SOCIOLOGY AND IT‟S RELATIONS TO OTHER SCIENCES THE SOCIETY‟S EXPECTATION OF SCHOOL EMPOWERMENT IN EDUCATION
The word sociology (or "sociologie") is derived from both Latin and Greek origins. The Latin word: socius, "companion"; -ology, "the study of", and in Greek λόγος, lógos, "word", "knowledge". It was first coined in 1780 by the French essayist Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès (1748–1836) in an unpublished manuscript. Sociology was later defined independently by the French philosopher of science, Auguste Comte (1798–1857), in 1838. Comte used this term to describe a new way of looking at society. Comte had earlier used the term "social physics", but that had subsequently been appropriated by others, most notably the Belgian statistician Adolphe Quetelet. the study of community. It is a social science which uses various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis to develop a body of knowledge about human social activity. For many sociologists the goal is to conduct research which may be applied directly to social policy and welfare, while others focus primarily on refining the theoretical understanding of social processes. Subject matter ranges from the micro level of individual agency and interaction to the macro level of systems and the social structure.
RELATIONSHIP OF SOCIOLOGY TO THE OTHER SCIENCES
Economics deals with the economic activities of man. “ economics studies the aspects of production, distribution and exchange and consumption in society”. It studies the structure and function of economic organization like banks, factories, market, business, firms, corporations, transport. The focus of the economist is on the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services. Sociology also study economic behavior but it relates closely to social and cultural factors such as age sex, social class and ethic groups. Sociology studies all kind of social relationships . A great deal of human social behavior is economically motivated. The desire for economic gains and possession of material wealth are strong motivating forces for human behavior.
Anthropology is the science which studies man both animal and as living in society, his origins, development, distribution social habits and cultures . Anthropology is another social science that is related to sociology. They both share an interest in the past, with history and are concern with contemporary events. As anthropology and sociology develops the distinction between them has become blurred. However it has been argued that the difference between two disciplines is that anthropology emphasizes the study of a particular culture in its entirety and its uniqueness. Sociology on the other hand seeks to establish analytical principles of social organizations and social relationships and develop generalizations that are applicable to a wide variety of cultural context.
Sociology makes use of data and pieces of information that are provided by historians in order to form certain generalizations about society and social interactions. History is the reconstruction of man‟s past. It is study of the experience of man kind. It is a record of the human past. Historian are interested in what happened at a particular time in the past. Historian are only concentrate only on the past. History: History is a study of past, which people have already lived. Data for historian come in the form of records form museums, libraries and personal collection of people. History deals with the past events of man. It is silent regarding the present History is an age-old social science. It has a long story of 2000 years or even more. History is descriptive science. History is an individualizing science. Sociology as science of society on the other hand is interested in the present. It studies various stages of human life. Sociology has thus to depend upon the history for its materials. e.g. If he wants to study of marriage and family he must study their historical development also.
Political science deals with political activities of man. It has its own topics such as origin, evolution and functions of state, the forms of Government, types of constitutions, administration law, legislation, elections, voting, political movements. Political science is concerned with state. There are some common topics of interest for both sociologist and political scientists. Such as war, mass movements, government control, public opinion, propaganda, leadership, elections, voting. Further many social problems are also deep political problems (clashes of Muslims and Christians, Hindus and Muslims, Asian and Europeans. Sociologists are interested in the study of the social interactions involved in human political activities, the distribution of power in the society, the formation of political dynasties, and the role of women and ethnic groups in political events.
Psychology is interested in the study of what goes on “within” the individual, his inner needs, drives, interests, intelligence, motives, hopes and fears. Sociology is concerned with the study of “what goes on among and between” people, his social interactions , social structure, values, customs, laws, morals, etc. Psychologists try to understand the working of the human mind (thoughts, emotions, principles, experience) and how this affects ones behavior. It is a separate discipline from Sociology but does assists sociologists in explaining some sociological processes. Sociology can also help in explaining some of the aspects of Psychology, for example: how ones social environment (sociology) influenced his principles and beliefs (psychology).
One distinct difference between sociology and the other social sciences is, sociology is a discipline that mainly nurtures, and its nurturing has a much stronger influence on human behavior than, let‟s say psychology, which focuses on the nature aspect. Where sociology focuses on an individual‟s behavior in relation to society, psychology places more importance on the genetic framework that influences an individual‟s behavior. A case in point is Emile Durkheim‟s demonstration of how social factors affect human behavior, in his research done on suicide. Durkheim‟s study showed how rates of suicide were based on certain variables in the society. The study concentrated on the variables in the society that were influencing individuals to commit suicide rather than study the individuals themselves. Sociology takes a broad approach to helping us understand human interactions while other social sciences focus on specific areas. As a discipline, sociology does not focus on certain specific areas of human behavior as do political science and economics, but rather seeks to explain the broad range of human behavior as it is influenced by society and human groups. James Augustus Cotter Morrison wrote, “it is hardly necessary to add that a broad distinction must be made between history and what has been called the philosophy of history, a term now replaced by the far better one “sociology” invented by Comte. Sociology has the purely scientific aim of investigating the nature and constitution of societies, to discover the laws which regulate their growth and decay, to do in short for them what biology has already done for the animal and vegetable kingdoms. History, while it can never again dispense with the assistance of sociology, remains occupied with the description of the social organism (at a given period) in its ensemble and the term “descriptive sociology” has been suggested as an improvement for the old one, history.
Society has high expectations of schools. Society doesn‟t just expect a good standard of education that prepares young people for their professional lives (qualifications) and for participation in society (socialization). Schools are also expected to tackle other social problems, for example: providing security, preventing alcohol abuse, making kids „media wise‟, fighting segregation, breakfast club, etc.
Three forms of societal expectations – parental demands, external regulations and employer needs – have influenced the learning goals adopted in historical schools. Parental influence and requirements directed the core curriculum heavily in classical antiquity and external regulations from religious organizations and governments played key roles in the middle ages and the modern era. Though the established school systems embraced the earlier external regulations in both periods, they resisted later changes in the societal expectations to their own demise. The post- modern era schools had learning goals that were driven by the need for workers during the industrial revolution and embraced change in its facilities, structure, teaching methods, and philosophy.
Societal expectations and emergent learning theories are, therefore, indicators of the changes a school system may need to respond to in order to remain relevant. The socio- cultural, institutional and intellectual environments of school systems are amenable to change, but the physical learning environments are not.
Empowerment refers to increasing the political, social or economic strength of individuals or groups. It often involves the empowered developing confidence in their own capacities. Sociological empowerment often addresses members of groups that social discrimination processes have excluded from decision-making processes through - for example - discrimination based on race, ethnicity, religion, gender etc.