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Surfing Journal by Ely Assaraf


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Surfing Journal, Design + Management BBA Program, Senior Thesis, Parsons The New School for Design, New York, New York, Spring 2009. Student, Ely Assaraf, Faculty, Robert Rabinovitz, Associate Professor, School for Design Strategies.

Published in: Design, Education, Business

Surfing Journal by Ely Assaraf

  1. 1. Thesis Journal 2009
  2. 2. Thesis Journal 2009 Ely Latner Assaraf
  3. 3. Table Of Contents 1 Abstract Personas 3 Case Study One: Malibu 43 David Eggers 5 The Root of the Problem 45 Liz Clark 7 The Problem Statement 47 Dylan Adams 49 Yokuse Eguchi The Culprits 9 Beach Pollution Prototyping 11 Ocean Pollution 51 Logo References 13 Overfishing 52 Logo Explorations 15 Crimes Against Nature 53 Logo 54 Brand Collateral 17 Case Study Two: Jacques Cousteau 19 Experiential Environmental Education: Oceans 55 Business Plan Future Society 65 Opportunity 21 Aquatic Sports 23 Surf Is Where You Find It Global Surfwise Chapters 25 Surfing 66 Montauk 26 Mr. Pipeline: Gerry Lopez 67 Honolulu 27 Surfing Roots 68 Japan 28 Surfing today 69 Sydney 29 Surfing Therapy 70 Bali 33 Case Study Three: Dr. Surf Current Solutions: Surfing Activism 35 Save The Waves 37 The Coastal Warriors 39 Surfrider 41 Patagonia Photo byWarren Bolster
  4. 4. Table of Contents Abstract 4 Man’s Dominance Over Nature 28 Surfing Today The Root Of Our Ecological Crisis 30 Surfing Therapy 6 Case Study: A False Sense of Nature Waves of Change The Social Construction of the National Parks 34 Saves the Waves 8 The Problem Statement 36 The Coastal Warriors The world’s oceans are in peril. The ocean’s ecosystems, where 80 percent of all life Mark Massara and Surfider on the planet finds its home, are at serious risk of collapsing from pollution, overfishing, and 10 Beach Pollution cruel crimes against nature. Man’s disruption of Earth’s largest resource has to stop before A Dangerous Pastime 38 Let My People go Surfing Earth faces dire consequences. The root of this ecological problem lies in man’s deeply rooted Patagonia dominant attitude towards nature, which can be traced back throughout human history. Since 12 Ocean Pollution people seek to protect what they love, some of the most effective current solutions to preserve The Failed Universal Waste Management Plan the world’s oceans come from individuals and organizations that engage in aquatic sports. This 14 Overfishing experiential environment can promote a certain practical knowledge and a natural respect for The Fish Don’t Stand a Chance the ocean, which creates a special form of activism. 16 Crimes Against Nature Surfing, with its ancient history, is a unique example of a sport, culture and philosophy Killing the Heroes of the Ocean that is an expression of the essential relationship between man and nature. As the quality of the world’s oceans continues to deteriorate, surfers around the world continue to unite, in order to 18 Case Study: The Life Aquatic protect what they love. Since people cannot protect what they don’t understand, educating our The Underwater Legacy of Jacques-Yves Cousteau future generation is the catalyst for increasing environmental awareness towards a sustainable future. The mission is: to create a practical, educational surfing program that takes place in the 20 Current Solutions: Oceans Future Society natural setting of the beach and ocean, which is carefully designed to teach youth the fun and The Young Ambassadors of the Environment exhilarating pastime of surfing, while fostering stewardship and a new perspective for man’s relationship to nature. 22 Surfing Is Where You Find It 26 Mr. Pipeline 27 Surfing Roots The ancient Polynesians and the European invasion Photo by Leroy Grannis
  5. 5. Malibu [ Case Study One ] Paradise Lost and Found I surfed my first wave at First Point, in Malibu Beach. Referred to as the “original perfect wave,”2 Malibu beach is where modern surfing culture was born. Surf journalist, Paul Gross, wrote that Malibu “is the exact spot on earth where ancient surfing became modern surfing.”3 In 1927, surfers Tom Blake and his friend Sam Reid, were the first to ride the waves in Malibu, astonishing the locals with what seemed then, a bizarre pastime. A pastime that has been deep-rooted in Hawaiian culture for centuries. Before World War II, there were only a handful of surfers in the world. Malibu is responsible for changing all of that by popularizing the sport and elevating it to an international phenomenon. By the late 50’s and early 60’s, known as the “golden years of surfing,” the Malibu waters were overly crowded with lineups of hundreds of sun bleached Californian baby boomers, all competing for the perfect waves of Malibu. Located on the northern part of Santa Monica Bay in Los Angeles County, this surfing mecca was home to some of the most innovative surfers of all time. Legendary surfers such as Micky Dora, Gidget, Dewey Weber and Terry “Tubesteak Tracy” revolutionized the sport with their innovative riding styles and anti-establishment, rebellious, attitude. The long, even, point breaking waves at Malibu are ideal for long boarding, a type of surfing that uses a board generally over nine feet tall, and is synonymous with an effortless and arrogant style of riding that once defined surfing. The smooth surf in Malibu ranges between two to four foot waves, making it a perfect place to learn. Along the beach are several different types of breaks, ranging in performance, but the consistent waves at First Point, located at the beginning of the beach, are what made Malibu famous. For many years the surfing experience at Malibu beach was unbeatable and its performance waves reigned as the ultimate standard for the sport. In 1969, Malibu’s supremacy began to fade, when an ‘up the canyon’ run off spoiled the area by polluting the waters with sewage and waste.4 In the 70’s, with the deteriorating water quality in Malibu, and the rise of short boarding, surfers began to travel the world in search of cleaner waves. Today Malibu is still very much a surfing town, and with the recent trend in the return to long boarding, the area has a new found stature, driven by its nostalgia. But the waters of Malibu, as so many other surfing spots worldwide, remain polluted, as the world continues to use our oceans as a universal garbage can, destroying our utopia, and our search for the perfect wave. First Point, Malibu circa 1965 4
