FORCE FIELD ANALYSIS
Kurt Lewin [1890 - 1947]
Kurt Lewin was an American
psychologist and having
contributed to science
group dynamics & action
research, but perhaps he is
being well known for
developing force field
Force field analysis is an influential development in the field
of social science. It provides a framework for looking at the
factors (forces) that influence a situation, originally social
situations. It looks at forces that are either driving movement
toward a goal (helping forces) or blocking movement toward a
goal (hindering forces).
Force field analysis is a management technique developed by Kurt
Lewin, a pioneer in the field of social sciences, for diagnosing
Lewin assumes that in any situation there are both driving and
restraining forces that influence any change that may occur:
Lewin’s Three-Step Model of
Lewin Organizational Change
Defining Concept of “Field”……
For Kurt Lewin behavior was determined by totality of an
In his field theory, a ‘field’ is defined as ‘the totality of coexisting
facts which are conceived of as mutually interdependent’.
FFA is an analysis technique to identify forces that either drive or restrain planned change
aimed at solving a problem in an organization.
FFA can be used to:
Identify the forces which support change as well as those which will act against it.
Assess the causes of performance problems or inhibitors to business opportunities.
Evaluate the relative strength of forces that affect alternative solutions to
performance problems or business opportunities.
Help analyze and prioritize solutions to problems or areas needing improvement.
Field Force Process is …
Force-field analysis focuses our attention on ways of
reducing the hindering forces and encouraging the
WHY TO USE?
oUnfreezing – melting away
oChange – departure from the status
oRefreezing – change becomes
When to Use It:
It helps team members to view each case as two sets of off
setting factors. It can be used to study existing problems, or
to anticipate and plan more effectively for implementing
In problem analysis, force-field analysis is especially helpful
in defining more subjective issues, such as morale,
management, effectiveness, and work climate.
Step 1. State the problem or desired state and make sure
that all team members understand.
Step 2. Brainstorm the positive and negative forces.
Step 3. Review and clarify each force or factor. What is
behind each factor? What works to balance the situation?
How to Use It?
Force-field Model of Change
Carrying Out a Force Field
To carry out a force field analysis, follow the
List all forces for change in one column, and all forces against change in
Assign a score to each force, from 1 (weak) to 5 (strong).
Draw a diagram showing the forces for and against, and the size of the
A model built on this idea that forces - persons, habits,
customs, attitudes - both drive and restrain change. It can
be used at any level (personal, project, organizational,
network) to visualize the forces that may work in favor and
against change initiatives. The diagram helps its user
picture the “Tug of War” between forces around a given
The Force Field Analysis is a method to:
Investigate the Balance of Power involved in issue
Identify the most important player (Stake holder) & target
group for the campaign on the issue
Identify opponents and Allies
Identify how to influence each target group
HOW TO CONDUCT
Following steps are taken:
Describe the current situation .
Describe the desired situation .
Identify where the current situation will go if no action is taken .
List all the forces driving change toward the desired situation .
List all the forces resisting change toward the desired situation .
Discuss and interrogate all of the forces: are they valid?
1. Good listening skills.
2. The ability to capture comments and help the group
to distill them into an action plan that minimizes/ removes
the negative forces and maximizes the positive forces.
Brings into the open factors which will work for and against
the closing of a gap
Identified by a needs analysis.
Helps to recognize circumstances which can and cannot be
Provides a means to analyze ways to minimize or eliminate
barriers to goal attainment.
The Limitations of Force Field
Process is subjective and requires collaborative thinking
Concerning forces for and against the solution to a
May oversimplify the relationships between factors that
impact a problem.
All aspects of a problem may not be identified.
The Principal Characteristics of Lewin's field
theory is summarized as follows:
1.Behavior is a function of the field that exists
at the time the behavior occurs.
2. Analysis begins with the situation as a whole
from which are differentiated the
3. The concrete person in a concrete situation
can represented mathematically.
This tool has a long history and still maintains its utility. Use
it when your team is blocked in some way or you need
to see the wider picture in a change program. It is an
essential tool and its simplicity is a profound way of
looking at an organization.