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How to actually do
              customer
           development
                  @robfitz




(and not waste your time)
Why bother
    talking to
     people?
(when we could be building!)

                       @robfitz
@robfitz
2 stages of learning

    1.        2.
Discovery Validation
2 stages of learning


  Learn Confirm
2 stages of learning


  “Ask”    “Sell”
Do we
 understand
this industry?
Do we
 understand
this industry?


   Does
 anybody
care at all?
Do we         Are we
 understand building the
this industry?right product?


   Does
 anybody
care at all?
Do we         Are we
 understand building the
this industry?right product?


   Does
 anybody
                Will they
care at all?   pay for it?
❝
Build something
people want!

    Paul Graham
                  ❞
    @paulg
But it’s super easy
to screw up these
    interviews

                @robfitz
Anybody will say
your idea is great
if you annoy them
 for long enough.

               @robfitz
A man wakes up, turns
on the radio, goes
upstairs, turns on the
lights, and kills himself.

Why?
(Note: this slide, and several others, are accompanied by mini-workshops which I can’t really replicate
without being in the room. If you want to bring me in-house and hear the punchline, ping @robfitz)
(picture of wedding ring for
commitment)
1. best: take their money

2. okay: take their email with permission to
   contact them




                                               Image by wstryder
The mom test
1. Never ask their opinion, especially about your
   idea

2. Ask about their life

3. Ask about specifics in the past

  (“Talk me through the last time you...”)
(Note: This is another workshop slide. It is super fun. The suspense is killing you!)

                                                                                        Image by sleepyneko
Good or
   bad
questions?
         @robfitz
❝
Do think it’s a
good idea?
                  ❞
     Us
❝
Do think it’s a
good idea?
                  ❞
     Us
❝Would you buy a
  product which
  solved this problem?
                         ❞
       Us
❝Would you buy a
  product which
  solved this problem?
                         ❞
       Us
❝How do you
 currently deal with
 this problem?
                       ❞
      Us
❝How do you
 currently deal with
 this problem?
                       ❞
      Us
❝Talk me through
 the last time you
 had this problem
                     ❞
      Us
❝Talk me through
 the last time you
 had this problem
                     ❞
      Us
❝
How much would
you pay for this?
                    ❞
     Us
❝
How much would
you pay for this?
                    ❞
     Us
❝How much money
 does this problem
 cost you?
                     ❞
      Us
❝How much money
 does this problem
 cost you?
                     ❞
      Us
❝
Is there a budget
for it?
                    ❞
     Us
❝
Is there a budget
for it?
                    ❞
     Us
❝
Who else should I
talk to?
                    ❞
     Us
❝
Who else should I
talk to?
                    ❞
     Us
So, we just had
  a meeting.
  But did we
make progress?
             @robfitz
So, we just had
  a meeting.
  But did we
make progress?
             @robfitz
❝
Sounds great. I
love it!
                  ❞
     Claudia
❝
Sounds great. I
love it!
                  ❞
     Claudia
❝Brilliant -- let me
  know when it
  launches!
                       ❞
       Jeremy
❝Brilliant -- let me
  know when it
  launches!
                       ❞
       Jeremy
Compliment
+ Stalling tactic
They don’t care

               @robfitz
❝There are a couple
  people I can intro you
  to, when you’re ready.
                           ❞
        Jeremy
❝There are a couple
  people I can intro you
  to, when you’re ready.
                           ❞
        Jeremy
Partial
commitment
(Is there a valid reason
  he can’t connect you
         now?)
                     @robfitz
❝
I would definitely
buy that!
                     ❞
     Claudia
❝
I would definitely
buy that!
                     ❞
     Claudia
DANGER!!!
(A promising signal,
  but people can’t
 predict their own
    behaviour)
                  @robfitz
Opinions
   are
worthless.
         @robfitz
Real learning
≫ Concrete facts about customer’s lives
≫ Solid commitments


≫ Not opinions
≫ Not “would you...” questions
False positives
    cause
  heartbreak
       :(
             @robfitz
(picture of wedding ring for
commitment)
1. best: take their money

2. okay: take their email with permission to
   contact them




                                               Image by elsie
Commitment is the best
signal
1. Ideally, they give you money

2. And if not, the conversation needs to advance
Examples of advancement
1. Permission to contact again

2. Clear next meeting

3. Introduction to decision-maker

4. Commitment to run a trial

5. Pre-purchase
Compliments
  are not
commitments
         @robfitz
3 rules for good
conversations
1. Ask open-ended questions

2. Which pass the mom test

3. And leave with a commitment
It helps to pre-plan
    the questions
      you’ll ask
Questions?
  (next up is
 practicalities)


                   @robfitz
Do interviews in teams of 2
One asks questions

The other writes down answers
Write down everything they
say
Use quick emotion symbols
≫ Emotions - happy, sad/frustrated, embarrassed


  :) :( :|
≫ Workflow - problem, obstacle, workaround


  ! [] ~
Sales is
  scary
(but can be learned)

                       @robfitz
Sales is scary
≫ You can learn it
  > It’s a predictable process
  > Having a framework helps
  > Read “SPIN Selling” by Neil Rackham
≫ Focus on mastering your field
  > Customers will love to talk to & learn from
    you
Cust dev is
  weird!
 (so keep it quick &
       casual)
                       @robfitz
Cust Dev is awkward
≫   Look for advisors, not customers

≫   Do cocktail custdev

≫   Organise & host industry meetups

≫   Personally email your first 1000 signups

≫   Speak at conferences

≫   Do free consulting or have office hours

≫   Write a book of industry interviews

≫   Write an industry blog

≫   Host user meetups & product previews
Advisors
≫ Earlyvangelists are ideal industry & customer
  advisors

≫ Gives you a reason for talking to them before having
  a finished product

≫ Reframes the conversation with you in control
≫ If they aren’t excited enough to join the advisory
  board, they probably aren’t going to be your first
  customer

≫ Secret weapon of customer development
Cocktail cust dev
≫ This ever happen?
   > Meet a perfect customer
   > Get their business card
   > Can’t wait to learn from them
   > Never see them again
≫ Keep the top 3 questions always in mind
   > Ask one as soon as you meet someone relevant
≫ You learn, and they enjoy the interesting question
Learn       Find out
about a     whether
new         people
industry or care at
customer. all.

                  @robfitz
Talking is useful if you...
≫ Form good questions
  > Specifics
  > About the customer
  > Which pass the mom test
≫ Know what you need to ask
≫ Write it down
Boom chicka bow-wow
                                @robfitz




http://thestartuptoolkit.com
http://bootstrapchallenge.com

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How to actually do customer development (and not waste your time)

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