Positive influence


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Positive influence

  2. 2. “The only place poverty should be is in Museums.” -- Muhammad Yunus Nobel Laureate Professor.
  3. 3. War on Poverty started in 1960s, but the rate of poverty has barely changed. Was $20 Trillion not enough to end poverty in the US?
  4. 4. DONATIONS Many people have donated in their lives, but how many know what happened to that dollar?
  5. 5. CHANGE Many people consider themselves change agents, but they are waiting for others to tell them what to do. Others will follow what people are doing which have not been showing success. Will this bring change?
  6. 6. KNOW WHY MOST CHANGE EFFORTS FAIL. Most change efforts fail because we have unrealistic expectations and we look to one simple solution.
  7. 7. KNOW THAT UNREALISTIC EXPECTATIONS GET IN THE WAY. It’s not realistic to expect that people will change even when the consequences for not changing are enormous, everyone knows the consequence, and the change required is simple.
  8. 8. CHANGE AGENT Many people want to affect positive change, yet many rely on old methods that have failed to affect change.
  9. 9. MEASURING SUCCESS Often, the matrix used to measure success is wrong. Why is the success of a disaster relief measured on how much money is donated rather than how many lives are back to normal again?
  10. 10. PATIENCE Some problems cannot be solved overnight. Many want fast results, and don’t want to put in more effort to solve the problems. Instead they rely on quick fixes.
  11. 11. WISDOM Ask for serenity to accept the things you cannot change, but must find the courage to change the things you can. The wisdom is to know the difference
  12. 12. SOCIAL IMPACT • Does a one time donation provide any social impact? • Does providing shoes for the poor make them less poor? • Does giving a beggar $1 change his life in any way?
  13. 13. DANGERS OF SOCIAL INTERVENTION • Making life decisions for those we are helping • Is there “Over Helping?” • Is it sustainable? • Is it what they want? Is it what they need?
  15. 15. “Philanthropy dollar” can only be used once, the “social dollar” can be used again and again. -- Muhammad Yunus
  16. 16. LONG TERM VS SHORT TERM • Do you want sustainable long term impact or focus on one off project? • Will you run the project FOREVER?
  17. 17. CAUTION If you want a quick fix solution, STOP! This presentation will not help you find a quick way to solve a big problem.
  18. 18. POSITIVE INFLUENCER For most problems, change may not come from external help. People from outside the community cannot affect change, but they can provide a conducive environment for change to happen. The community needs to have behavioral change for sustaining change to happen.
  19. 19. VOLUNTEER -> POSITIVE INFLUENCER A volunteer works for an profit organization and tries to make a difference. When things don’t change, they give up and stop volunteering. A positive influencer engages the community to find out about the problems and work with them to find root causes and vital behaviors to spread to bring about sustaining change.
  20. 20. WHO IS AN INFLUENCER? Everyone is an influencer An influencer motivates others to change An influencer replaces bad behaviors with power new skills An influencer makes creates sustainable change.
  21. 21. HOW TO BE A POSITIVE INFLUENCER? There are a few tips to help you be a more effective positive influencer. 1. To be a change agent, you may need to change yourself. 2. Learn engagement strategies to find vital behaviors for change 3. Learn strategies for changing thoughts and actions
  22. 22. KNOW WHAT INFLUENCE IS Influence is the ability to change our own behavior or the behavior of others.
  24. 24. DEHUMANIZING AGENT • Moral Justification • Dehumanization • Minimizing and displacing responsibility
  25. 25. MORAL JUSTIFICATION • Parking at a handicapped spot for a quick dash to convenience store. • Justify dangers by blaming it on running costs • Justify pollution with “lower price” • Ignoring legitimate needs of customers for profits
  26. 26. MORAL JUSTIFICATION • Dumping toxic chemicals into rivers because there is no laws against it. • Raising fees on services because of Monopoly in market • Lowering wages for shareholders’s benefit
  27. 27. DEHUMANIZATION • Turning real people into statistics • Treating people as demographics instead of individuals with different needs • Making decisions based on statistics not needs • Setting cost of “human life” and comparing to risk assessments
  28. 28. MINIMIZING AND DISPLACING RESPONSIBILITY • Blame it on “other departments” • Blame it on “once every rare event” • Spending money and hoping problems will magically go away. • Blame it on standard procedures. • Just following orders.
