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Bryson Chapter 7
Formulating and Adopting Strategies
and Plans to Manage the Issues
 This chapter covers steps 6 and 7, formulating and
adopting strategies and plans. Even though these two
steps are likely...
 Strategies can vary by level and time frame. Four
basic levels of strategy follows:
1. Grand strategy for the organizati...
 Purpose
Step 6: Strategy formulation and plan development- to
create a set of strategies that will effectively link the
...
3. The organization may or may not wish to
have a formal strategic plan at the end of
step 6, one that will be formally ad...
 Benefits
1. A fairly clear picture will emerge- from grand
conception to many implementation details- of how
the organiz...
 Benefits, con’t
6. Organizational members will get help with working their way
through the failure-in-the-middle syndrom...
 Two Approaches to Strategy Development: The Five-Part Process
and The Oval Mapping Process
A. The Five-Part Process
Plan...
B. The Oval Mapping Process
Based on the strategic options development and
analysis (SODA). It involves creating options
(...
 Process Guidelines
1. Remember that strategic thinking, acting, and
learning are more important than any particular
appr...
7. Evaluate alternative strategies against agreed-upon
criteria prior to selection of specific strategies to be
implemente...
13. Be aware that the strategy formulation step is likely
to proceed in a more iterative fashion than previous
steps becau...
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Bryson. chapter 7. formulating and adopting strategies and plans

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Bryson. chapter 7. formulating and adopting strategies and plans

