Living Between Worlds<br />David and Yvonne Freeman<br />The University of Texas at Brownsville<br />
Why “Between Worlds” in This Title?<br />Our students move between the world of their families and their native countries<...
Why “Between Worlds” in This Title?<br />Many feel they do not belong anywhere-not accepted by school or home community cu...
Why “Second Language Acquisition” in Title<br />A number of linguistic, psychological, and social factors interact to perm...
Living Between Worlds<br />
What factors affect the school success of ELLs living between worlds?<br />The school exists within family, community, sta...
national and state context<br />community and family<br />              context<br />school context<br />dynamic contextua...
National and State Context<br />National and state attitudes toward immigrants<br />legal mandates<br />mass media<br />
Legal Mandates<br />Despite research showing the benefits of primary language instruction, legal mandates and common-sense...
Family and Community Context<br />Neighborhood conditions<br />Family conditions<br />Family education level<br />Developm...
Mother’s Education Level<br />
school facility<br />school resources<br />school climate<br />student attitudes<br />school peers<br />level of staffing<...
Who Are Our English Language Learners Living Between Worlds?<br />Adequate formal schooling students<br />Limited formal s...
Newly arrived with adequate schooling<br />recent arrivals (less than 5 years in U.S. )<br /> adequate schooling in native...
Newly Arrived with Limited Formal Schooling<br />recent arrivals ( less than 5 years in U.S. )<br /> interrupted or limite...
Long term English learner<br /> 7 or more years in the U.S.<br /> below grade level in reading and writing<br /> mismatch ...
Potential Long Term English Learners<br />students who begin their schooling speaking a language other than English K-5<br...
school facility<br />school resources<br />school climate<br />student attitudes<br />school peers<br />level of staffing<...
Mrs. Brown<br />“Teaching isn’t<br />what it used <br />to be.”<br />
Mrs. Brown Teaching Isn’t What It Used to Be<br />Analysis<br />students have changed<br />teachers don’t understand stude...
What Influences How Teachers Teach?<br />Several factors interact to account for how teachers teach and the knowledge, ski...
What influences how teachers teach?<br />
What influences how teachers teach?<br />
How do people learn and how do they acquire language?<br />The way teachers teach also depends on how they believe people ...
How do people learn and how to they acquire language?<br />“Learning and language acquisition overlap to a great extent in...
Teacher’s Role<br /> The role of the teacher is to mediate learning for students by providing scaffolds that enable them t...
school facility<br />school resources<br />school climate<br />student attitudes<br />school peers<br />level of staffing<...
My Name is Jorge on Both Sides of the River  (Medina, 1999)<br />¿Porqué soy tonto?<br />En mi país<br />Yo era listo<br /...
Views of Bilinguals (O. García, 2009)<br />People, including researchers, have generally taken the view that bilinguals ar...
Balanced Bilinguals<br />The reason that people think of bilinguals as being “balanced” is that they picture bilinguals as...
A Holistic View of Bilinguals<br />L1+L2<br />“the bilingual is an integrated whole who cannot easily be decomposed into t...
A holistic view of bilinguals  <br />A bilingual is like a high hurdler. She doesn’t have to jump as high as a high jumper...
Dynamic Bilingualism<br />Dynamic bilingualism -Languages interact continually<br />Emergent bilinguals constantly access ...
Theoretical Support for Using Both Languages in Instruction<br />New knowledge is built on prior understandings. If those ...
Ways to Support Students’ First Languages and Cultures While They Develop English<br />There are many ways that teachers c...
Ways to use two languages together<br />Assign bilingual pairs<br />Arrange sister class exchanges<br />Conduct language c...
Metalinguistic Awareness<br />
Ways to Use Two Languages<br />Group students heterogeneously for a writing assignment<br />Students read in L1 and retell...
Ways to Use Two Languages<br />Students are grouped by L1 to discuss in L1 how to do homework in English<br />Students use...
Ways to Use the Two Languages Together<br />Focus on <br />cognates   (democracy, democracia)<br />
create bilingual multimedia<br />books and projects<br />
school facility<br />school resources<br />school climate<br />student attitudes<br />school peers<br />level of staffing<...
national and state context<br />community and family<br />              context<br />school context<br />dynamic contextua...