  29. 29. SAYING A AND DOING B Many parents will tell their kids to avoid illegal things, but will continue to provide their kids with free rent, food and vehicles – and bail money, when they get into trouble. Many people want to support small businesses but will shop at large stores for more discounts.
  30. 30. SAYING A AND DOING B Many people will talk about having a low carbon footprint but will drive a big SUV for “safety” Many people who want to lose weight, will drink diet soda, 2 liters at a time.
  31. 31. INFLUENCE You need to convince yourself before you can influence others.
  32. 32. KNOW THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN INFLUENCE AND PERSUASION. When short-term isn’t enough, you need influence. Persuasion is short term, while influence is about long term impact. Persuasion often involves getting verbal agreement or support, while influence requires changing minds, hearts, and actions.
  33. 33. INFLUENCE VS. PERSUASION INFLUENCE PERSUASION Challenges involve changing longterm, deeply entrenched behaviors. Challenges are more shortterm. Getting support is often many people and many interlocked behaviors. Challenges typically involve getting someone to say yes or no. Challenges require changing minds, hearts, and actions. Challenges are about getting verbal agreement or support.
  35. 35. FIND VITAL BEHAVIORS • Once discovered and changed, problems however big will topple. • Do not get distracted by values, homilies, or emotional appeals. • Changing values and attitudes can happen after solving the problem.
  36. 36. KNOW THE 3 STRATEGIES FOR FINDING VITAL BEHAVIORS. The 3 strategies for finding vital behaviors are: 1) insist on vital behaviors, 2) identify crucial moments, and 3) study positive deviance.
  37. 37. WAYS TO FIND VITAL BEHAVIORS Engage – Talk to everyone, listen to their stories. Document their stories, find success stories, what can be learned from the experience. Learn from failures, what are the root causes of returning (recovery) behaviors.
  38. 38. VITAL BEHAVIORS All it takes is to change a few vital behaviors to drive big change. Search for recovery behavior as people make mistakes and they should learn what went wrong and take corrective actions.
  39. 39. INSIST ON VITAL BEHAVIORS. Vital behaviors are specific actions that dramatically influence the results. This is about focusing on the vital few behaviors that have cascading impact. For example, in our group, we ship projects on time because we “fix time, flex scope.” When we ran scope driven projects, we would slip schedules. That’s an example of a vital behavior. You don’t always have the benefit of hind-sight so the key is to find good candidates, experiment, and test your results.
  40. 40. FIND VITAL BEHAVIORS Vital behaviors exponentially improve your results. If crucial moments tell you when it’s time to act, vital behaviors tell you exactly what to do and how to do it. Vital behaviors tend to stop self-defeating and escalating behaviors. They often start a reaction that leads to good results.
  41. 41. HERE ARE THE KEYS TO FIND THEM: • Behaviors are actions. • Behaviors are not results or qualities. • Not all behaviors are equal. • Only a few are genuinely vital. • Some is not a number. • Soon is not a time.
  42. 42. EXAMPLES OF VITAL BEHAVIOR AND RESULTS VITAL BEHAVIOR RESULT Make ten cold calls a day to keep the pipeline filled. Hit $2 million in sales by the end of the quarter. Do thirty minutes of cardio daily. Lose three inches from my waist by December.
  43. 43. 3 STRATEGIES FOR FINDING HIGH-LEVERAGE BEHAVIORS: • Strategy 1. Insist on vital behaviors. Tells you exactly what to do and how to do it. • Strategy 2. Identify crucial moments. Tell you when it’s time to act. It’s the point in time where the right behavior, if enacted, leads to the results you want. • Strategy 3. Study positive deviance. Find and study those who succeed where most others fail.
  44. 44. FINDING VITAL BEHAVIORS … With larger projects: check with local experts, scan the best and most-cited articles and research, search the Internet for most-cited experts, perform a culture assessment. With smaller projects: determine your crucial moments, find the behaviors in those moments that will affect your results, conduct a miniexperiment (test the vital behaviors.)