  6. 6. “And God said to them, be fruitful and multiply, and fill the earth, and [ The Root of the Problem ] subdue it: and rule over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the sky, and over every living thing that moves on earth.” 11 Our planet is in trouble. With greenhouse gases, overpopulation and pollution on the rise, leading scientists around the world are in agreement that we are facing a major ecological crisis. An ecological crisis occurs when the environment and its change in way that destabilizes there continued survival.7 Our complex web of life, our forests, oceans, coral reefs, the marine fish, algae, the insects that make up the living world around us, that scientists refer to as ‘biodiversity’, is seriously threatened.8 It is in the severity of the problem and what the proper, most efficient solutions are, that the environmental arena disagrees upon. If we do not make a drastic change, the harsh predictions that scientists have made for the future, become more and more real. But how did we get ourselves into this mess? Most theorists place the direct blame on capitalist society and more directly on the industrial revolution, and its production of the poorly designed colossus industry, which has no regard for our environment. Undoubtedly, this period that started in Britain in the middle of the 18th century is responsible, but it goes back much further than that. In his book Nature, Western Attitudes Since Ancient Times, Peter Coates narrates the complex history of nature, and man’s perplexed relationship with it. Coates advocates in his thesis, that man developed a technocentric view of nature, a dominant set of attitudes towards nature, and in that lies the roots of our ecological crisis. This dominance over nature can be traced back to the some of the most important turning points in human history that all played a part in perpetuating man’s power over nature. One of the most important theories documented in Coates’ book is by Lynn White, a professor of Princeton, who published an article in 1976 called the “The Historical Roots Of Our Ecological Crisis. In the article, Lynn charges Christianity and its arrogance towards nature with the burden of our current crisis. White asks us to examine a direct passage from the first chapter of the Bible, genesis, which so literally tells us that we are dominant over nature. “And God said to them, be fruitful and multiply, and fill the earth, and subdue it: and rule over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the sky, and over every living thing that moves on earth.”9 When Constantine became the first Christian emperor in 306 AD, Christianity forever changed man’s relationship to nature, by mastery. Consequently, Christianity was the earliest, most prominent force of this dominant attitude, one that continued to be socialized into our modern behavior. The scientific revolution of the 16th century is the other most popular era that significantly desacralized nature. Science’s mechanistic approach sought to modify nature, all in the name of progress, teaching us to stand outside of nature, and engage it only through theoretical inquiry. The scientific revolution equated nature to mechanics, and this approach is a major contributor to our disconnection with nature.10 Coates discusses other epochs in history that deepened our dominance, such as the Italian Renaissance’s humanism, and the enlightenment, but the guilt remains heaviest on Christianity and the scientific revolution. It is imperative to look Man’s Dominance Over Nature back to the origins of any problem, so we can better understand how to change it. Our dominant attitudes regarding nature, so deeply rooted in our behavior, must change, in order to save our environment. The Root of Out Ecological Crisis Image by Caspar David Friedrich , near 1818 12 6
  7. 7. The Problem The world oceans are in peril. The oceans ecosystems, where 80 percent of all life on the planet finds its home, are at serious risk of collapsing, from pollution, over fishing, and cruel crimes against nature. Man’s disruption of our earth’s largest resource has to stop, before earth faces dire consequences. “Not a single square foot of ocean has been left untouched by modern society. Humans have fouled 41 percent of the seas with polluted runoff, overfishing and other abuses.” 18 National Geographic Photo 8
  8. 8. Beach Pollution [ The Problem ] A Dangerous Pastime Due to increasingly poor water quality and unsightly pollution, the positive experience of going to the beach is being diminished around the world. For most people going to the beach is a very relaxing and healthy pastime. Now this once therapeutic The Culprits pastime can result in serious risks to human health from exposure to contaminated water, bacteria, parasites which can cause a wide range of diseases, such as ear and eye infections, respiratory illness, skin rashes and hepatitis. 20 Beach pollution is especially prevalent in the United States according to a recent study by the Natural Resource Defense Council. Across the country in 2009, the NRDA reported a record number of days that beaches were closed for unsafe swimming conditions.21 The study also showed that more than 200 beaches in 2008 violated public health standards.22 Nationwide bacteria levels in the oceans are increasing from miscellaneous sources such as boat discharges These water born illnesses cost coastal states like California, tens of millions of dollars each year in health care and lost work. 23 The NRDC’S also claim that the current beach water quality tests are outdated by more than 20 years. 24 Often American beaches are not closed when they should be due to poor water quality. The major problem is that usually beachgoers cannot see when water quality is contaminated, unless they are using the proper equipment to test it. To make things worse aging and poorly designed sewage drain systems hold much of the blame for beach water pollution. 25 This means that it is common for people to swim in human waste. A photo of a plastic polluted beach. 10
  9. 9. Ocean Pollution [ The Problem ] The Failed Universal Waste Management The world’s ocean has been long understood as our convenient universal dumping ground. But no need to worry said the early industrialists, surely the worlds vastest natural resource, that covers ¾ of the earth surface can sustain an infinite amount of degradation. The Culprits They were dead wrong, as we are now seeing the disastrous effects of industries failed waste management plan. The result are waters that cannot be swam in without risks to human health, and the rapid increase of endangered species and loss of marine biodiversity. Everything imaginable that is harmful to our environment including human waste ends up in our oceans. Most of the waste that we produce on land finds its way into the ocean, including oil, fertilizers, solid garbage, sewage and toxic chemicals. 27 Toxic wastes are poisonous materials, such as pesticides, radioactive chemicals and untreated sewage. These abysmal materials enter the ocean, either through deliberate dumping, or can escape into the water during their manufacture process as well as accidental leaks. Marine species absorb these chemicals, and either die, or pass them on to larger animals that eat them, contaminating the entire food chain. This contamination is further perpetuated as humans consume these fish, which can lead to various illnesses. 28 In 1988, the United States congress passed the ocean Dumping Reform Act that banned the dumping of untreated sewage. 29 Despite this act the United States, “still releases more than 850 billion gallons of untreated sewage and storm runoff every year.” 30 Accidental oil spills are also a major cause of ocean pollution. It has been estimated that every year around seven million gallons are accidentally spilled into the ocean of the world.” 31 These spills are absolutely devastating for marine life, and can take many years for the area to recover. In March 24, 1989 Exxon Valdez accidentally spilled 10.8 million gallons of crude oil, into the Alaskan sea. The Exxon Valdez spill is the largest in history, and is considered one of the most harmful man made events to ever occur to the oceans. The spill killed almost a million marine species and crippled the local fishing and tourist industry, with economic losses of almost 580 million dollars. 32 Nineteen years later, major contamination is still prevalent along 20 acres of the shore of Prince William Sound, Alaska. 33 Heaps of solid garbage from used syringe needles, tampons and condoms makes its way to the ocean. The largest amount of marine debris comes from plastic, such as water bottles. High concentrations of plastic materials, particularly plastic bags, have been found blocking the breathing passages and stomachs of many marine species, including whales, dolphins, seals, puffins, and turtles. 33 The garbage in the ocean eventually makes its ways to the worlds beaches. Photograph of a beach closed due to contaminated water 19 12