  1. 1. Bryson Chapter 7 Formulating and Adopting Strategies and Plans to Manage the Issues
  2. 2.  This chapter covers steps 6 and 7, formulating and adopting strategies and plans. Even though these two steps are likely to be closely linked in practice, they should be kept separate in planning team members’ minds.  While both concern creating ideas for strategic action and building a winning coalition, the dynamics that surround each step may be dramatically different. Strategy formulation often involves freewheeling creativity and the give and take of dialogue whereas formal adoption of strategies and strategic plans can involve tough bargaining and high drama.  Strategy may be thought of as a pattern of purposes, policies, programs, actions, decisions, and resource allocations that defines what an organization is, what it does, and why it does it.  Strategies typically are developed to deal with strategic issues: that is, they outline the organization’s response to the fundamental challenges it faces.
  3. 3.  Strategies can vary by level and time frame. Four basic levels of strategy follows: 1. Grand strategy for the organization as a whole 2. Subunit strategies ( subunits may be divisions, departments, or units of larger organizations) 3. Program, services, or business process strategies 4. Functional strategies ( such as financial, staffing, facilities, information technology, and procurement strategies)  Strategies may also be long term or short term  Strategies are different from tactics. Tactics are the short-term, adoptive actions and reactions used to accomplish limited objectives. Strategies provide the continuing basis for ordering these adaptations toward more braodly conceived purposes.
  4. 4.  Purpose Step 6: Strategy formulation and plan development- to create a set of strategies that will effectively link the organization to its environment and create public value Step 7: Strategy and plan adoption- to gain authoritative decisions to move ahead with implementing the strategies and plans  Desired Outcomes 1. If the organization has chosen the direct or indirect approach to defining issues, the first outcome may be a statement of how it will deal with each issues 2. The strategic planning team and key decision makers should gain clarity about what parts of the current strategies should be kept and improved, what will be initated that is new, and what should stop
  5. 5. 3. The organization may or may not wish to have a formal strategic plan at the end of step 6, one that will be formally adopted in step 7 ( Note: For this class, assume the organization wishes to have a formal strategic plan at the end of step 6) 4. Planners may seek formal agreement to push ahead at the conclusion of step 6 5. If a formal strategic plan has been prepared, policy board adoption of the plan(step 7) 6. As is true throughout the process, actions should be taken when they are identified and become useful or necessary
  6. 6.  Benefits 1. A fairly clear picture will emerge- from grand conception to many implementation details- of how the organization can create public value, meet its mandates, fulfill its mission, and deal effectively with the situation it faces. 2. This new picture should have emerged fram a consideration of a broad range of alternative strategies, a process that in itself should enhance organizational creativity. 3. If actions are taken as they become identified and useful, a new reality will emerge in fact, not just in conception. 4. Early implementation of at least parts of major strategies will facilitate organizational learning 5. Emotional bonding to the new reality can occur as the new reality emerges gradually through early and ongoing implementation efforts.
  7. 7.  Benefits, con’t 6. Organizational members will get help with working their way through the failure-in-the-middle syndrome. 7. Heightened morale among strategic planning team members , key decision makers, and other organizational members should result from task accomplishment and early success in the resolution of important issues. 8. Further strategic planning team development ( and indeed broader organizational development) should result from the continued discipline of addressing fundamental questions constructively. 9. If key internal and external stakeholders interests have been addressed successfully as part of the strategic planning process, a coalition is likely to emerge that is large enough and strong enough to agree on organizational strategies pursue their implementation. 10. The organizational members will have the permission they need to move ahead with implementation of strategies. If all these benefits are realized, the organization will have achieved progress in an effective and artful way.
  8. 8.  Two Approaches to Strategy Development: The Five-Part Process and The Oval Mapping Process A. The Five-Part Process Planners answer five questions about each strategic issue: 1. What are the practical alternatives, dreams, or visions we might pursue to address this strategic issue, achieve this goal, or realize this idealized scenario? 2. What are the barriers to the realization of these alternatives, dreams, or idealized scenarios? 3. What major proposals might we pursue to achieve these alternatives, dreams, or idealized scenarios directly or to overcome the barriers to their realization? 4. What major actions ( with existing staff working within existing job descriptions) must be taken within the next year ( or two) to implement the major proposals? 5. What specific steps must be taken within the next six months to implement the major proposals, and who is responsible for each step. A strategic planning team can use the snow card technique to answer each question.
  9. 9. B. The Oval Mapping Process Based on the strategic options development and analysis (SODA). It involves creating options (phrased as actions) to address each issue. See Resource B , in the text, for detailed instructions in the use of the oval mapping process.  Strategic Plans- Strategic plans can vary a great deal in their form and content. Coordinated action among a variety of organizational actors over time usually requires some kind of reasonable formal plan so that people can keep track of what they should do and why. See page 208 of the text for a table of contents for a plan and the headings that might be included.
  10. 10.  Process Guidelines 1. Remember that strategic thinking, acting, and learning are more important than any particular approach to strategy formulation or the development of a formal strategic plan. 2. Consider a variety of creative, even radical options during the strategy formulation process. 3. Remember that logical incrementalism can be very effective, but sometimes a big win is the way to go. 4. Be aware that effective strategy formulation can be tops-down or bottoms-up. 5. Decide how to link strategy development with the strategic issues identified in step 6. 6. Describe strategic alternatives in enough detail to permit reasonable judgments about their efficacy and provide reasonable guidance for implementation.
  11. 11. 7. Evaluate alternative strategies against agreed-upon criteria prior to selection of specific strategies to be implemented. 8. Consider development of a formal strategic plan. 9. Even if a formal strategic plan is not prepared, consider preparing a set of interrelated strategy statements describing the grand strategy; subunit strategies; program, service, product, or business process strategies; and financial strategies. 10. Use a normative process to review strategy statements and formal strategic plans. 11. Discuss and evaluate strategies in relation to key stakeholders. 12. Have budgets and budgeting procedures in place to capitalize on strategic planning and strategic plans.
  12. 12. 13. Be aware that the strategy formulation step is likely to proceed in a more iterative fashion than previous steps because of the need to find the best fit among elements of strategies, among different strategies, and among levels of strategy. 14. Allow for a period of catharsis as the organization moves from one way of being in the world to another. 15. Remember the completion of the strategy development step is likely to be an important decision point. 16. Ensure that key decision makers and planners think carefully about how the formal adoption process should be managed , particularly if it involves formal arenas. 17. Provide some sense of closure to the strategic planning process at the end of step 7 or, when no formal plan is prepared, at the end of step 6.

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