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Between Worlds (Intro)

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Between Worlds (Intro)

  1. 1. Living Between Worlds<br />David and Yvonne Freeman<br />The University of Texas at Brownsville<br />
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  3. 3. Why “Between Worlds” in This Title?<br />Our students move between the world of their families and their native countries<br />True for all students but for ELLs they come from different worlds… often worlds different from their teachers<br />Many of our students are marginalized by the instruction they receive and the attitudes they encounter<br />
  4. 4. Why “Between Worlds” in This Title?<br />Many feel they do not belong anywhere-not accepted by school or home community cultural ambivalence-<br />Others succeed in school but in the process lose home community<br />Students may enter school monolingual in one language and leave school monolingual in another (lose L1)<br />Rather than the best of both worlds, they trade one world for another<br />
  5. 5. Why “Second Language Acquisition” in Title<br />A number of linguistic, psychological, and social factors interact to permit or deny students access to a new language<br />Teachers need to know about recent research, language learning theories, and effective practices<br />
  6. 6. Living Between Worlds<br />
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  23. 23. What factors affect the school success of ELLs living between worlds?<br />The school exists within family, community, state, and national contexts<br />These contexts interact in complex ways to affect the success of English language learners<br />No one factor can explain success or failure<br />However, we can change different aspects of these contexts to assess the affect on our English language learners to improve their chances for success<br />
  24. 24. national and state context<br />community and family<br /> context<br />school context<br />dynamic contextual interaction model<br />
  25. 25. National and State Context<br />National and state attitudes toward immigrants<br />legal mandates<br />mass media<br />
  26. 26. Legal Mandates<br />Despite research showing the benefits of primary language instruction, legal mandates and common-sense practice have led to ineffective programs for ELLs<br />California, Arizona, and Massachusetts have enacted laws that result in English only instruction for English language learners<br />This has led to school programs, such as structured English immersion, that do not develop students’ first languages.<br />Many other states have either ESL or transitional bilingual programs that do not fully develop students’ first languages.<br />
  27. 27. Family and Community Context<br />Neighborhood conditions<br />Family conditions<br />Family education level<br />Developmental needs<br />
  28. 28. Mother’s Education Level<br />
  29. 29. school facility<br />school resources<br />school climate<br />student attitudes<br />school peers<br />level of staffing<br />teacher attitudes<br />teacher knowledge and skills<br />parent involvement<br />afterschool programs<br />student language proficiency<br />students’ prior schooling<br />students’ first language and culture<br />School Context<br />
  30. 30. Who Are Our English Language Learners Living Between Worlds?<br />Adequate formal schooling students<br />Limited formal schooling students<br />Long-term English learners<br />Potential long-term English learners<br />
  31. 31. Newly arrived with adequate schooling<br />recent arrivals (less than 5 years in U.S. )<br /> adequate schooling in native country<br /> soon catch up academically<br /> may still score low on standardized tests given in English<br />
  32. 32. Newly Arrived with Limited Formal Schooling<br />recent arrivals ( less than 5 years in U.S. )<br /> interrupted or limited schooling in native country<br /> limited native language literacy<br /> below grade level in math<br /> poor academic achievement<br />
  33. 33. Long term English learner<br /> 7 or more years in the U.S.<br /> below grade level in reading and writing<br /> mismatch between student perception of achievement and actual grades<br /> some get adequate grades but score low on tests<br /> have had ESL or bilingual instruction, but no consistent program<br />
  34. 34. Potential Long Term English Learners<br />students who begin their schooling speaking a language other than English K-5<br /> parents with low levels of education<br /> parents struggling financially and/or socially <br />
  35. 35. school facility<br />school resources<br />school climate<br />student attitudes<br />school peers<br />level of staffing<br />teacher attitudes<br />teacher knowledge and skills<br />parent involvement<br />afterschool programs<br />student language proficiency<br />students’ prior schooling<br />students’ first language and culture<br />School Context<br />
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  37. 37. Mrs. Brown<br />“Teaching isn’t<br />what it used <br />to be.”<br />