  10. 10. Overfishing [ The Problem ] The Fish Don’t Stand A Chance The worlds overfished oceans, is the greatest threat to marine biodiversity. Overfishing occurs simply when fish are taken out of the ocean at a rate faster than they can reproduce. This is exactly what is happening, as commercial and non-commercial fishing The Culprits fleets are seriously depleting the worlds fisheries. As a result, more than 50% of the world’s fisheries are fully exploited and more than 20% are overexploited, depleted, or recovering from depletion. 35 The overfishing phenomenon is a direct result of the technological advances of the industrial fishing industry that started during World War II. During this period three innovations, high powered ships, dragging nets, and onboard refrigeration, allowed vessels to travel further from shore, stay out longer and catch more fish. 36 After the war, sonar technology was invented on the ships which drastically improved the efficiency of fishing, by enabling the fisherman to locate the exact locations of their prey. It wasn’t too long before titanic fishing vessels roamed the waters, equipped with a net that on one passing strips the oceans of anything and everything. A recent report concluded that when large fishing vessels moved into an area, fish populations declined 80% within only 10-15 years. 37 Although reports vary on the number of fish that are caught annually on a global scale, however many billions of pounds or metric tons it is, the numbers are profound. To make things worse a large portion of theses fish caught every year are not even consumed, but are rather discarded. If these trends continue, scientists have predicted that all the world fisheries will collapse by 2048. 38 The global impact of such a catastrophe will surely prove to be absolutely devastating. As more than a billion people around the world depend on fish for their primary source of protein, there are millions more who live in coastal communities who count on fishing as there only source of income. 39 If all fisheries collapse, the estimated 20 billion dollar fishing industry would also be completely wiped out. 40 Newfoundland, Canada’s collapse of their cod industry is a prime example of the implications of commercial extinction. In the early 1990’s, more than 100,000 people were employed from the cod industry. In 1992 when the cod industry was deemed completely dormant, 40,0000 people lost there jobs overnight and more than 10 years later the industry has not recovered. 41 Worldwide poverty overall would drastically increase, not only from Industry losses, but many world countries depend on only fish as their only source of food. Researchers advocate that it is not too late to reverse the effects of overfishing. A serious change must be made, before worldwide unprecedented massive economical and health losses transpire. A photograph of fresh tuna caught, one of the many fish on the brink of extinction 34 14
  11. 11. Crimes Against Nature [ The Problem ] Killing the Heroes of the Ocean “On May 28, 1978, four fisherman became lost in a fog off the coast of Dassen Island, South Africa. They knew there were dangerous rocks in the vicinity, and they feared running into them because the fog had become so thick they couldn’t see where they were The Culprits going. Then they became aware of a group of dolphins nudging and pushing the boat, and forcing them to change course. Suddenly, through the fog, they saw sharp rocks protruding through the water. The rocks only became visible as they floated by them, and the fisherman realized at once that the dolphins had saved their lives. Meanwhile, the dolphins continued to push the boat along a course known only to them, until it reached calm waters. Then they swam away, evidently feeling their job was done. When the fog lifted, the men were flabbergasted to find themselves in the very bay from which they had originally set out that morning.” 43 This is one of many incredible true stories about dolphins saving people lives. There are also numerous accounts of surfers saved by dolphins in shark attacks. Dolphins are amazing creatures, and one of the smartest animals in the world, but thousands are slaughtered every year by fisherman, often in an absolutely horrific manner. Every winter between the months of October through March, thousands of dolphins are confined and brutally killed across small town in Japan. 44 The killings always happen in the same way; the fisherman attract the dolphins by banging metal tubes in the water, creating sound barriers to corner them into the shallow waters of a bay. The sound interferes will the dolphins ability to navigate, disorienting them. 45 The panicked dolphins swim away from the sound into the bay, and when they are visible the fisherman immediately stab them with spears, hooks and knives, as the dolphins scream. Since dolphins never abandon there wounded they remain in the bay, even when they are aware of the immediate danger. “ The dolphins thrash about for as long as six minutes each as they slowly bleed to death, turning the sea complete red with blood.” 46 The dolphins are then taken out of the water, placed side by side on the port, while they slowly dye listening to each other scream. To speed up the killing process the fisherman often cut of their heads with machetes. The dolphins are then taken to the slaughterhouse and further butchered and sold without warning labels to Chinese and Japanese supermarkets. 47 The Japanese fisherman and governments claim that the killing hunts are too preserve and regulate local fishing of smaller fish that the dolphins eat, even though the meat is sold. Despite international laws and environmental efforts, thousands of whales and dolphins are killed every year and the inhumanity continues. A group of blue dolphins. 16
  12. 12. [ Case Study Two ] The Life Aquatic [ The Pronlem ] The Underwater Legacy of Jacques-Yves Cousteau In the middle of the 20th century, nobody could have imagined the impact that human negligence would have on the oceans, except for the legendary French explorer Jacques- Yves Cousteau. The world’s most famous oceanographer, was the first person The Culprits to open up the ominous oceans to households around the world. In the 1950’s, Jacques Cousteau and his team aboard his famous vessel the Calypso, embarked on an adventure to explore the worlds oceans. His expedition lasted over four decades, producing over 100 acclaimed film documentaries, and 50 books about the sea. 49 Cousteau devoted his life to the preservation and exploration of the Silent World. His life’s extensive research advanced the field of oceanography, contributing vast amount of unknown information to the field. He co- invented Scuba and the one man jet propelled submarine. 50 Cousteau also pioneered deep sea diving, underwater photography, and the field of marine conservation. 51 Cousteau was born in Sain-Andre-de-Cubzac, France on June 11, 1901. As a teenager Cousteau entered the naval academy, and was in a serious car accident that ended his service. From an early he developed an affinity for the ocean, diving off the port of Toulume, with goggles that he designed himself. 