Instructional design part 1

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Instructional design part 1

  1. 1. Advanced Instructional Design Dr. Robin Latio Ohio University Week 1 and 2
  2. 2. Critical Thinking in ID • Analysis and evaluation are critical skills • Required for learning any significant body of content • Most of us have not learned how to analyze instruction, politics, educational systems…anything!
  3. 3. The 8 Elements of Critical Thinking • Basic structures of all thinking – Generates a purpose(s) – Raises questions – Uses information – Utilizes concepts – Makes inferences – Makes assumptions – Generates implications – Embodies a point of view
  4. 4. Elements of Thought – Logic Wheel
  5. 5. This class is about… • Thinking about instructional design – To question its purpose – To determine the instructional problem – To gather information, facts, observations about instructional design – To make interpretations and inferences – To develop concepts, theories, principles and models – To determine the assumptions – To determine implications and consequences – To develop frames of reference
  6. 6. How will we evaluate our thinking? • Clarity • Accuracy • Precision • Relevance • Depth • Breath • Logic • Significance • Fairness
  7. 7. • Three terms to get straight • Instructional Design • Learning Theory • Instructional Development Models
  8. 8. What is Instructional Design? • Comes from Instructional Systems theory • With influence from Learning theory • With influence from Philosophy • With influence Human Psychology
  9. 9. The Bridge • The roots of Instructional Design is in Instructional systems theory • Instructional Systems theorist are the builders of instructional design. • All ID theories and models are rooted in learning theory or a combination of learning theories • Learning theory overlaps educational psychology (the source of many ID theories) and instructional systems.
  10. 10. So what is Instructional Systems Theory? Systems theory was proposed in the 1940's by the biologist Ludwig von Bertalanffy ( : General Systems Theory, 1968), and furthered by Ross Ashby (Introduction to Cybernetics, 1956). von Bertalanffy was both reacting against reductionism and attempting to revive the unity of science. He emphasized that real systems are open to, and interact with, their environments, and that they can acquire qualitatively new properties through emergence, resulting in continual evolution. Rather than reducing an entity (e.g. the human body) to the properties of its parts or elements (e.g. organs or cells), systems theory focuses on the arrangement of and relations between the parts which connect them into a whole (cf. holism). This particular organization determines a system, which is independent of the concrete substance of the elements (e.g. particles, cells, transistors, people, etc). Thus, the same concepts and principles of organization underlie the different disciplines (physics, biology, technology, sociology, etc.), providing a basis for their unification. Systems concepts include: system-environment boundary, input, output, process, state, hierarchy, goal directedness, and information. http://pespmc1.vub.ac.be/SYSTHEOR.html
  11. 11. Learning Theories • There are many largely held perspectives, including behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism, social constructivism, objectivism, post- positivism, humanism, pragmatism, and many others. Within each perspective, there are a variety of theories that describe what learning is and how it occurs
  12. 12. Behaviorism • Rooted in philosophy and psychology, behaviorism argues that mental events can and should be described as observable behavior. This theory provided the foundation for many of the instructional practices we see today (including writing behavioral objectives). Instructional Design Website
  13. 13. Cognitivism • Cognitivists generally try to uncover and model the learner's mental processes. • While it shares behaviorism's objectivist/positivist assumptions about knowledge and research • Cognitivism views learning as an active (not passive) process that is governed by the individual's mental processes (not environmental stimuli).
  14. 14. Constructivism • Embraces the idea that knowledge is not an objective entity; rather, it is an idiosyncratic construction of knowledge that takes place within the individual or among individuals in a communities of practice.
  15. 15. Instructional Design Models • Analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation • Prescribe the strategies and tactics for instruction
  16. 16. So Let’s Talk Instruction … Which is what most learning theories, instructional design models and instructional design theory deals with
  17. 17. The Outcomes of Instruction • Instruction is the attainment of educational goals – Work backwards from outcomes • Educational Goals – Human activities that contribute to functioning of society. – We are looking at human capabilities that lead to outcomes called educational goals
  18. 18. What We Know about Students • Most do only what is expected… and put off work until the pressing deadline • Poor listeners • Poor readers • Poor writers • Poor oral communicators • Do not use language with care and precision • Do not have intellectual standards • Do not know how to access • Their own work • Their own thinking • Their own emotions • Their own life
  19. 19. What we usually do in instruction… Curriculum or Program Course Course Course Course UnitsUnits Units Lesson PlanLesson PlanLesson Plan Lesson PlanLesson Plan Activities ActivitiesActivities
  20. 20. Objectives, Outcomes, Standards • Goals and objectives – Industry • Outcomes – higher education • K-12 Schools – Standards, benchmarks, indicators Very Similar
  21. 21. Categories for Learning Outcomes • Intellectual Skills • Cognitive Strategies • Verbal Information • Motor Skills • Attitudes
  22. 22. PROBLEM SOLVING involves the formation of HIGHER-ORDER RULES which require as prerequisites RULES and DEFINED CONCEPTS which require as prerequisites CONCRETE CONCEPTS which require as prerequisites DISCRIMINATIONS PROBLEM SOLVING involves the formation of HIGHER-ORDER RULES which require as prerequisites RULES and DEFINED CONCEPTS which require as prerequisites CONCRETE CONCEPTS which require as prerequisites DISCRIMINATIONS Intellectual Skills
  23. 23. Cognitive Strategies • Highlighting, underlining, advanced organizers, adjunct questions, outlining • Paraphrasing, note taking, imagery, chunking • Concept maps, taxonomies, analogies, rules, schemas, • Mnemonics, Imagery • Metacognitive strategies
  24. 24. • Knowledge • Declarative Knowledge • Learning Facts, • Learning Labels • Organizing Knowledge Verbal Information
  25. 25. • Perceptual motor skills • Psychomotor skills • Involves the senses as well as the brain and muscles Motor Skills
  26. 26. • Complex behaviors that affect behavior toward people, things, and events • What do schools want in the instruction of attitudes? – Values – Morality Attitudes Emotion Action
  27. 27. • Camtasia • Producer • Theater

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