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Hydration and Choosing a Sports Drink. Plus hints on fuelling on the move! Melissa Arkinsall BSc (Hon) SRD, ASD
Dehydration  <ul><li>One of the most common causes of underperformance and heat illness. </li></ul><ul><li>Working muscles...
There is no acceptable level of dehydration for optimal performance. <ul><li>Thirst sensation only occurs after 1-2 litres...
What roles can a sports drink play? <ul><li>Providing fuel (carbohydrates) to top up blood sugar / glycogen stores and del...
When to use a sports drink. <ul><li>1.  Within an hour of exercise or before early morning workout. </li></ul><ul><li>2. D...
When not to use… <ul><li>As an everyday drink – high sugar, tooth decay and gum disease! </li></ul><ul><li>To replace more...
What to look for in a sports drink. <ul><li>ESSENTIALS: </li></ul><ul><li>Correct carbohydrate concentration –  </li></ul>...
Optional considerations. <ul><li>Protein  content – only for events lasting >90 mins. Some research, more evidence require...
What not to worry about! <ul><li>Vitamins – Your diet should provide adequate amounts, quantity in sports drinks not signi...
How much fluid do I need? <ul><li>Losses in land training average 1-1.5l / hour. In swimming 600-700ml / hour. </li></ul><...
Strategies <ul><li>Work out your sweat rate: </li></ul><ul><li>  Weight loss during training* / hours exercising = sweat r...
Special Considerations. <ul><li>For first 7-10 days in hot climate, choose higher sodium content. </li></ul><ul><li>For lo...
Other sources of fuel replacement on the go! <ul><li>Energy gels  – Compact / portable fuel. </li></ul><ul><li>1. Most nee...
Effective food choices for cycling. <ul><li>Breakfast / cereal bars (check fat content). </li></ul><ul><li>Pitta / panini ...
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Hydration Strategies - Choosing a Sports Drink

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Hydration Strategies - Choosing a Sports Drink