52 In 1943 Cousteau, together with engineer Emile Gagnan, invented the self contained breathing apparatus (the scuba), “and the world under sea was opened to human beings.” 53 This new innovative Scuba equipment allowed Cousteau to carry out deep- sea diving experiments. In the 1950’s Cousteau purchased an old mine sweeper vessel, and transformed it into the oceanographic ship, the Calypso, and the rest is history. In the 1960’s Jacques Cousteau campaigned, putting an end to radioactive waste that was being discarded into Mediterranean. Early on through his studies, Cousteau started to observe the detrimental effects that man was having on nature and in 1974 he established The Cousteau Society. 54 His non-profit organization was committed to ocean preservation on an international scale. The Cousteau society’s greatest achievement came in 1990, when it launched a worldwide petition campaign and ended mineral exploitation in Antarctica. 55 Jacques-Yves- Cousteau died in 1997, but his legacy lives on, and was passed on to his children. “ People protect what they love, a lot of people attack the sea, I make love to it” - Jacques Cousteau - Jacque Cousteau with his latest research vessel. Puerto Rico, 1960. 48 18
  13. 13. MALIBU Oceans Future Society [ Case Study One ] [ Experential Environmental Education ] Ambassadors of the Environment Paradise Lost and Found Jacques Cousteau passed on to his children his great love for the ocean. Jean Michel Cousteau, the eldest son of Jacques, spent most of his life aboard the ship of the Calypso, navigating the seas with his father. Jean Michel, intent on carrying on his late fathers legacy, started The Oceans Futures Society. This non-profit organization mission is to explore the ocean while inspiring and educating people, throughout the world to act responsibly for its protection. 57 The Oceans Futures Societies priorities are to preserve clean water, coastal marine habitats, marine mammals and sustainable fisheries.58 The society offers comprehensive educational programs that are meant to shift peoples perception and behavior in there relationship with nature. One of the organizations most impressive projects is the Ambassador of the Environment, an experiential education camp for young people. Hosted in El Capitan, California the program places these children in natural settings, helping them reconnect with nature, through experience. From snorkeling in underwater kelp forests, hiking coastal trails, and kayaking in undeveloped coastlines, the program utilizes experiential education in the marine and terrestrial environment to inspire curiosity and appreciation for the natural world through exploration and discovery.59 These children learn valuable lessons about sustainability“in this living laboratory”,60 examining how these ecosystems function, and how to sustain them.61 The program also integrates sustainable living projects offering teaching recycling, composting, organic gardening, solar technology and monitoring water quality methods. The camp is equipped with state of the art sustainable technologies, such as composting toilets, waterless urinals and solar powered water heaters.62 The camp offers the option of 3, 4, and 5-day programs, and above all is designed to be fun. The main objective of the program is to teach these children to love and respect the environment. By participating in it wonders, they gain a heightened understanding, making them stewards of nature life “We can’t protect what we don’t understand” - Jean-Michel Cousteau - Photograph by Michele Westmorland 56 20
  14. 14. Aquatic Sports Cousteau’s Ambassadors of the Environment program uniquely teaches its disciples sustainability by directly placing them into nature. Rather than learning these important concepts in a classroom, this experiential education gives these children the opportunity to see with their own eyes through snorkeling, kayaking and hiking the ecosystems they are learning to sustain. There are a large number of sports that take place in nature. Millions of people worldwide engage in these sports for a myriad of reasons such as leisure exercise and often seeking a departure from life’s daily chaos. As the famous American author, Ralph Waldo Emerson wrote in his essay entitled nature, “To the body and mind which have been cramped by noxious work or company, nature is medicinal and restores their tone.” For many, these sports give people the means to commune with nature and gain from its wisdom. Conservationists such as Jacques Cousteau use these activities to bring environmental issues to the forefront. The following are a few examples of the numerous sports that take place in the ocean. 1
  15. 15. SURF [ The Pronlem ] IS The Culprits WHERE YOU FIND IT Photograph by Warren Bolster 64 24 1
  16. 16. S urfing is where you find peace, harmony, balance, clarity, the extreme and nature. have to learn how to read the ocean, to be able to spot when and where the waves sets [ Surfing ] All of these meaningful adjectives are synonymous with surfing. For most surfers, are approaching. They also have to know where not go, to avoid dangerous spots such surfing means so much more than the simple act of riding a wave. It is an unparalleled as shallow water and coral reefs. Some Surfers are somewhat amateur meteorologists, metaphorical art, perhaps one that can be applied to life. Even Albert Einstein said life is a devoting time to understanding the fundamental of how storm systems and waves work, wave. 66 Champion Australian surfer and author Nat Young once wrote, “as an expression pinpointing which spots the best waves will be at. This knowledge and a great deal of time of the essential relationship between man and nature, surfing is unique in its clarity. The actually spent in the water, gives surfers a definite awareness of the oceans conditions. most archetypal and symbolic relationship- between man and the rhythms and power Therefore Surfers are naturally confronted with the destructive state of the world oceans. of nature- is expressed in riding a wave.” 67 Surfing above all things, has always taught Ocean pollution greatly diminishes the wonderful experience of surfing. As the quality of its disciples respect and love for the ocean and as Jacques-Yves Cousteau said “people the worlds oceans continue to deteriorate, surfers around the world continue to unite, to protect what they love.” Most surfers have to be very knowledgeable about the ocean preserve what they love. and its mechanics, to maximize their experience. Out in the water out of necessity, surfers AS AN EXPRESSION OF Mr. Pipeline THE ESSENTIAL Gerry Lopez a.k.a Mr. Pipeline is the one of the greatest performance surfers the sport has ever seen. Born in Honolulu, Hawaii Lopez became the state surfing champ at age 14. He is best known for popularizing RELATIONSHIP and perfecting tube riding, a type of surfing when a surfer rides inside the breaking wave, as it creates a tube like shape. In 1972 and again in 1973, Lopez won The Pipeline Masters, the most extreme and BETWEEN MAN prestigious surfing competition in the world. Held every year in Hawaii, of O’ahu’s North Shore, the area is known for its massive, hollow, backbreaking waves called the Banzai pipeline. The waves at pipeline AND NATURE, are known as the deadliest waves in the world as more surfers and photographers have tragically died there, than any other surfing spot in the world. Lopez is considered the master of pipeline and the surfing SURFING IS competition is now known as the Gerry Lopez Pipeline Masters. UNIQUE IN ITS In his book, Surf Is Where You Find It, legendary surfer Gerry Lopez narrates a collection of stories CLARITY about the deep and valuable lessons learned through a life of surfing. 68 “Anytime I go surfing can be a religious experience if I let it in. it is an up and close encounter with one of the world’s greatest natural wonders. Out here on the edge of the known world, far from the distractions of civilization, I can more easily find this space. But in reality any of us can find it anywhere, because we carry it inside everywhere we go.” 69 26