  45. 45. WAYS TO INFLUENCE Create profound vicarious experiences You can read all the books you want about entrepreneurship, attend all the business classes, intern at all the newest startups, and write all the best business plans. But if you don’t start your business, you are not an entrepreneur.
  46. 46. FIELD TRIPS / VIDEOS If your employees have not felt real good service, perhaps they should visit places with good service to know it can be done. Find videos and real examples of the behavior you want to target, to show it has be done, and it is possible. Unlock the limited mind.
  47. 47. USE STORIES TO HELP CHANGE MINDS Stories can create touching moments which can help people view the world in new ways. But not all stories work. Successful stories have these elements: Promote Understanding, Believeing, Motivating.
  48. 48. USE STORIES TO HELP CHANGE MINDS Stories need to be complete PROVIDE HOPE Combine stories and experiences as vicarious narratives can propel people into their own experience.
  49. 49. INFLUENCE The difference between effective and ineffective change makers is that the effective ones don’t rely on a single source of influence.
  50. 50. KNOW THE FUNDAMENTAL ATTRIBUTION ERROR. The mistake is assuming people do things for only one reason.
  51. 51. IT’S NOT ONE SIMPLE SOLUTION. Profound, persistent, and resistant problems last because we look for one simple solution. There’s rarely one cause. Analyze six sources of influence to diagnose the problems. You can influence persistent and resistant behaviors when you know the forces driving it.
  52. 52. 6 SOURCES OF INFLUENCE Personal Social Structural Motivation Stay out of Comfort Zone Ability
  53. 53. STAY OUT OF COMFORT ZONE Staying in the comfort zone – well – is comfortable. Many healthful behaviors are boring, uncomfortable or even painful. And many unhealthful behaviors can be pleasurable. Change cause enormous amount of discomfort, conflict and uncertainty.
  54. 54. STAY OUT OF COMFORT ZONE People are pushed to rethink processes, uncover problems and reapportion power. Reasonable people resist things that are uncomfortable or stressful, which is why most of these efforts fail.
  55. 55. HOW TO START? Create new experience -- Onboarding. Think Gamification.
  56. 56. HOW TO START? Create new motives -- Connect to a person’s values. -- Engage in Moral thinking. -- Connect behavior to moral values. -- Spotlight human consequences. -- Provide options, win hearts
  57. 57. USE MULTIPLE STRATEGIES. Overwhelm the problem with resources. If you want to improve your success 10x, then rather than use 1-2 strategies, use 4 or more highleverage behaviors.
  58. 58. 6 SOURCES OF INFLUENCE Personal Social Structural Motivation Stay out of Comfort Zone Ability Grow up or Grow old
  59. 59. GROW UP OR GROW OLD Many people confuse motivation with influence. But they also fail to realize that people need the ability to do something even more than motivation. Technology moves fast, we need to continue to learn, so does everyone else. If we don’t, we grow old.
  60. 60. TIPS FOR INCREASING PERSONAL ABILITY Continuous learning Build Capacity Learning in small doses Get feedback and improve Prepare for setbacks 10,000 hours to expertise Learn emotional skills Enable with new skills
  61. 61. 6 SOURCES OF INFLUENCE Personal Social Structural Motivation Stay out of Comfort Zone Use Peer Pressure Ability Grow up or Grow old
  62. 62. PEER PRESSURE How many times have you done something because you friends did it? Opinions leaders are trusted not because they know more. People do things to earn praise from friends and co-workers. Impressing others seems to be the norm of many societies.
  63. 63. PEER PRESSURE Wrong corporate culture may influence even the most creative new employees in the wrong way. “Janitor work is for dropouts” will create challenges to hire and respect that career path. Behavioral norms shape society Social influence is powerful
  64. 64. BECOME AN OPINION LEADER An effective influencer is also a good opinion leader. To change behaviors, you need to be a good opinion leader.
  65. 65. QUALITIES OF OPINION LEADERS 1) Knowledgeable and stay updated to the expertise at hand. 2) Trustworthiness. 3) Generous with time and open to feedback. -------------------------------------** Being respected and being trusted are 2 different things
  66. 66. MAKE UNDISSCUSSABLE DISSCUSSABLE Some people on top often make others accountable, but how many of them are accountable for what they do? Productivity and adding value. Poor people are hardworking, but why are they paid so little? Whistleblowing? Conspiracy of Silence? Create a village for social support.
