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Effective use of library by Pasifika- slanza


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Presentation for SLANZA conference 2011, including :
knowing your students;
knowing education goals and issues for Pasifika students;
print and digital resources;
strategies that will engage;
Library environment

Published in: Education, Technology
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Effective use of library by Pasifika- slanza

  1. 1. Encouraging effective use of the school library by Pasifika students SLANZA Conference 2011 Rob Finlay & Gail Cochrane Talofa lava Malo e lelei Kia orana Fakaalofa lahi atu Ni sa bula Malo ni Namaste Kia ora Welcome
  2. 2. In groups… What do these look like? <ul><li>A. A library effectively-used by Pasifika students </li></ul><ul><li>B. A library not effectively- used by Pasifika students </li></ul><ul><li>Think of: </li></ul><ul><li>Activities - what is not happening? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- what is happening? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Attitudes to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Being in the library/ library staff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reading and learning </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Reflection on our discussion <ul><li>What makes a difference, in your experience or observation? </li></ul><ul><li>In what ways do Pasifika students respond like or unlike others? </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Do Pasifika students require a different approach from other students? </li></ul><ul><li>If so what needs to be different? </li></ul>
  4. 4. A library effectively used by Pasifika students is one that is…
  5. 5. Pasifika advice, inspiration and support <ul><li>Schools services website </li></ul><ul><li>Online community on Schools website Please join </li></ul><ul><li>Adviser Pasifika: [email_address] : (09) 365 8814 </li></ul><ul><li>Local networking where there are several schools with high Pasifika rolls- common interest </li></ul><ul><li>Your local Pasifika staff, parents, churches, community and public library (Pasifika librarians) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Outline <ul><li>Knowing your students </li></ul><ul><li>Knowing the education goals and issues for Pasifika students </li></ul><ul><li>Print and digital resources </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies that will engage Pasifika students and their families with the library, and with literacy and learning </li></ul><ul><li>The Library environment </li></ul>
  7. 7. 1. Knowing your students <ul><li>Know your students as individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Meet members of their families and communities </li></ul><ul><li>Involve Pasifika staff </li></ul><ul><li>Learn about the cultures, language and histories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tagata Pasifika </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Literature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magazines </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Heritage strands <ul><li>“ Oceania” </li></ul><ul><li>A sea of islands </li></ul><ul><li>Samoa Tokelau Cook Is Tonga Niue Fiji Tuvalu Other </li></ul><ul><li>Colonial experience </li></ul><ul><li>Colonising powers- variable/ Missionaries/ Traders/ Languages/ Settlers/ Travel/ </li></ul><ul><li>Migration </li></ul><ul><li>Island born -- NZ born </li></ul><ul><li> 2/3/4 generations/ intermarriage </li></ul><ul><li>New Zealand social, economic, educational experience </li></ul>
  9. 9. Melanesia Micronesia Polynesia Britain France Germany USA European Chinese Indian afakasi Traders Beachcombers Labourers Missionaries Settlers Sailors Administrators Soldiers Slavers Lapita High islands Atolls vaka/va’a Kanaks Islanders PI Influenza “Black Saturday” Dawn raids Pacific War Polynesian Panthers Treaty of Friendship Remittences Sione’s Wedding Fresh off the boat Churches, gangs and role models palagi Tagata Maori vanua moana Moby Dick Tusitala- RLS Noble savage Sons for the return home Tupaea Vikings of the sunrise Girl in the moon circle Niu Sila Australia