  17. 17. Surfing Today [ Surfing ] “ TWENTY OR THIRTY OF THE NATIVES TAKING EACH A LONG NARROW BOARDED, When Bruce Brown’s took as around the world, in search of the perfect wave in his influential ROUNDED AT THE ENDS, SET OUT TOGETHER FROM THE SHORE. I COULD NOT surf documentary of the 60’s, surfing was opened up to the world.82 HELP CONCLUDING THAT THIS MAN FELT THE MOST SUPREME PLEASURE WHILE HE WAS DRIVEN ON SO FAST AND SO SMOOTHLY BY THE SEA.” 70 In the Endless Summer, Brown follows two surfers around the world to the coats of Africa, Australia, New Zealand and Tahiti, to surf waves there for the very fist time. The movie gave birth to the surf and travel culture, inspiring surfers to go abroad, leaving behind the surfing Mecca of Malibu, to explore more exotic locations and extreme waves all around the world. Surfing Roots Prior to The Endless Summer surfing was an unpopular pastime, perceived to the masses as a pointless activity, practiced by a small group of rebellious beach bums. Bruce Browns The Ancient Polynesians and the European Invasion documentary changed all of that, portraying the “wave as a kind of Holy Grail and surfers as knights on a quest.” 82 Today there are more than 20 million surfers around the world. 83 The sport has become an international phenomenon and is a multi billion-dollar industry. This was the account of the legendary British Navigator Captain James best surfboards and surfing spots were even exclusive to Hawaiian royalty. These From the hollow waves of Nijma Island, Japan to the legendary waves in Bali and Cape Cook, the first westerner to discover Hawaii, and the first to see surfing. When Hawaiians were expert surfers, crafting their surfboards “in ways that revealed their Town, South Africa surfers continue to travel the world in search of the finest breaks and the Cook first sailed into Kealakeku, Bay in the late 1770’s he was astounded to see the spiritual consciousness and profound understanding of waves mechanics”. 75 Surfing endless summer. Polynesian islanders riding waves on long wooden boards. Nobody really knows how also made these Hawaiians an extremely healthy and strong race. far the history of surfing dates back to, but what is known is that the Polynesians were Surfing has never been as significant as it was to early Hawaiian culture. surfing many centuries before the westerner’s arrival in the 18th century. “Hawaiian Surfing to them was not just a fun sport or pastime, but a deeply rooted spiritual chants which date back to the 15th century AD tell stories of surfing exploits which way of life. Through surfing, these ancient Hawaiians had a profound relationship seem to show that surfing was a major part of Hawaiian life long before that.” 71 and deep appreciation and respect for the ocean. They had ethereal names for all Historians believe that the Polynesians first came the Hawaii islands as early as 300 of the waves and during period of flat spells, “the ocean was ritually beaten with AD. According to legend, the Polynesians set out to sea in canoes filled with families kelp and chanted to in order to “coax” up a swell.” 76 When European settlers came and supplies. They paddled away from there native islands, heading far north into to Hawaii in the early 19th century, surfing was forever changed, as the Hawaiian unknown territories. They had no idea where they were going or what they would Islands “embarked on a century of cultural disintegration.” 77 find. Just when they were about to turn back, legend has it that a large white shark The westerners brought with them to Hawaii, religion and disease. Following appeared and guided them through the waters. With the help of the shark and their arrival western viruses devastated over 400,000 Hawaiian people, destroying navigating by the stars, the Polynesians began to detect signs of land. “Perhaps these their bodies and with it surfing. 78 To the Europeans surfing was seen as a low class Polynesians who ventured so far north on their voyages of discovery were surfers, who custom, another cultural imperfection to westernize. “ Surfing’s association with left the south in search of a fabled chain of beautiful islands with perfect waves.” 73 nakedness, sexuality, wagering, shameless exuberance, informality, ignorant joy and There is no more perfect place in the world for surfing than the Islands of freedom were counterproductive to the designs of the church.” 79 It was only a matter Hawaii. This is “because of the sheer quantity and quality of the waves, which are of time until surfing was outlawed and the ancient Hawaiians were forced to wear situated dead center in the largest body of water in the planet, leaving it perfectly modern attire, and abandon their native tongue. This period has been labeled as “the exposed to waves from all directions. Logistically and architecturally, the islands dark years” of surfing, and if it were not for a few isolated islanders that continued to were created for surfing!” 74 It was here that the first surf culture was born, as all surf, surfing would have completely disappeared. ancient Hawaiians including women and children participated in surfing. The Surfer in Bali, Indonesia 81 28
  18. 18. Surfing Therapy Photograph of surfer under the water 85
  19. 19. [ Surfing ] Therapy Water is often referred to as the essence of life. We are surrounded by water. Our bodies and the earth surface are made up of more than ¾ of it. For surfers being out in the magnificent ocean, and riding its waves is a natural, unparalleled serene experience that brings inner piece and relaxation. It is a wonderful outlet for stress that promotes health and well- being for the mind body and soul. There are numerous physical health benefits in surfing. It is an exceptional cardiovascular exercise, as you use mostly upper body muscles to do the paddling work, and legs to guide the board. 88 The properties in the ocean also have extraordinary healing qualities. Surfing in so many ways is incredibly therapeutic. Recently several organizations have been formed, that use surfing as the main source to help people with mental and physical illnesses. Israel and Danielle Paskowitz founded Surfers Healing, a free day camp that teaches autistic children to surf. Children with autism suffer from sensory overload. 89 The act of surfing can improve this sensory dysfunction, by giving these children heightened feedback and awareness of where the body is and what it is doing.90 Surfing has proven to facilitate an improved sense of control and coordination for these children. 91 Therapy in Ocean, is another similar program that provides surfing oriented therapy to disabled children. According to the head of the organization physical therapist Bethany Brown, surfing and the immersion of the body in the aquatic environment can improve disabled persons motor dysfunctions and facilitate overall higher cognitive skills.92 Through the Engagement of this multi-sensory activity, surfing can create better opportunities for adaptive response.93 Being in the water also increases independence and freedom of movement, as it is a reduced gravity environment.94 Most importantly, in both these programs the kids have fun in the water, which can improve their social interaction. The process of learning with an instructor encourages increased vocalization, which can overall improve their communication and social skills.95 Surfboard on ocean surface 86 (left) Photograph by Jeff Divine 87 (above) 32
