of the dead, that they should be judged, And that You should reward Your servants the prophets and the saints, and those who fear Your name, small and great, and should destroy those who destroy the earth."
  32. 32. Revelation 11~ The 24 Elders This is the song that the twenty-four elders (the Church-believing Jews and Gentiles-12 tribes and 12 apostles) sing as the end is in sight and the culmination of God’s plan is in view. This is a bittersweet song that promises rewards for the saints and punishment for the wicked. This song is a summation of the vision itself. It calls attention to the fact that God has a plan and God’s plan is on track.
  33. 33. Revelation 11 ~ The Open Temple 19 “Then the temple of God was opened in heaven, and the ark of His covenant was seen in His temple. And there were lightnings, noises, thunderings, an earthquake, and great hail. Chapter 11 ends with opening of the Temple of God in heaven. As the temple is opened and the ark comes into view heaven is filled with lightening, thunder, and earthquake and large hail. There is a sense that something else, something very awesome, is about to happen.

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