  10. 10. Varying strengths of cultural identity <ul><li>Fluent language and “island” culture </li></ul><ul><li>(Island born, strong church/ family identity) </li></ul><ul><li>Pasifika culture </li></ul><ul><li>Identity and identification as Pasifika </li></ul><ul><li>Assimilation </li></ul><ul><li>(New Zealand born, Mixed-parentage, Isolation) </li></ul>
  11. 11. 2. Knowing the education goals and issues for Pasifika students <ul><li>“ Pasifika children often underachieve in literacy and exhibit disengagement and alienation at school. National and international reports on literacy performance continue to reveal low levels of achievement in reading among Pasifika students, to the extent that raising the levels of achievement in this area has become a focus for targeted funding in MOE initiatives .” </li></ul><ul><li> (Motivating Pasifika students in literacy learning) </li></ul><ul><li>What approaches can we take to this issue? </li></ul><ul><li>What is ‘Deficit thinking’? </li></ul>
  12. 12. Compass for Pasifika success and the Pasifika Education Plan <ul><li>Compulsory sector goals </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure improved progress in literacy and numeracy </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing responsiveness to Pasifika learners and families </li></ul><ul><li>Increase effective engagement between Pasifika parents, families and teachers and schools focussed on learning </li></ul><ul><li>Where do school libraries contribute to these goals? </li></ul><ul><li>How do school libraries contribute? </li></ul>
  13. 13. How much attention is given to Pasifika students at your school? <ul><li>Consider </li></ul><ul><li>Number/ proportion of Pasifika students </li></ul><ul><li>Number/ proportion of Pasifika staff </li></ul><ul><li>Access from Pasifika families and other adults </li></ul><ul><li>Policy </li></ul><ul><li>Special occasions </li></ul><ul><li>Library </li></ul>
  14. 14. 3. Print and digital resources <ul><li>For students </li></ul><ul><li>In Pacific languages </li></ul><ul><li>About Pacific heritage in the Islands </li></ul><ul><li>About the Pasifika experience in New Zealand </li></ul><ul><li>Other resources that Pasifika students will identify with </li></ul><ul><li>For Pasifika- resources that appeal </li></ul><ul><li>Engaging with the world </li></ul>
  15. 15. Two further questions <ul><li>How can we bring Pacific Islands/ Pasifika worlds and works into the classroom? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>for Pasifika students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>for non-Pasifika students </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How can we bring mainstream worlds and works to our Pasifika learners in a relevant and meaningful way? </li></ul>P NP
  16. 16. About Pacific heritage: a question of approach <ul><li>Siteine and Samu: three perspectives used in Social Science units </li></ul><ul><li>Oceanic - holistic, “draws attention to ancient Pacific people’s ways of seeing their world and to their actions in the present” </li></ul><ul><li>Small island - looks at individual “island states in terms of the geographic and economic features of the island state” </li></ul><ul><li>Tourist - has the effect of putting students with Pacific backgrounds “on show”, and “can serve to perpetuate the stereotypes, misrepresent cultural realities, and undermine a sense of belonging and identity.” </li></ul>
  17. 17. How people are represented is important <ul><li>Patricia Grace (Pihama p 239): </li></ul><ul><li>“ If books do not… reinforce values, actions, customs, culture and identity, then they are dangerous… If there are not books that tell us about ourselves but only tell us about others, then they are saying ‘you do not exist’ and that is dangerous… However, if there are books that are about you and they are untrue, that is very dangerous… If there are books about you but they are negative and insensitive so that they are saying ‘you are not good’, that is dangerous.” </li></ul>