  38. 38. Mrs. Brown Teaching Isn’t What It Used to Be<br />Analysis<br />students have changed<br />teachers don’t understand students’ languages, cultures, and values<br />teachers struggle to communicate with parents<br />teachers become frustrated<br />Positive response<br />
  39. 39. What Influences How Teachers Teach?<br />Several factors interact to account for how teachers teach and the knowledge, skills, and attitudes they develop<br />
  40. 40. What influences how teachers teach?<br />
  41. 41. What influences how teachers teach?<br />
  42. 42. How do people learn and how do they acquire language?<br />The way teachers teach also depends on how they believe people learn and how they think people acquire language<br />Different methods follow from different views of learning<br />
  43. 43. How do people learn and how to they acquire language?<br />“Learning and language acquisition overlap to a great extent in the sense that they are both social, contextual, and goal oriented. That is, individuals learn both content and language as they engage with others in a variety of settings to accomplish specific purposes” (Faltis and Hudelson, 1998)<br />
  44. 44. Teacher’s Role<br /> The role of the teacher is to mediate learning for students by providing scaffolds that enable them to solve problems and carry out activities independently.<br />
  45. 45. school facility<br />school resources<br />school climate<br />student attitudes<br />school peers<br />level of staffing<br />teacher attitudes<br />teacher knowledge and skills<br />parent involvement<br />afterschool programs<br />student language proficiency<br />students’ prior schooling<br />students’ first language and culture<br />School Context<br />
  46. 46. My Name is Jorge on Both Sides of the River (Medina, 1999)<br />¿Porqué soy tonto?<br />En mi país<br />Yo era listo<br />Why am I dumb?<br />In my country<br />I was smart<br />
  47. 47. Views of Bilinguals (O. García, 2009)<br />People, including researchers, have generally taken the view that bilinguals are really two monolinguals in one person<br />This view has led to misunderstandings about bilingual people and bilingual programs<br />García argues that we need to see bilingualism as a dynamic process in which the two or more languages constantly interact<br />
  48. 48. Balanced Bilinguals<br />The reason that people think of bilinguals as being “balanced” is that they picture bilinguals as being like two monolinguals in one person.<br />However, bilinguals are not simply the sum of two monolinguals<br />L1<br />L2<br />
  49. 49. A Holistic View of Bilinguals<br />L1+L2<br />“the bilingual is an integrated whole who cannot easily be decomposed into two separate parts… he has a unique and specific linguistic configuration” <br />Grossjean 2009 <br />
  50. 50. A holistic view of bilinguals <br />A bilingual is like a high hurdler. She doesn’t have to jump as high as a high jumper or run as fast as a sprinter<br />Instead, she is a unique individual with special skills<br />
  51. 51. Dynamic Bilingualism<br />Dynamic bilingualism -Languages interact continually<br />Emergent bilinguals constantly access both their languages as they use them with different people in different contexts for different purposes<br />
  52. 52. Theoretical Support for Using Both Languages in Instruction<br />New knowledge is built on prior understandings. If those understandings were built through L1, they can best be accessed through L1<br />Literacy skills are interdependent, so teaching should facilitate cross-language transfer<br />
  53. 53. Ways to Support Students’ First Languages and Cultures While They Develop English<br />There are many ways that teachers can support and build students primary languages and cultures as their students develop English<br />
  54. 54. Ways to use two languages together<br />Assign bilingual pairs<br />Arrange sister class exchanges<br />Conduct language comparison studies to build metalinguistic awareness<br />
  55. 55. Metalinguistic Awareness<br />
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  57. 57. Ways to Use Two Languages<br />Group students heterogeneously for a writing assignment<br />Students read in L1 and retell stories to other students in L2<br />Students use bilingual dictionaries as a resource or read bilingual books or books in their L1<br />
  58. 58. Ways to Use Two Languages<br />Students are grouped by L1 to discuss in L1 how to do homework in English<br />Students use L1 to discuss homework with parents<br />Students are given awards for proficiency in a non-English language<br />
  59. 59. Ways to Use the Two Languages Together<br />Focus on <br />cognates (democracy, democracia)<br />
  60. 60. create bilingual multimedia<br />books and projects<br />
  61. 61.
  62. 62. school facility<br />school resources<br />school climate<br />student attitudes<br />school peers<br />level of staffing<br />teacher attitudes<br />teacher knowledge and skills<br />parent involvement<br />afterschool programs<br />student language proficiency<br />students’ prior schooling<br />students’ first language and culture<br />School Context<br />
  63. 63. national and state context<br />community and family<br /> context<br />school context<br />dynamic contextual interaction model<br />

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