  20. 20. Clean Living, Clean Surfing [ Case Study Three ] Before Jack Kerouac went on the road, in 1956, after years of insomnia and anxiety, wisdom gained from surfing. “Nut brown and slender, the Paskowitz children were a Jewish doctor and surfer, Dorian Paskowitz packed his wife and nine children into beautiful, ideal subjects for an exhilarating, persuasively liberating experiment.” The a tiny camper and embarked on an odyssey that would last over 25 years. Traveling Paskowitzes became known as the “first surfing family” and in 1972 they founded from one wave to another, they lived a transient bohemian lifestyle that involved two the original surfing camp in the United States, in San Diego, California. The doctor absolute certainties: clean living and clean surfing. Dr. Paskowitz, a former Stanford and his family were recently the subject of a powerful film, called ‘Surf Wise’ that graduate took his 9 children out of their formal education, one he believed to be documented the Paskowitz’s compelling story and their experiences on the road. detrimental, and enrolled them into his own radical school; one of health and surfing. In the 1970’s, Dorian Paskowitz was the first person to introduce surfing to Israel Unburdened by the physical world of material excess and traveling all around America and in 2007 he ran a successful peace project to deliver surfboards to Gaza. That and Mexico in a 25 foot camper, the family would station wherever the waves were same year, the doctor published his different philosophies along with his unique favorable. Following the daily demands of a strict health regime, the family consumed definition of health in a book entitled Surfing and Health.Today, the Paskowitz Surf light meals, which consisted mostly of a multi grain diet. The remainder of their day’s Camp is run by the doctor’s only daughter, and it is devoted to improving the motor activities were devoted to yoga, meditation, and most importantly, to improving their skills of mentally disabled children through surfing. At the ripe age of 87 Dr. Dorian surfing abilities. Paskowitz believed that “health is more than the mere absence of Paskowitz, living in Israel, continues to surf everyday and spread his gospel. disease, it come from the presence of a superior state of well being- a vigor, vitality, which must be worked on everyday.” Central to Doc’s philosophy was that this “There is a wisdom in the wave.” vitality of health, spirit and a superior state of mind is summoned from the act and - Dr. Dorian Paskowitz- Dr. Surf The Gospel of Dorian Paskowitz Dr. Paskowitz with family, circa 1972. 34
  21. 21. Save the Waves [ Current Solutions ] The oceans waves are generated by storms and wind. As the wind blows across the surface of the sea, this energy is passed to the water particles, causing them to move in a circular motion.97 These moving particles collide with other moving particles, as and more energy is passed, waves are created. When the wind is stronger, the stronger and faster the waves get, and out to sea they begin to merge together, creating consecutive groups of larger waves, known as a swell.98 This swell causes the sea levels in one area, to be lower than another area and these swells begin to move towards shore.99 As this swell approaches the Surfing Activism shore the gradient of the beach causes the swell to rise vertically and as the height increases, the waves eventually reach a breaking point, where the wave can no longer support itself.100 Just before this breaking point is the ideal time for surfers to catch the wave. Some of the best surfing waves in the world have been compromised. Some of have been completely dissolved by large coastal developments, or the water is just too polluted to surf in. Coastal development greatly alters the natural sand flow patters, which often impedes breaking waves formation.101 Epic Waves in such places as Bali, the Dominican Republic, Australia, Nicaragua and Baja Mexico are threatened by extinction, or have already disappeared by unprecedented coastal developments in the areas.102 Save The Waves is a non-profit organization comprised of a coalition of surfers, scientists, lawyers and activist dedicated to preserving surfing spots around the world from harmful coastal development and pollution. Saves the Waves focuses on creating alliances with local and international environmental organizations, joining forces in a specific threatened area to create an effective campaign that will ensure the protection of these surfing zones. Saves The Waves, was formed by Califonia surfer and photographer Will Henry. In 2001 Henry was visiting the Island of Madeira, Portugal and witnessed a coastal development that threatened to destroy the areas surfing resource. The Portuguese government was building a large Marina right on top of a spectacular point break. The first stages of the development built a seawall along the shoreline of the point, and within days the perfect waves were damaged by backwash and reverberation from the newly altered shore.103 The surfing locals, most of them under the age of twenty had no chance of preventing their favorite spots inevitable degradation. Henry returned back to the U.S and formed Saves The Waves. Henry immediately creating a campaign “that brought forth a huge outcry of surfers around the world,”104 that influenced the government of Madeira to move the marina to another bay. Henry quickly realized that this was a global problem and surf breaks all around the world needed saving. The organization believes that the root of the problem is that surfing is not seen as having any relevance to the governments or developers, as they refuse to recognize the value of preserving surfing spots.105 Thus lies the organizations biggest challenge, to prove that waves are more important than the projects that destroy them and that “they are unique and irreplaceable resource that should be preserved at all cost.”106 The famous surfer and lawyer Mark Massara, and the legendary owner of Patagonia Yvonne Chouinard, are an example of the prestigious people that are part of the Saves The Waves Collation. Photograph by Jeff Foott 96 36 1