  18. 18. Print resources <ul><li>Discuss: </li></ul><ul><li>The challenge: What are the issues? </li></ul><ul><li>The providers: Where do you go for resources? </li></ul><ul><li>The resources: What do you look for in resources for Pasifika students? </li></ul><ul><li>The alternatives: Where do you go when there aren’t print resources? </li></ul>
  19. 19. Pasifika languages <ul><li>Which languages? and why? </li></ul><ul><li>Samoan Tongan Cook Is Maori Niuean Tokelauan </li></ul><ul><li> Hindi Fijian Tuvaluan Kiribati Tok Pisin </li></ul><ul><li>Bilingual </li></ul><ul><li>Resources available </li></ul><ul><li>Collect and preserve Tupu and Folauga material (MOE) </li></ul><ul><li>Sources: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnic Word: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Book Hut: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wheelers: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Native Council: </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Easy language materials for junior students- single language
  21. 21. Bilingual resources <ul><li>Support literacy in both languages </li></ul><ul><li>Bilingual approach helps students with basic literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Bilingual resources, eg Bibles in Samoan/English, etc </li></ul><ul><li>Bilingual pages </li></ul><ul><li>Parallel translations in separate books, eg Tupu </li></ul>Samoan Niuean
  22. 22. Easy language materials for junior students- bilingual Series in English and either Tongan, Samoan or Maori / Kahukura, Ahurewa New, from Native Council for PEC Also Tongan, more to come
  23. 23. Reference For children, by Betty Dunford, Bess Press, $204.30 Wheelers price
  24. 24. These are available , but many Pacific language dictionaries are out of print or in limited supply Digitisation may be a solution, eg Maori:
  25. 25. Myths and legends – bilingual/ English Tongan-English myths series Samoan-English TKI: Pasifika - Digital Legends English
  26. 26. Tagata tangata series: Oceanic perspectives Pearson/ Longman/ Secondary Note: these are textbooks, but we need the useful information. Useful case studies Pasifika: Study of Island Communities in the Southwest Pacific
  27. 27. Small island perspectives Not currently available Souvenirs of the South Pacific- out of stock and out of print
  28. 28. Tourist perspectives : Travel brochures Travel guides
  29. 29. History South Pacific History in Suite 101
  30. 30. Exploring the Pacific Pacific Voyaging Society http:// / Vaka moana exhibitions http:// Pacific vaka voyage : request a Google Alert for this current voyage. See also: Tue 26/04/2011 out of print
  31. 31. Science Tuvalu, rising sea levels
  32. 32. About Pasifika experience in New Zealand The sad story of an island-born boy, Fa’amoana John Luafutu- from Macmillan Brown
  33. 33. Short stories and collections Not currently available
  34. 34. Picture books Tongan Samoan Bilingual Also by Catherine Hannken: Sel a fina , Fiapule Sole! books by Fata and Paula Letoa- OP
  35. 35. Picture books International Children's Digital Library New Zealand Picture Book Collection ; Living Heritage
  36. 36. Pacific writing - general
  37. 37. Pasifika poetry <ul><li>Selina Tusitala Marsh and Pasifika poetry </li></ul><ul><li>Voices of the Pacific: a poetry resource, Diana O’Meara- includes Pasifika poets and writing about Pacific themes </li></ul><ul><li>-South Auckland Poets Collective </li></ul>
  38. 38. Pasifika drama <ul><li>Sensitive use required </li></ul><ul><li>http:// / </li></ul>
  39. 39. Pasifika fiction – primary and intermediate Very little Joy Cowley Eve Sutton
  40. 40. Pasifika fiction – secondary/ adult level Usually written for adults, may appeal to serious seniors
  41. 41. Pasifika fiction – by non-Pasifika writers
  42. 42. Art and Music
  43. 43. Cooking and food Me’a Kai won New Zealand Best Book of the Year in the Gourmand World Cookbook Awards , Dec 2010, and Gourmand World Cookbook Awards June 2011
  44. 44. Using other resources that reflect analogous experience
  45. 45. Discussion: From your observation, what resources appeal to Pasifika students? What are the features in these resource s that appeal? What strategies have you used successfully to draw Pasifika students to ‘mainstream worlds and works’?
