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10 organizational behavior


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10 organizational behavior

  2. 2. Organizational Behavior • The study of actions that affect performance in the workplace • The goal of organizational behavior theorists is to explain and predict actions and how they will affect performance • The field of organizational behavior has three levels of focus: • The individual • The group • The organization
  3. 3. Personality • A combination of behavioral, metal, and emotional traits that define an individual • Based on genetics and environmental factors • Affects behavior as well as perceptions and attitudes • Four traits: • Locus of Control • Optimism vs. Pessimism • Risk Propensity • Machiavellianism
  4. 4. Locus of Control • Lies on a continuum between believing that control over one’s destiny is external (externalizers) or believing that it is internal (internalizers) • Externalizers believe that they have no control over their fate and that their behavior has little to do with their performance • Internalizers believe that they control their fate and that their behavior has a direct effect on their performance
  5. 5. Optimism vs. Pessimism • Optimistic people believe that things will go well, and they tend to be generally happier and more confident • Pessimistic people believe that things will not go well. They tend to be unhappy much of the time and experience more stress than optimistic people.
  6. 6. Risk Propensity • The degree to which someone is willing to face uncertainty
  7. 7. Machiavellianism • Based on the belief that the ends can justify the means and power should be used to reach desired ends • High “Machs” are generally considered effective in situations in which bargaining and winning is important, such as jobs involving negotiation and sales
  8. 8. The Big Five Personality Dimensions Extroversion Agreeableness Emotionalism Conscientiousness Openness to Experience
  9. 9. Perception • The process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting environmental information • Self-esteem (self-concept) • Self-efficacy: The belief in your own capability to perform in a specific situation.
  10. 10. The Attribution Process • Determining the reason for an individual’s behavior and whether it is • Situational: out of control of the individual or • Intentional: the individual is consciously behaving this way
  11. 11. Bias in Perception • Selectivity • Frame of reference • Stereotyping • Expectations • The “like me” assumption
  12. 12. Attitudes • Positive or negative evaluations of people, things, and situations
  13. 13. Attitude Formation • Family, friends, teachers, coworkers, the mass media, and so on affect your attitude formation • Negative attitudes toward change tend to lead to behavioral resistance to the change, and vise versa • Not only can employees’ attitudes have an effect on their own performance, but they can also have an effect on the performance on their coworkers • The Pygmalion effect is the theory that managers’ attitudes toward and expectations and treatment of employees largely determine their performance
  14. 14. Job Satisfaction • Is generally measured along a continuum from satisfied/positive/high to dissatisfies/negative/low • Affects absenteeism and turnover rates • Affects citizenship behaviors and counterproductive work behaviors • Is shaped by personality, the work itself, compensation, growth and upward mobility, coworkers, management
  15. 15. Power • The ability to influence others’ behavior • Position power: derived from top management & is delegated down the chain of command • Personal power: derived from followers, based on an individual’s behavior • Empowerment: giving power to employees
  16. 16. Types of Power • Coercive Power: Involves threats and/or punishment to influence compliance • Connection Power: Based on the user’s relationship with influential people • Reward Power: Based on the user’s ability to influence others by providing something of value to them • Legitimate Power: Based on the user’s position power in the organization
  17. 17. • Referent Power: Based on the user’s personal power relationships with others • Information Power: Based on others’ need for data • Expert Power: Based on the user’s skills and knowledge Types of Power
  18. 18. Politics • The process of gaining and using power • Networking: The process of developing relationships for the purpose of socializing and career building • Reciprocity: The creation of obligations and the development of alliances that are used to accomplish objectives • Coalition Building: A network of alliances that help a manager achieve an objective
  19. 19. Political Behaviors and Guidelines for Developing Political Skills
  20. 20. Conflict • Exists whenever people are in disagreement & opposition • With globalization and increasingly team-based structures, the frequency and intensity of conflict will only continue to increase
  21. 21. The Psychological Contract • Composed of the implicit expectations of individual parties • Conflict arises when the contract is broken, which happens when: • We fail to make explicit our own expectations & fail to inquire into the expectations of others • We assume that others have the same expectations that we hold
  22. 22. Functional and Dysfunctional Conflict • Exists when disagreement & opposition support the achievement of organizational goals • Functional conflict can decrease complacency and reveal inefficiencies • Exists when conflict prevents the achievement of organizational goals • Too little or too much conflict is dysfunctional
  23. 23. Conflict Management Styles • Avoiding Conflict Style • Accommodating Conflict Style • Forcing Conflict Style • Negotiating Conflict Style • Collaborating Conflict Style
  24. 24. The Negotiation Process
  25. 25. Conflict Resolution When initiating a conflict resolution, you may want to use the collaborative conflict resolution model: 1. State the problem in terms of behaviors, consequences, and feelings 2. Get the other person to acknowledge the problem or conflict 3. Ask for and/or present alternative resolutions to the conflict 4. Come to an agreement
  26. 26. Responders and Mediators • Responding To Conflict Resolution: • In the role of responder, you have a responsibility to contribute to successful conflict resolution when someone confronts you with a problem • Mediating Conflict Resolution: • Frequently, parties in conflict cannot resolve their dispute alone. In these cases, a mediator may be used. • A mediator is a neutral third party who helps resolve a conflict
  27. 27. Conflict Management Styles
  28. 28. Arbitrators in Conflict Resolution • If the conflict cannot be resolved by mediation, an arbitrator may be used as a follow-up • An arbitrator is a neutral third party who resolves a conflict by making a binding decision • The arbitrator is like a judge whose decision must be followed
  29. 29. Stress • The body’s reaction to environmental demands • Stressors: Factors that cause people to feel overwhelmed by anxiety, tension, and/or pressure • Functional Stress: Helps improve performance by challenging and motivating people to meet objectives • Dysfunctional Stress: Stress that is severe enough to lead to burnout
  30. 30. Causes of Job Stress • Personality Types • Organizational Culture • Organizational Change • Management Behavior • Type of Work • Interpersonal Relations
  31. 31. Stress Management • Time Management • Relaxation • Nutrition • Exercise • Positive Thinking • Support network Relaxation Techniques