  67. 67. 6 SOURCES OF INFLUENCE Personal Social Structural Motivation Stay out of Comfort Zone Ability Grow up or Grow old Use Peer Pressure Generate Social Mass
  68. 68. SOCIAL MASS While social influence is about motivation, when you only focus on motivation, you limit your own influence. It is important for people to engage on the issues important to them. Leaders may speak about this, but rarely enable it.
  69. 69. SOCIAL MASS Power of Social Capital Grameen Bank lending – 4 at a time. Wisdom of Crowds Women helping Women Interdependence Doing something for others pushes you to do more.
  70. 70. 6 SOURCES OF INFLUENCE Motivation Stay out of Comfort Zone Ability Grow up or Grow old Social Use Peer Pressure Generate Social Mass Structural Rewards and Accountability Personal
  71. 71. GAMIFICATION Learning from successful games, designing rewards, both tangible and intangible can provide a source of motivation. Gamification and rewards can motivate, however, there is also the danger of failing to engage intrinsic or personal motivation.
  72. 72. REWARDS AND ACCOUNTABILITY People have options, and priorities. If a leader talks about quality but rewards productivity, employees will notice. Lack of accountability, poor productivity and slipshod quality is usually due to poorly designed incentives that reward the wrong behaviors.
  73. 73. LEVELS OF MOTIVATION 1) Intrinsic Motivation 2) Personal and social Motivation 3) Well-designed reward system
  74. 74. ABOUT REWARDS For rewards, less is more. (If you are doing it right) Do not let benefits become entitlement. Reward vital behaviors, not only results Point out divisive incentives.
  75. 75. ACCOUNTABILITY Punishment sends a message. (So is its absence) Provide clear warning on what punishment is to come when they continue on their path. Deter bad behaviors. If all else fails, punishment must be dealt.
  76. 76. 6 SOURCES OF INFLUENCE Motivation Stay out of Comfort Zone Ability Grow up or Grow old Social Use Peer Pressure Generate Social Mass Structural Rewards and Change the Accountability Environment Personal
  77. 77. RECOGNIZING VITAL BEHAVIORS VITAL BEHAVIOR RESULT Source 1 – Personal “I don’t like … Motivation “That’s not fun for me …” “I don’t enjoy …” Source 2 – Personal “I can’t.” Ability “I don’t know how.” “I keep trying, but I can’t figure it out.”
  78. 78. RECOGNIZING VITAL BEHAVIORS VITAL BEHAVIOR RESULT Source 3 – Social Motivation “The boss told me to do this. “She has been praising this for months.” “Everyone is doing this.” Source 4 – Social Ability “John didn’t get me this material.” “When I needed help, everyone disappeared.” “I needed my boss’s approval, but she wouldn’t sign off on it.”
  79. 79. RECOGNIZING VITAL BEHAVIORS VITAL BEHAVIOR Source 5 – Structural Motivation RESULT “That won’t affect my performance appraisal.” “My dad pays me $20 for every soccer goal I score, so I don’t pass.” “Quality? You lose your job if you don’t hit the numbers.” Source 6 – Structural Ability “It’s hurry up and wait with all the bureaucracy around here.” “Drugs are available within a mile of every house in the city.” “Bosses get their data from analysts, not customers, so they don’t care about quality.”
  80. 80. NEWS AND MEDIA CREATE OUR REALITY Perception creates our reality. Media Watch (Rosarito Project) Cognitive Dissonance
  81. 81. OBFUSCATION It is hard to change an environment when people do not see the problems. Fish discover water last. Make the invisible visible. Most of us are environmentally incompetent.
  82. 82. SWEAT ON SMALL STUFF No one is in charge, so no one cares. Small victories offer hope. Make it “home” Change things in order to make the right behavior easier to enact. Make it unavoidable.
  83. 83. CLARIFY MEASURABLE RESULTS Don’t waste time on how to create change until you’ve clarified what you want, why you want it, and when you want it. An effective result is: 1. Specific and measurable. It is quantitative not qualitative. 2. What you really want. It’s the outcome that matters. 3. Time bound. It comes with a completion date.