  46. 46. Elements that are likely to appeal <ul><li>Humour </li></ul><ul><li>Sport </li></ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul><ul><li>Injustice, oppression, succeeding against the odds </li></ul><ul><li>Biographies: famous men and women </li></ul><ul><li>Heroes </li></ul><ul><li>Poetry </li></ul><ul><li>Horror </li></ul><ul><li>War books </li></ul><ul><li>Adventure books </li></ul><ul><li>Graphic novels but response - varies between schools </li></ul><ul><li>Shakespeare </li></ul><ul><li>Bible stories </li></ul><ul><li>Maori myths and legends </li></ul><ul><li>Magazines </li></ul><ul><li>Romances </li></ul>Usually no difference from anyone else Needs to be cool ‘ High interest, not just because it has Pasifika language or setting’
  47. 47. Digital resources- a survey
  48. 48. NZETC- N Z Electronic Text Centre <ul><li>Contemporary Maori and Pacific Islands </li></ul><ul><li>Historic Maori and Pacific Islands </li></ul>
  49. 50. Visual resources <ul><li>Matapihi : http:// / </li></ul><ul><li>Timeframes : </li></ul><ul><li>PictureAustralia : http:// / </li></ul><ul><li>Material culture: Virtual Museum of the Pacific : http:// /# </li></ul>
  50. 51. General search <ul><li>Digital New Zealand: http:// / . </li></ul>
  51. 52. Pacific Island cultures <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Living Heritage: http:// / </li></ul><ul><li>National Library Website high interest topics: http:// /high-interest-topics </li></ul>
  52. 53. History <ul><li>NZ History online: http:// </li></ul><ul><li>PapersPast: </li></ul><ul><li> online magazine </li></ul><ul><ul><li> historic and recent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Topics from Oceania: units for junior secondary history </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  53. 54. Resources for parents <ul><li>To attract them to the Library </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pasifika newspapers, magazines and news websites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taro Pages website (Auckland) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To (also) help them with parenting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SKIP (Strategies for Kids/ Information for Parents), Ministry of Social Development (Samoan, Tongan and Hindi ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feed the mind resources in five Pacific languages and English </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Borrowing rights for pre-school siblings </li></ul></ul>
  54. 55. 4. Strategies that will engage Pasifika students and their families with the Library, with literacy and learning
  55. 56. Principles for Pasifika student learning <ul><li>Common cultural and identity characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Each individual/ family/ community is different </li></ul><ul><li>Schools are different </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multicultural schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mainly Pasifika schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller Pasifika numbers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Providing for diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Providing for Pasifika “as Pasifika” </li></ul><ul><li>Providing for excellence </li></ul>
  56. 57. Providing for diversity <ul><li>Most Pasifika students are in multicultural schools </li></ul><ul><li>Preferred learning style varies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>communal and cooperative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>individual </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Know your students </li></ul>
  57. 58. Providing “for Pasifika as Pasifika” <ul><li>Colouring in the white spaces, Ann Milne, APPA, 2009 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ white spaces” = schools sharing in the “background set of rules”, the risk of hegemony </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ka Hikitia </li></ul><ul><li>Research indicates that Pasifika students do better when taught under Te Kotahitanga principles </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Pasifika students at (Te Kotahitanga) schools had a 15.4 increase (in NCEA) over the same period compared to a 6.1 general increase for Pasifika&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Timperley, H., Wilson, A., Barrar, H., Fung, I., & Auckland, U. o. (2007 ) p.261 </li></ul><ul><li>Kotahitanga- an overview </li></ul>
  58. 59. Providing for excellence- Teachers (and librarians) can improve outcomes for Pasifika learners when they : <ul><li>Know the learner </li></ul><ul><li>Use home language(s), knowledge and experiences of Pasifika students… in the classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure that students’ prior knowledge and experiences are activated and used to build a bridge between what they already know and new knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a range of culturally relevant texts, topics, contexts and perspectives </li></ul>Draft Pasifika principles- Team Solutions Talanoa Akoako, 2008