  1. 1. Hydration and Choosing a Sports Drink. Plus hints on fuelling on the move! Melissa Arkinsall BSc (Hon) SRD, ASD
  2. 2. Dehydration <ul><li>One of the most common causes of underperformance and heat illness. </li></ul><ul><li>Working muscles demand more blood to deliver oxygen and nutrients / remove waste. </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise requires more blood to skin to increase sweat rate and maintain body temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Dehydration lowers blood volume thus compromising these systems </li></ul>
  3. 3. There is no acceptable level of dehydration for optimal performance. <ul><li>Thirst sensation only occurs after 1-2 litres of fluid have been lost. </li></ul><ul><li>Water is sufficient for short duration, low intensity exercise. </li></ul><ul><li>Sports drinks have advantages for heavy exercise and racing. </li></ul><ul><li>In recovery – glycogen storage impaired if you are dehydrated. </li></ul>
  4. 4. What roles can a sports drink play? <ul><li>Providing fuel (carbohydrates) to top up blood sugar / glycogen stores and delay fatigue. </li></ul><ul><li>Hydration. </li></ul><ul><li>Electrolyte replenishment. </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing lean tissue breakdown. </li></ul><ul><li>Easier to digest / tolerate than solids during intense activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Convenient, non-perishable and compact to transport (powder mixes) </li></ul>
  5. 5. When to use a sports drink. <ul><li>1. Within an hour of exercise or before early morning workout. </li></ul><ul><li>2. During a workout lasting longer than 60-90 minutes (or high intensity interval sessions of 30-60 mins). </li></ul><ul><li>3. Immediately after exercise to kick-start rehydration and refuelling. </li></ul><ul><li>4. During a “carbohydrate loading” phase if difficult to consume enough food. </li></ul><ul><li>When you are training / competing several times in a day and have little time to digest food. </li></ul>
  6. 6. When not to use… <ul><li>As an everyday drink – high sugar, tooth decay and gum disease! </li></ul><ul><li>To replace more nutritious meals and snacks on non-race days – lack of fibre, iron, calcium, phytochemicals etc. </li></ul><ul><li>During low intensity / short duration workouts. </li></ul><ul><li>For the first time in a race!! </li></ul>
  7. 7. What to look for in a sports drink. <ul><li>ESSENTIALS: </li></ul><ul><li>Correct carbohydrate concentration – </li></ul><ul><li>Hypotonic for hydration only (2-4%) or to take with solid food / gels. </li></ul><ul><li>Isotonic for hydration and fuelling (4-8%). </li></ul><ul><li>Do not exceed 8% unless taking with additional water. </li></ul><ul><li>Contains electrolytes – Sodium is key. </li></ul><ul><li>Palatable and digestible – trial it!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Accessible at key races. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Optional considerations. <ul><li>Protein content – only for events lasting >90 mins. Some research, more evidence required. If using…. </li></ul><ul><li>1:3 to 1:4 Protein : carbohydrate ratio. </li></ul><ul><li>Type of carbohydrate : </li></ul><ul><li>A mix of sources preferable. </li></ul><ul><li>Fructose – useful for sustained energy supply but excess may contribute to GI problems. (Note Sucrose is formed from glucose + fructose). </li></ul><ul><li>Maltodextrins – Good for increasing energy supply without making drink too sweet. </li></ul><ul><li>Caffeine? Individual tolerance varies, may help reduce RPE, evidence suggests “drip-feeding” caffeine over longer events rather than one large dose beforehand. </li></ul>
  9. 9. What not to worry about! <ul><li>Vitamins – Your diet should provide adequate amounts, quantity in sports drinks not significant. </li></ul><ul><li>Branched Chain Amino acids– Added to combat “central fatigue”/muscle breakdown but if blood sugar kept stable, these are not required. </li></ul><ul><li>Ribose – No good evidence available. </li></ul><ul><li>Added oxygen!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Beware of herbal ingredients – risk of contaminants - WADA </li></ul>
  10. 10. How much fluid do I need? <ul><li>Losses in land training average 1-1.5l / hour. In swimming 600-700ml / hour. </li></ul><ul><li>Fluid requirements can double in hot weather. </li></ul><ul><li>Need to consume 150% of losses to rehydrate fully </li></ul><ul><li>(1kg weight loss requires 1.5 litres water). </li></ul>
  11. 11. Strategies <ul><li>Work out your sweat rate: </li></ul><ul><li> Weight loss during training* / hours exercising = sweat rate / hour. </li></ul><ul><li>(* total minus vol fluid consumed, plus fluid loss in urine). </li></ul><ul><li>Have a drinking strategy – e.g. watch alarm every 15 mins, keep a tally of bottles consumed. </li></ul><ul><li>Carry a drink right up until the race begins. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep a palatable drink in transition bag for straight after. (insulated container). </li></ul>
  12. 12. Special Considerations. <ul><li>For first 7-10 days in hot climate, choose higher sodium content. </li></ul><ul><li>For long events – powders more compact and easier to transport. </li></ul><ul><li>For Ironman distance – Powders allow you to vary concentration of drink as event progresses. </li></ul><ul><li>Note – Only take unopened tubs of powdered supplements on airlines!!!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Consider a variety of flavours to combat taste fatigue. </li></ul><ul><li>Consider calorie needs – hypotonic drinks insuffient for ironman!! </li></ul>
  13. 13. Other sources of fuel replacement on the go! <ul><li>Energy gels – Compact / portable fuel. </li></ul><ul><li>1. Most need to be taken with water. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Many are low in sodium – supplement on longer events / during acclimatisation. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Check whether contain caffeine. </li></ul><ul><li>Sports Bars – Compact, concentrated energy source. </li></ul><ul><li>Must be taken with fluid. </li></ul><ul><li>Can help to offset physical hunger. </li></ul><ul><li>Less suitable during run. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Effective food choices for cycling. <ul><li>Breakfast / cereal bars (check fat content). </li></ul><ul><li>Pitta / panini bread (fits in jersey pockets) </li></ul><ul><li>Pretzels / crackers (savoury alternative) </li></ul><ul><li>Malt loaf, fruit bread, fig rolls. </li></ul><ul><li>*50% Fruit juice / 50% water / pinch salt. </li></ul><ul><li>Jelly sweets / jelly cubes </li></ul><ul><li>Meal replacement drinks. </li></ul><ul><li>ALL accompanied with a drink of water! </li></ul><ul><li>(except *) </li></ul>

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