The Code of Ethics forProfessional Teachers in Their Dual Role as Educator and Parent.
Code of Ethics for ProfessionalTeachers adopted and promulgated by the Board for ProfessionalTeachers through Board ResolutionNo. 435, series of 1997, pursuant to the provisions of paragraph (e),Article II of RA No. 7836, otherwiseknown as the ―Philippine Teachers Professionalization Act of 1994‖
VIOLATION OF CODE OF ETHICS FOR PROFESSIONAL TEACHERSArticle XII, Section 1-- ―Any violation x x x shall be sufficient ground for the x x x revocation of x x x license x x x‖
TEACHERS AS PROFESSIONALS Duly licensed professionals whopossess dignity and reputation withhigh moral values as well astechnical and professional competence.In thepractice of their noble profession,they strictly adhere to observe, andpractice this set of ethical and moralprinciples, standard and values. (Preamble, Code of Ethics for Professional Teachers)
“Every teacher shall merit reasonablesocial recognition for which purpose he shallbehave with honor and dignity at all times andrefrain from such activities as gambling,smoking, drunkenness and other excesses,much less illicit relations.” (Code of Ethics, Article III, Section 3) “A teacher shall place premium uponself- respect and self-discipline as the principle of personal behavior in all relationships with othersand in all situations.” (Code of Ethics, Article XI, Section 2)
“A teacher shall maintain at all times adignified personality which could serve asmodel worthy of emulation by learners,peers, and others.” (Code of Ethics, Article XI, Section 3)
Joseph Santos vs. NLRC, Hagonoy Institute, Inc. ―As teacher, (one) serves as an example to his/her pupils xxx. Consequently xxx teachers must adhere to the exacting standards of morality and decency. xxx A teacher both in his official and personal conduct must display exemplary behavior.‖ He must freely and willingly accept restrictions on his conduct that might be viewed irksome xxx the personal behavior of teachers, IN AND OUTSIDE THE CLASSROOM, must be beyond reproach xxx they must observe a high
TO ACT WITH HONOR: To strictly honor contractual obligationwith the SchoolArt. VI, Sec. 6, Code of Ethics: “A teacher who accepts a position assumes a contractual obligation to live up to his contract, assuming full knowledge of the employment terms and conditions.”
DUTY OF TEACHERS (Based on Law)As an EDUCATOR1987 Constitution states: “x x x The State shall protect and promote the right of all citizens to quality education at all levels and shall take appropriate steps to make such education accessible to all.” (Article XIV, Section 1)
As a PARENTArticle 218 of the Family Code provides— “The school, its administrators and teachers, x x x engaged in child care shall have special parental authority and responsibility over the minor child while under their supervision, instruction or custody.”Article 219 of the Family Code provides— “Those given the authority and responsibility under (Article 218) shall principally and solidarily liable for damages caused by acts or omissions of the unemancipated minor.”
Principal Duty or Obligation is To Ensure “Quality Education”What is QUALITY EDUCATION? “x x x making sure that basiceducation is really solid, because if it isnot solid, it affects the quality ofsecondary education. If secondary education is poor, then the person goes tocollege unprepared forcollege work. And if he is allowed tograduate again with a poor qualitycollege education, he goes to university professional education even more
In short— ―A school, before promoting or graduating a student, must be sure that he/she (the student) is functionally literate to go through next higher level.‖
To ensure Quality Education:1) Must be COMPETENT and EFFICIENT Code of Ethics for Professional Teachers, Article IV, Section 2— “Every teacher shall uphold the highest possible standards of quality education, shall make the best preparation for the career of teaching, and shall be at his best at all times in the practice of his profession.”
BP 232 (Education Act of 1982), Section 16 (2)provides— “The teacher shall xxx be accountable for efficient and effective attainment of specified learning objectives xxx.”Code of Ethics further mandates that— “Every teacher shall participate in the continuing professional education (CPE) program of the PRC, and shall pursue such other studies as will improve his efficiency, enhance the prestige of the profession, and strengthen his competence, virtue and productivity in order to be nationally and internationally competitive.”
―A teacher shall ensurethat conditions contributiveto the maximumdevelopment of learners areadequate and shall extendassistance in preventing orsolving learners’ problemsand difficulties.‖ (Article IV, Section 3)
In short— A teacher is expected to be efficient and competent in the performance of his academic duties at all times. Otherwise, A teacher who has consistently shows his inability to efficiently perform his duties and responsibilities, within a common performance standards should not be allowed to stay in school xxx.The MRPS provides as just cause ofterminating a faculty— ―Gross inefficiency and incompetence in the performance of his duties xxx.‖
Hence, the SC held in Evelyn Peña vs. NLRCthat— ―x x x schools can set high standards of efficiency for its teachers since quality education is a mandate of the Constitution xxx security of tenure xxx cannot be used to shield incompetence.‖
2) Must EVALUATE LEARNERS (i) Duty to give grades/evaluation Section 16(3) of BP 232, TEACHER SHALL— “Render regular reports on performance of each student and to the latter and to the latter’s parents and guardians with specific suggestions for improvement.” and... Must promptly render or give grades. Otherwise, the unjustified or unreasonable delay in giving grades constitutes gross neglect of duty.