  59. 60. Teachers and librarians can improve outcomes for Pasifika learners when they: (2) <ul><li>Provide deliberate and explicit, transparent instruction about language as well as learning content </li></ul><ul><li>Provide high challenge with appropriate level of support </li></ul><ul><li>Provide multiple learning opportunities with a focus on learners using academic language </li></ul><ul><li>Make productive links with family and community </li></ul>Draft Pasifika principles- Team Solutions Talanoa Akoako, 2008
  60. 61. Strategies for Literacy <ul><li>Home-school partnerships </li></ul><ul><li>Reading to </li></ul><ul><li>Reading choice – Free and Voluntary Reading- and responses </li></ul><ul><li>Seeing adults and seniors read </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraging reading at school </li></ul><ul><li>Peer reading </li></ul><ul><li>Books at home </li></ul><ul><li>Letting students borrow books- scaffolding borrowing process </li></ul><ul><li>Reading together- Jeanne Biddulph </li></ul><ul><li>Summer reading </li></ul>
  61. 62. 4. The Library environment <ul><li>S ocial </li></ul><ul><li>O pportunity for involvement </li></ul><ul><li>C ulture and language </li></ul><ul><li>I nvolvement with the wider community </li></ul><ul><li>A esthetic and accoustic </li></ul><ul><li>L imits </li></ul>
  62. 63. S ocial <ul><li>Library as fono - meeting place </li></ul><ul><li>A place becomes home when you can relax there </li></ul><ul><li>Homework centre </li></ul><ul><li>Special occasions for Pasifika hosted in the Library </li></ul><ul><li>Parent involvement </li></ul><ul><li>How do you create an atmosphere that draws Pasifika students? </li></ul>
  63. 64. O pportunity for involvement <ul><li>As Student Librarians </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility for Pasifika collection, displays </li></ul><ul><li>Pasifika teacher involvement with the Library team, student librarians </li></ul><ul><li>Targeted activities </li></ul>
  64. 65. C ulture and language <ul><li>Knowing the students and their cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Resources in Pasifika languages, about Pasifika themes </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate use of language in labelling </li></ul><ul><li>Sensitivity, eg pronunciation </li></ul><ul><li>Visibility </li></ul>
  65. 66. I nvolvement with the wider community <ul><li>Pasifika teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Pasifika public librarians </li></ul><ul><li>Links with Pasifika community leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Pasifika parents </li></ul><ul><li>Pasifika events advertised (see Pasifika Online Community) </li></ul>
  66. 67. A esthetic and acoustic <ul><li>Appearance- what does a Pasifika home look like? </li></ul><ul><li>Architectural features </li></ul><ul><li>Layout and design </li></ul><ul><li>Art and displays </li></ul><ul><li>Labelling </li></ul><ul><li>Sound- voices and music </li></ul>Robertson Rd Mangere Koru Mangere Viscount, Mangere
  67. 68. L imits <ul><li>Being at home includes a sense of appropriateness- boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Being responsible as well as comfortable </li></ul>
  68. 69. In your small groups <ul><li>What steps could you take to encourage Pasifika students to respond positively to the school library? (attitudes) </li></ul><ul><li>What other people/groups within/outside the school could you draw on to help make a difference? </li></ul><ul><li>What learning activities would you facilitate both in and beyond the school library that will enhance Pasifika student literacy and learning? </li></ul><ul><li>Draw up one priority action for each of Term 3 and 4, and another 2 for 2012 </li></ul>
  69. 70. <ul><li>Koe kia </li></ul>Tofa soifua Nofo a Aere ra Ni sa moce Olo la ni ‘ Bye Haere Ra
  70. 72. National Administration Guidelines (NAGs) <ul><li>NAG1(c) on the basis of good quality assessment information, identify students and groups of students : </li></ul><ul><li>who are not achieving; </li></ul><ul><li>who are at risk of not achieving; </li></ul><ul><li>who have special needs (including gifted and talented students); and </li></ul><ul><li>aspects of the curriculum which require particular attention ; </li></ul><ul><li>NAG2A (c) report in the board’s annual report on: </li></ul><ul><li>the numbers and proportions of students at, above, below or well below the standards, including by Māori, Pasifika and by gender (where this does not breach an individual’s privacy); and </li></ul><ul><li>how students are progressing against the standards as well as how they are achieving. </li></ul>
