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  1. 1. Networking concepts <ul><li>By </li></ul><ul><li>Robin Kapoor, 47 </li></ul><ul><li>Sourabh Garg, 60 </li></ul>
  2. 2. Meaning <ul><li>Connection between two or more things is known as networking </li></ul><ul><li>Connection between two or more computers is computer networking </li></ul><ul><li>Computer networks also involves other electronic and digital devices </li></ul>
  3. 3. Networking Benefits Networking Enables: Information Sharing Hardware and Software Sharing Centralized Administration and Support
  4. 4. Roles of Computers in a Network Mail Server Database Server Database Fax Server File and Print Server Directory Services Server Client Computer Mail Server Database Server Database Fax Server File and Print Server
  5. 5. Types of Networks Peer-to-Peer Client-Server
  6. 6. Scope of Networks Local Area Network Wide Area Network
  7. 7. Local Area Networks <ul><li>Bus topology </li></ul><ul><li>Ring topology </li></ul>
  8. 8. Metropolitan Area Networks <ul><li>A metropolitan area network based on cable TV. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Wide Area Networks <ul><li>Relation between hosts on LANs and the subnet. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Wide Area Networks (2) <ul><li>A stream of packets from sender to receiver. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Wireless networks
  12. 12. Wireless Networks <ul><li>Categories of wireless networks: </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless LANs </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless WANs </li></ul>
  13. 13. Wireless Networks (2) <ul><li>(a) Bluetooth </li></ul><ul><li>(b) Wireless LAN </li></ul>
  14. 14. Topologies
  15. 15. Bus Topology Terminator Segment Terminator
  16. 16. Star Topology Hub
  17. 17. Ring Topology
  18. 18. Mesh Topology
  19. 19. Hybrid Topologies Star-Bus Bus Star-Ring
  20. 20. Devices for networking
  21. 21. Ethernet Collision Detection Carrier Sense Multiple Access Detects signal Transmits signal Collision detected Characteristics Description Access Method CSMA/CD Transfer Speed Standard Ethernet – 10 Mbps Fast Ethernet – 100 Mbps Gigabit Ethernet – 1 Gbps (1000 Mbps)
  22. 22. Network Cables Types of Cables Coaxial ThinNet ThickNet 10Base2, 10Base5 Fiber-Optics Twisted-Pair Unshielded (UTP) Shielded (STP) 10BaseT
  23. 23. Wireless Communication Devices Wireless Communication Devices Narrowband Radio Transmission Infrared Transmission
  24. 24. Repeaters and Hubs Repeater Hub Repeater Transmits data to all connected computers Hub Transmits data to all connected computers in a star topology
  25. 25. Bridges Bridge
  26. 26. Switches Switch
  27. 27. Routers Router Router Router Router
  28. 28. Gateways Gateway Ethernet Token Ring
  29. 29. Infrared Data Association (IrDA) Wireless Communication by Using IrDA Windows Client Mouse Laptop
  30. 30. Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model Application Layer Presentation Layer Session Layer Transport Layer Network Layer Data Link Layer Physical Layer
  31. 31. Some other facts about networking
  32. 32. IP Address Classes w x y z Class A Network ID Host ID Class B Network ID Host ID Class C Network ID Host ID
  33. 33. IP Addresses Host ID Network ID IP Address
  34. 34. The Internet Client Connection Using TCP/IP Protocol Server Text, Audio, Video, and Graphics Data Internet
  35. 35. Internet Services <ul><li>Electronic Mail (e-mail) </li></ul><ul><li>World Wide Web (WWW) </li></ul><ul><li>Chat </li></ul><ul><li>Internet News </li></ul><ul><li>File Transfer Protocol (FTP) </li></ul><ul><li>Telnet </li></ul>Internet
  36. 36. Intranets Intranet Extranet Internet
  37. 37. Uniform Resource Locator (URL) <ul><li>URL ( </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protocol used (http://) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DNS address ( </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Path on the server (/tutorial/default.html) </li></ul></ul>http:// / tutorial / default.html
  38. 38. Internet Protocols <ul><li>HTTP </li></ul><ul><li>HTTPS </li></ul><ul><li>FTP </li></ul><ul><li>SMTP </li></ul><ul><li>HTML </li></ul><ul><li>DHTML </li></ul>Server Data Client Connection Using an Internet Protocol Internet
  39. 39. Proxy Servers Proxy Server Authorized Web Site Restricted Web Site Internet LAN LAN LAN
  40. 40. Firewalls LAN LAN LAN Internet Firewall Authorized User Unauthorized User
  41. 41. Thank You