  84. 84. CHECKS So what? Now what? Right level? Are the results specific and measurable? Is it what you really want? Is it time bound?
  85. 85. BECOME A POSITIVE INFLUENCER If one source of influence does not work, try more. The 6 sources listed are just examples, and there are probably more sources of influence you can draw from to make positive change happen.
  86. 86. KEY ELEMENTS AGAIN Connect behavior to moral values Challenge norms. Identify Vital Behaviors Diagnose before prescribe - Understand source of failed behavior -- Police can focus on intervention and implement small scale programs to have a comprehensive effort to prevent crime.
  87. 87. KEY ELEMENTS AGAIN Reframe action as a vital behavior "ratting" Zero-self esteem -> connect to moral mission Earn self respect by helping others (similar to self) to "get it" Spotlighting human consequences Cold numbers don't carry weight -> powerful and vicarious human experiences Win hearts by honoring choice
  88. 88. KEY ELEMENTS AGAIN Biggest motivators of excellence is intrinsic Demand full attention for brief intervals Provide immediate feedback against a clear standard Break mastery into mini goals Prepare for setbacks, build emotional resilience
  89. 89. KEY ELEMENTS AGAIN Harness peer pressure Make undisscussable disscussable Create Interdependence Use Social Capital and Social Ability Reward (vital) behaviors, not results. Point out divisive incentives. Fish discover water last.
  90. 90. KEY ELEMENTS AGAIN Make the invisible visible. Make change inevitable Find positive deviants from a culture of fear and failure.
  91. 91. IDENTIFY EFFECTIVE RESULTS. Effective results are specific and measurable, they matter, and they’re time-bound.
  92. 92. IDENTIFY CRUCIAL MOMENTS. Crucial moments tell you when it’s time to act. For example, when your alarm goes off, you can decide to work out or roll over and go back to sleep.
  93. 93. STUDY POSITIVE DEVIANCE. Study those who succeed where most others fail. Find the exceptions. For example, there might be people right around you that stand out. You can also research examples on the Web. For example, you can follow projects, such as the Positive Deviance Initiative. You can ask your network, “who succeeds despite the odds?” and “what do they do differently?”
  94. 94. SHARE VICARIOUS EXPERIENCES. Rather than lecture or coerce, you can share vicarious experience to influence others. One simple way is to tell a story. This works if the audience identifies with the story and there is emotion involved. Another way is to have the people you want to influence see people in action. They can watch others perform the vital behaviors and learn simply by watching the successes and failures.
  95. 95. MOTIVATION AND ABILITY. People do things because of motivation and ability. Another way to put it is, “is it worth it?” and “Can I?”
  96. 96. PERSONAL, SOCIAL, AND STRUCTURAL FORCES. When you analyze motivation and ability, you can think in terms of personal forces, social forces, or structural forces. Personal forces would be what an individual wants and can do. Social forces would be what the group wants and can do. Structural forces would be the systems, processes, tools, and environment. It’s these 3 perspectives that give you a more complete view of the problem.
  97. 97. THINK IN SIX SOURCES OF INFLUENCE. Know the six reasons why we do what we do: 1) personal motivation, 2) personal ability, 3) social motivation, 4) social ability, 5) structural motivation, and 6) structural ability.
  98. 98. DIAGNOSE WHY CHANGE SEEMS IMPOSSIBLE. Your world is perfectly organized to create the behavior you’re currently experiencing. When change seems impossible, use the six sources of influence to find the conspiracy of causes.
  100. 100. CHANGE IS TOUGH Here are the Stats: Eighty-five percent of corporate change efforts fail – Arthur D. Little 2 out of 3 criminals are rearrested within 3 years – U.S. Dept. of Justice Two years after receiving coronary bypass surgery to save their lives, 90 percent of patients are back to old behaviors – Dr. Edward Miller, John Hopkins University. Change is tough. You can dramatically improve your chances of success, when you have a model.
  101. 101. OTHER REFERENCES http://sloanreview.mit.edu/article/how-to-have-influence/ http://sourcesofinsight.com/six-sources-of-influence/ http://www.mikemcmahon.info/group/sixsources-ofinfluence/
  102. 102. FIND OUT MORE FOLLOW ME https://www.facebook.com/socialhub https://twitter.com/robin_low