  71. 73. The National Education Goals (NEGs) <ul><li>NEG 1 </li></ul><ul><li>The highest standards of achievement, through programmes which enable all students to realise their full potential as individuals, and to develop the values needed to become full members of New Zealand's society. </li></ul><ul><li>NEG 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Equality of educational opportunity for all New Zealanders , by identifying and removing barriers to achievement. </li></ul><ul><li>NEG 10 </li></ul><ul><li>Respect for the diverse ethnic and cultural heritage of New Zealand people, with acknowledgment of the unique place of Māori, and New Zealand's role in the Pacific and as a member of the international community of nations. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  72. 74. 3. Strategies to encourage engagement with re sources <ul><li>Literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Information literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>
  73. 75. 21 st century literacies and learning <ul><li>Inquiry approach- questions </li></ul><ul><li>The advantages of an inquiry approach </li></ul><ul><li>Topics and themes </li></ul>
  74. 76. 4. Interactive session: <ul><li>An example- Sorry Samoa (Level 1 NCEA/ Level 5) </li></ul><ul><li>Working for your school </li></ul><ul><li>Locate resources for a unit you/ your school have planned </li></ul>
  75. 77. Sorry Samoa The background to Helen Clark’s apology, June 2002 Using Digital Resources to put Pacific Islands Culture and Heritage into the curriculum
  76. 78. Interactive session <ul><li>Take a unit of work envisaged for your school: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suggestions: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Picture books/ Poetry/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Myths and legends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A Social Studies theme in the Pacific Islands or immigration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A historical event, eg Nuclear testing, War in the Pacific </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Locate resources- print and digital- to support the unit </li></ul><ul><li>Explore- think about access issues on school computers and how they could be used to develop interest. </li></ul>
  77. 80. Information for educators <ul><li>Team Solutions Pasifika advisers: </li></ul>
  78. 81. Providing for excellence <ul><li>Quality teaching and school structures are vital: a good teacher (or librarian) is a good teacher (or librarian) for Pasifika students as long as there is: </li></ul><ul><li>Empathy, understanding, good relationships and involvement </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding of the cultures </li></ul><ul><li>High expectations and firm boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Positive reinforcement and support </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate learning environments conducive to learning </li></ul><ul><li>Encouragement and support for students to understand learning processes and use effective learning tools in order to become independent learners </li></ul>
  79. 82. NZETC- N Z Electronic Text Centre <ul><li>Arts and Crafts of the Cook Islands </li></ul><ul><li>Collected songs and legends from the southern Cook Islands </li></ul><ul><li>Old Samoa by  John B. Stair </li></ul><ul><li>The Material Culture of the Cook Islands ( Aitutaki ) by  Te  Rangi   Hiroa </li></ul><ul><li>The Fijians: A Study of the Decay of Custom by  Basil Thomson </li></ul><ul><li>Polynesian Researches by  Ellis, William </li></ul><ul><li>An Introduction to Polynesian Anthropology by  Te  Rangi   Hiroa </li></ul><ul><li>Vikings of the Sunrise by  Te  Rangi   Hiroa  (Sir Peter Henry Buck) </li></ul><ul><li>An Account of Samoan History up to 1918 by  Te'o   Tuvale </li></ul>
  80. 83. Engagement with Publisher and Supplier <ul><li>Mary Hooker, South Pacific Books, now part of Wheelers Books </li></ul><ul><li>Evotia Tamua, Little Island Press, at Wheelers Books </li></ul><ul><li>Rachael Crowhen, The Book Hut </li></ul><ul><li>Our questions </li></ul><ul><li>Answers </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Follow up </li></ul>
  81. 84. Pasifika Students’ Resource Needs, Interests and Attitudes <ul><li>Focus- on Pasifika students’ learning </li></ul><ul><li>Are their learning needs different from those of others? If so, what are they? </li></ul><ul><li>Do they have interests and attitudes that are unique and distinct? If so, what are they? </li></ul><ul><li>What principles do we need to take into account when we provide for their learning– and other- needs? </li></ul>