  22. 22. [ Current Solutions ] “Surfers are uniquely exposed to coastal water pollution. Surfers have played a role similar to canaries in the coalmine. We are Surfing in the pollution that society is dumping into our oceans.“ 107 Mark Massara is a surfer, lawyer and environmentalist who has devoted his career to protecting the 1100 mile California coastline Surfing Activism against pollution and coastal development. Massara is seen as a celebrity among surfers, and one of the pioneers of the rise of surfer activism. In 1991, Massara representing the then young conservation organization Surfrider Foundation, won a landmark case against two pulp-mill companies near Eiureka, Califonia.108 The mills were dumping more than 40 million gallons of black toxic effluent into a vital marine habitat and major surfing resource. The case is the largest water pollution litigation ever prosecuted and it was ruled that the companies had breached more than 40,000 violations under the Clean Water Act.109 This case also catapulted the success of Surfrider Foundation. Dean La Tourette, executive director of Saves the Waves Coaltion says “the settlement made Surfrider a political force, and all of the sudden people look at surfers as environmentalists for the first time.”110 Founded in 1984 by surfers in Malibu California, Surfrider today is one of the most influential organization in the world, with 50,00 members strong, in 80 chapters worldwide that protect the world oceans, waves and beaches from destruction.111 Massara is a crucial member of the organization and is still serves as there legal representation. Mark Massara continues to wage war against developers and pollution, and has won several more cases since 1991. Massara efforts have recently prevented the plan of the Pebble Beach Company to cut down more than 18,000 trees on the Monterey Peninsula.112 Mark Massara (on the right) with friend, infront of one of the paper mills charged with violating the Clean Water Act in 1991113 The Coastal Warriors Mark Massara and Surfider 38
  23. 23. [ Current Solutions ] Surfing Activism Protecting our beaches for over 20 years Surfrider Surfrider Foundation is a non-profit grassroots organization of all types of surfers and ocean enthusiasts that are dedicated to the protection and enjoyment of the world’s oceans, waves all of its chapters; a group of members that focus on clean water educating and monitoring. The BWTF’s main objective is to continuously gather coastal water samples to determine established a non-profit incubation organization called the Ocean Foundation whose mission is to support, strengthen and promote those organizations dedicated to reversing the trend Education, Incubation and Coastal Activism and beaches. After Mark Massara and Surfrider won the landmark case against the two pollution patterns in the near shore environment. The task force is equally devoted to raising of destruction of ocean envoirnments around the world. The Ocean Foundation was founded pulp and paper mills in 1991, the second largest clean water suit in American history, the public awareness of coastal water pollution and establishing state and local government water to help overcome the challenges that ocean initiative organizations face, such as funding, organization grew to be one of the most effective environmental initiatives in the world. Today, quality programs. Included on the foundation’s site,, is an ocean sickness form networking and operational administration. The foundation provides expert education and there are more than 80 Surfrider chapters located along worldwide coasts, with over 50,000 which can be filled out to report if anyone has had sickness caused by ocean water contact. advice, philanthropic toosl and financial support along with the mentoring of groups working members. Surfrider believes its greatest strength is the ability of its members to act as local Recognizing the importance of this worldwide free public pastime, the beach access initiative in the field. The main requirement for becoming an OFP project is that the work of potential activists for the worldwide protection of coasts. Started by two surfers in Malibu in 1984, promotes the right of low impact, free and open access to the world’s waves and beaches organizations meets the mission of furthering ocean conservation. The OFP works only with Surfrider is one a few organizations that cares specifically about surfing. It has dedicated for everyone. Education is at the core of Surfrider’s mission, as they believe it is the essential innovative conservation projects, rather than projects that duplicate existing organizations. itself to enhancing wave-riding opportunities and expressing the unique values inherent in tool to “ensure the future health and well being of the planet.” The foundation offers several Surfrider has made many significant accomplishments over the years and their most recent surfing: “individualism, camaraderie, non materialism, and an appreciation for human kind’s unique and effective educational preservation programs that seek to develop and utilize includes over 200 community outreach campaigns, 900 presentations of the respect the historic relations with the ocean.” The foundation’s core areas of work focus on clean water, educational materials that are informative, factual, proactive and fun. ‘Respect the beach’ is beach educational program, 8,000 beach water tests taken and 600 beach cleanups. the protection of special places, healthy beaches, and easy access. The clean water initiative an award wining program that includes field trips, classroom lectures, handouts, video and is focused on protecting water quality in coastal watersheds and in near shore environment. hands on projects designed to explain shoreline ecology and the preservation of these costal Surfrider is an advocate for water quality regulations, as well as the monitoring and overall areas to students and community groups. Surfrider members bring this interactive program reduction of polluted discharges into the ocean. It has created a Blue Water Task Force within into classrooms to educate the youth and foster a future sense of stewardship. Surfrider also 40
  24. 24. Yvon Chouinard, the founder of Patagonia is one of the most respected environmentalists in the world. When Chouinard started Patagonia in 1972, he deeply instilled a mission and philosophy into the company, which was to produce the best quality product with as little impact as possible on the [ Current Solutions ] environment. Early on Patagonia was the first company to use its catalogues as a catalyst for discussing environmental problems. Chouinard repeatedly discontinued his most profitable products, because they were too harmful to the environment. He refers to himself an ant-businessman,115 as profit was always secondary to the environment. Patagonia was the pioneer of the outdoor sportswear industry, and the organic clothing market. Patagonia today is considered the blueprint for a green business. Chouinard has also been an avid surfer most of his life. He recently published an autobiography called Let My People Go Surfing, the books title in reference to the freeform work environment that Chouinard has always maintained in his company. When you walk into the Patagonia headquarters in Ventura California, “posted on a whiteboard above the reception desk, is today’s surf report:”3-5 feet. Check water quality. “Not too promising, which is why most of the 350 employees are actually in Surfing Activism residence. Write “double overheads, offshore wind” on that board, however, and watch the place clear out.”116 Patagonia currently is in the middle of another revolution, an ocean initiative. Chouinard has LET MY PEOPLE decided to change 50 percent of its product line to watersports, mainly surfing, in the next four years.117 GO SURFING Patagonia has been making surfing gear for many years, but now Chouinard wants to go full force with it.. In 1985 Patagonia formalized their support for environmental activism and began an effective and unique grants program. Patagonia pledges every year, 10% of their pre-tax profits or 1% of sales (whichever is more) to innovative grassroots environmental groups that have been overlooked by corporate donors. “We take pride in funding these activities who take bold and strategic steps to keep our air free of toxins and our food GE- free to make sure our rivers are swimmable, to protect our