Crime and deviance


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basic outline of deviant theories. videos were used but will not appear on the public power point.

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  • Mechanisms of social control: a way of directing or influencing members’ behavior to conform to the group’s values and norms.
  • Sanctions: rewards or penalties used by a group’s members used to regulate an individual’s behavior Positive: encourage a behavior Negative: discourage the repetition or continuation of behavior Formal: applied as a public ritual: awarding of a prize or announcement of expulsion Informal: actions by group members that arise spontaneously with little or no formal direction: Gossip, Congratulations, ridicule
  • Informal Positive: smiles, pat on the back, handshake, congratulations, hugs Informal Negative: frowns, damaging gossip, impolite treatment toward the violator Formal Positive: Congressional Medals of Honor, diplomas, graduations, money Formal Negative: actions that institutionalize disapproval of a person’s behavior, expulsion, dismissal, fines, imprisonment
  • Innovator examples: cops, crooked politicians, drug dealers, fraudulent advertisers Ritualist example: people remain in the labor force but refuse to take risks that may remove their security Retreatists: Counter Culture, street rats, addicts Rebels: Bolsheviks, French Revolution, American Revolution
  • Who do you hang out with and who is your hero makes a large impact on whether you do deviance.
  • This theory is emphasizing that deviance will occur depending on the social bonds or connections one may have. If they have strong healthy bonds then one does not want to commit a serious deviant act like murder, stealing, cheating etc. If one does not have a strong social bond to a person or society then they may commit a more serious act like a school shooting etc. Think if you had nothing and no one in life what could anyone one of us be capable of doing to our self or others. Remember suicide is illegal. Not having a commitment can cause you to be deviant by taking your life. So with this theory think of it as one does deviant things if they do not have the bonds determined above.
  • the stigma discredits people in the minds of others Labeling theory: Ask the kids if they have ever labeled someone because of how they look or act? Have they ever been labeled. Have them discuss the different labels that exist in school. Why do they exist? What impact does it have on one if they are labeled in those groups? Label theory in deviance claims that one does deviance because they have been labeled to do so or to be devient. People in society can present labels in formal ways such as a degradation ceremony. The scarlet letter the woman was brought before the community and labeled an adultress. She then had to wear a scarlet letter on her outer clothing. Today: someone is labeled a sex offender and their name is posted in the newspaper or on line. Two types of labeling are retrospective and projective labeling. In retrospective you go back to the person’s past to determine their label. Retro means back or past. Example a priest is labeled a sex offender, people may say you know he always did take kids on private camping trips and he always kept his hand on the back of the alter boys’ shoulders, etc. You look at the priest’s past behavior to label him as sex offender or a molester. Projective labeling is looking at current behavior to predict the deviance they will commit. Pro means future. Example: Harold is a violent aggressive kid; he is going to be a bully and go to jail someday.
  • Doctors., Ambulance, psychiatrists ( medical) Moral= police and community Example they are not a psychotic murderer they are mentally ill. They are not disruptive they have ADHD. They are not a sex offender they have an addiction to pornography. What happens when you go from a morally wrong behavior to a medical excuse? Andrea Yates killed her five kids. Murder is the moral label. She was determined to suffer from post partum depression and had psychotic illness (schizophrenia). Does that change her perception in society? moral= criminal, offender, punishment medical= patient, treatment and support
  • Crime and deviance

    1. 1. Crime and Deviance Henry David Thoreau: “ people should refuse to obey any law they believe unjust”
    2. 2. Why do societies develop standards of right and wrong? <ul><li>Deviance: the recognized violation of cultural norms </li></ul><ul><li>Norms: rules and expectations by which society guides the behavior of its members </li></ul><ul><li>Moral Codes: “bad” or “good” “ right” or “wrong” look beyond the act </li></ul>
    3. 6. Functions of Deviance <ul><li>Causes the group’s members to close ranks </li></ul><ul><li>Prompts group to organize in order to limit future deviant acts </li></ul><ul><li>Clarify group’s beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>Teaches normal behavior by teaching rule violation </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerance of a deviant act may prevent a more serious act to occur later </li></ul>
    4. 7. Dysfunctions of Deviance <ul><li>Threatens social order by making social life difficult and unpredictable </li></ul><ul><li>Causes confusion about the norms and values of that society </li></ul><ul><li>Undermines trust </li></ul><ul><li>Diverts valuable resources </li></ul>
    5. 8. Mechanisms of Social Control
    6. 9. Internal control <ul><li>GUILT </li></ul><ul><li>Accept the rules and values </li></ul>
    7. 10. External Controls: Sanctions <ul><li>Positive or Negative </li></ul><ul><li>Formal or Informal </li></ul>
    8. 11. Assignment: <ul><li>List examples for each category: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Informal Positive Sanctions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informal Negative Sanctions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal Positive Sanctions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal Negative Sanctions </li></ul></ul>
    9. 12. Theories of Crime and Deviance <ul><li>Biological: Caesar Lombroso ( studied people in prisons early 1900’s) genetic factors examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low forehead </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prominent cheek bones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Big ears </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hairiness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unusually long arms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We know these to be untrue </li></ul></ul>
    10. 14. Anomie Theory by Emile Durkheim <ul><li>Smaller communities have more social control?! </li></ul><ul><li>Increased technology and specialization of communities increases anomie, which causes moral dilemmas, which in turn causes crime and deviance </li></ul>
    11. 16. Robert Merton: Strain theory <ul><li>American society pushes the importance of monetary success. How does one achieve this? </li></ul><ul><li>Innovators: accept culturally validated goals but find deviant ways of going about reaching it. Examples? </li></ul><ul><li>Ritualists : individuals who stick very closely to the rules in order to appear responsible Example? </li></ul><ul><li>Retreatists : people who reject society and drop out Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Rebels: reject both goals of unfair social order and the institutionalized means of achieving them. Examples. </li></ul>
    12. 18. Differential Association Theory <ul><li>Learn deviance depending on what and how much deviance you’re exposed to </li></ul><ul><li>More individuals are exposed to those that break the law the more apt they are to break the law </li></ul><ul><li>Three characteristics of differential association: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ratio of deviant to non-deviant individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whether the deviance is practiced by significant others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age of exposure </li></ul></ul>
    13. 19. Control Theory <ul><li>Conformity depends on the bonds b/w individuals and society </li></ul><ul><li>Social bonds prevent deviant acts </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t want to “lose face” </li></ul><ul><li>Bonds are determined by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attachment: do you trust others in your life? Who? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commitment: do you want to be with the others in your life? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involvement: Do you get involved actively in society? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Belief: Do you believe in the right things? Right people? </li></ul></ul>
    14. 21. Labeling Theory = Erving Goffman <ul><li>idea that conformity and deviance result not from what people do but how others respond to those actions </li></ul><ul><li>Stigma: a powerful label that greatly changes a person’s self concept and identity ( stigmatized) </li></ul><ul><li>degradation ceremony: stand before the community to be labeled in a negative way ( newspaper) </li></ul><ul><li>retrospective labeling: interpreting someone’s past in light of some present deviance ( child molester) </li></ul><ul><li>Projective Labeling: use deviant identity to predict future action </li></ul>
    15. 23. Alternative to deviant label? <ul><li>Medicalization of deviance </li></ul><ul><li>Trade moral label for a label of medical label </li></ul><ul><li>Who responds Medical? Moral? </li></ul><ul><li>How do people respond to Moral labeled? Medical labeled? </li></ul>