last wild places before they are lost forever.” Patagonia has given over the years more than 30 million in grants and in-kind donations to more than 1,000 organizations since the program began. Saves the Waves Coalition, an organization comprised of surfer activists was a recent grant winner from Patagonia. As an environmentalist Chouinard believes that surfing is the future, because of global warming. “it is never going to snow again, and the waves are going to get bigger and bigger.”118 Patagonia’s new surfing products are already unlike anything the industry has ever seen, surpassing any existing product on the market in quality, flexibility and sustainability. Patagonia just released wetsuits that are lined with a blend of non-chlorine merino wool and recycled polyester. These wetsuits are made out of the highest quality Japanese neoprene, which is made from limestone instead of oil extracts.119 Chouinard and his son Fletcher, who is a surfboard shaper, are crafting a line of surfboards that apply the same model for innovation. The surfboards are extremely light and strong, and are finished with a special epoxy resin that has less toxicity than anything else on the market.120 In 1985 Patagonia formalized their support for environmental activism and began an effective and unique grants program. Patagonia pledges every year, 10% of their pre-tax profits or 1% of sales (whichever is more) to innovative grassroots environmental groups that have been overlooked by corporate donors. “We take pride in funding these activities who take bold and strategic steps to keep our air free of toxins and our food GE- free to make sure our rivers are swimmable, to protect our last wild places before they are lost forever.” Patagonia has given over the years more than 30 million in grants and in-kind donations to more than 1,000 organizations since the program began. Saves the Waves Coalition, an organization comprised of surfer activists was a recent grant winner from Patagonia. Photograph by George Silk114 42
  25. 25. [ Personas ] Persona: DAVID EGGERS Twenty-four years old David Eggers currently resides in Malibu, California and is pursuing a law degree at the prestigious Pepperdine University. David is very much enjoying his tenure at Pepperdine, mostly due to the fact that the campus is literally a stone’s throw away from First Point Malibu beach, his favorite surf spot. David’s day is split between sittings in his lectures and surfing in between classes. Raised in Venice Beach, David has been surfing since he was 15 years old. He is very accomplished at the sport and has taken several summer surfing trips to South America with his friends. Unsure of what sort of law practice he will be pursuing in the future, David has decided to explore several different fields of law at school. He wishes to stay in Malibu when his studies are completed and hopes to article at a local law firm so that he might continue to surf everyday, for the rest of his life. 44
  26. 26. [ Personas ] Elizabeth is 19 years old and is currently in her junior year at the University of California, Los Angeles. Liz is majoring in environmentalism a subject she has been passionate about most of her life. Raised in San Diego California Elizabeth’s father is a conservationist and her whole family are major outdoor enthusiasts. Hiking in Yosemite and Yellowstone national parks and rock climbing in El Capitan California was growing up her family’s idea of a vacation. Liz and her family are all certified scuba divers and avid windsurfers, taking family vacations to places like Bermuda and Jamaicas to enjoy these sports as a family. Raised near the pristine beaches of San Diego close to the border of Mexico, Liz has a deep affinity with the ocean. In the spring everyday after her course liz and her friends drive out to Santa Monica to enjoy the beach air. Liz has always had a knack for sciences and enjoys studying environmentalism as it combines biology and sustainability. When liz is finished school she hopes to join a non-profit organization dedicated to preserving the planet, and she has already interned for several organizations on this topic including Greenpeace. Persona: LIZ CLARK 46
  27. 27. [ Personas ] Persona: DYLAN ADAMS Dylan is sixteen years old and currently resides in Vancouver Island, British Columbia with his family. He lives in the small lush coastal town called Tofino and is in his senior year at his local high school. Dylan can’t wait to graduate high school as he currently finds little enjoyment in his academics, although he has managed to sustain a quality average. Very athletic and adventurous, Dylan gains pleasure and attains his thrills by skateboarding the local skate parks and snowboarding the B.C Rocky Mountains with his friends. With the support of his parents, he has decided to take a year off before he applies to the University of British Columbia. Dylan is unsure of what course of studies he would like to pursue at the university, so he will take a year off to explore new experiences before his tenure. He has aspirations of traveling, but most of all, Dylan has always wanted to learn how to surf. Tofino boasts the most wholesome surfing community in Canada, but the sport there is quite limited due to the year round frigid temperatures of the water. Through skateboarding, snowboarding and watching surfers in his hometown, Dylan has developed an interest for the sport of surfing, but has never tried it. It is Dylan’s belief that the sport will greatly compliment his character as well as his ambitions to travel. 48
  28. 28. [ Personas ] Persona: YOKUSE EGUCHI Yokuse is 23 years old and lives in Osaka, Japan. Osaka is a beautiful little coastal city in Japan, located at the mouth of the Yodo River on Osaka Bay. It is the epicenter of water sports for Japan and one of the homes to Japan’s obsessed surf culture. Yokuse is an accomplished sailor, due to the fact that his family has owned a sailboat since he was a child. Recently he has begun to surf and is picking it up quite quickly. He presently attends a local art college in Osaka where he studies photography. He is very artistic, has a great eye for images and is mostly concerned with landscape photographs, focusing on Japan’s beaches as his main subject matter. Yokuse spends his summers in California with his Japanese -American uncle and cousins who live in Santa Monica. He is excited for this upcoming summer as a chance to practice his new found sport of surfing along California’s coast. Yokuse enjoys living in Japan and believes he will continue to do so in the future as an aspiring professional photographer. 50
  29. 29. [ Prototyping ] 52 Logo Explorations [ Prototyping ] Logo References
  30. 30. [ Prototyping ] 54 Brand Collateral [ Prototyping ] Logo
  31. 31. A. [ System Map ] Surfwise has created a dynamic surfing camp for the active and mindful youth, called Into The Water. Hosted at the legendary surf spot, First Point in Malibu, Into The Water is a unique surfing camp that takes place in the natural setting of the beach and ocean. The B. program has been designed to teach youth the fun and exhilarating pastime of surfing while fostering a sense of stewardship. The following system map illustrates the program’s unique stakeholders and how they interconnect to make Into The Water an electrifying and special experience. From the program’s skilled and personable surfing mentors, to the prestigious and captivating special guests, the Into The Water Surfwise program aims to produce able surfers and young oceans stewards. C. 56