In the case of University of the East vs. Romeo A.Jader, the SC declared— “It is the contractual obligation of the school (through the teachers) to TIMELY INFORM AND FURNISH sufficient notice and information to each and every student as to whether he/she had already complied with all the requirements xxx.” “The negligent act of a teacher who fails to observe the rules of the school, for instance, by not promptly submitting a student’s grade is not only imputable to the teacher but
is an act of the school beinghis/her employer xxx.”
In evaluating/giving grades the followingrules of conduct must be observed—Code of Ethics provides— “A teacher has the duty to determine the academic marks and the promotion of learners in the subject they handle. Such determination shall be in accordance with generally accepted procedure of evaluation and measurement on case of any complaint, teachers concerned shall immediately take appropriate action, observing the process.” (Article VIII, Section 1)
“Under no circumstances shall ateacher be prejudiced nor discriminatoryagainst any learner.” (Article VIII, Section 3) “A teacher shall not accept favors orgifts from learners, their parents or othersin their behalf in exchange for requestedconcessions, especially if undeserved.” (Article VIII, Section 4) “A teacher shall base the evaluation ofthe learner’s work on merit and quality ofacademic performance.” (Article VIII, Section 6)
(i) In computing the grades Section 16 (5) of BP 232 mandates that a teacher shall— ―Refrain from making deductions or additions in student’s scholastic ratings for acts that are clearly not manifestations of xxx scholarship.‖ Hence, Section 79 of the MRPS— ―Basis for Grading. – The xxx grade or rating xxx ina student should be based SOLELY on his scholastic performance. Any addition or diminution to the grade in a subject for co-curricular activities, attendance, or misconduct shall NOT be allowed xxx.‖
Code of Ethics provides— ―A teacher shall not xxx make deductions from their scholastic ratings as a punishment for acts which are clearly not manifestations of poor scholarship.‖ (Article VIII, Section 8) Thus, it is not a matter of discretion on the partof the teachers in the giving of the students’grades, but rather it is a clear obligation forthe teachers to determine student academic marks solely based on scholastic performance. For a teacher to do otherwise, would be serious academic malpractice or grave misconduct in theperformance of his/her duties.
In Padilla vs. NLRC, SBC the Supreme Courtsaid— “This Court is convinced that the pressure and influence exerted by (a teacher) on his colleague to change a failing grade to passing one xxx constituteserious misconduct which is a valid
B. As a PARENT: Principal Duty to Exercise Parental Authority and ResponsibilityArticle 218, Family Code provides— “The school, its administrators and teachers xxx engaged in child care shall have special parental authority and responsibility over the minor child while under their supervision, instruction or custody.”
Code of Ethics states— “A teacher shall recognize that the interest and welfare of learners are his first and foremost concern, and shall handle each learner justly and impartially.” (Article VII, Section 2)
Parental Authority to Discipline “As parents, the teachers shall use discipline not to punish but to correct, not to force, but to motivate; and not to obey with rigid cadence, but to choose to follow the right way. Hence, teachers cannot generally use methods of punishing or such degree of penalties that a good mother or a good father would not likely use on her/his own children.”
Corporal Punishment - Article 233 (2nd par.) “In no case x x x inflict corporal punishment upon the child.” Definition: An act that inflict pain or harm upon a child’s body as punishment for wrong doing usually through beating and spanking Elements: (a) physical contact (b) to inflict pain
VIII,8. A teacher shall not inflict corporal punishment on offending learners nor make deductions from their scholastic ratings as a punishment for acts which are clearly not manifestations of poor scholarship.
Sale of Tickets; Collection of Contribution/Donations from Pupils / Parents BP 232, Sec. 9 (9) - students have right tobe free from (voluntary) involuntarycontributions Improper or unauthorized solicitation of contributions from subordinate employees and by teachers or school officials from school children VIII, 5. A teacher shall not accept, directly or indirectly, any remuneration from tutorials other than what is authorized for such service.
Anita Y. Salvarria vs. Letran College, et al. (296 SCRA 184)The Supreme Court declared-- “Petitioner contended that her dismissal was arbitrarily xxx, having been effected without just cause, on the premise that the solicitation of funds xxx was initiatedby the students and that her participation was merely limited to approving the same. xxx”
If there is one person moreknowledgeable of xxx policy againstillegal exactions from students, itwould be xxx Salavarria. Hence, regardless of whoinitiated the collections, the fact that the samewas approved or indorsed bypetitioner, made her „in effect theauthor of the project.‟”
“xxx (Department of Education)considers the act of teachers in xxxcontracting loans from parents of theirstudents xxx not only seriousmisconduct but xxx violation of students‟right to be free from involuntarycontribution xxx.”- USEC Nachura, 13 Feb. ‘98
Parental Responsibility The student / pupil while in school, is in the custody and hence, the responsibility of the school authorities as long as he is under the control and influence of the school, whether the semester has not yet begun or has already ended.
In Amadora vs. CA, the Supreme Even if the student is just relaxing in the campus in the company of his classmates, x x x the student is still within the custody and subject to the discipline and responsibility of the teachers x x x.
Hence-- A teacher required to exercise special parental authority but who fails to observe all the diligence of a good father of a familyin the custody and care of the pupils and students,shall be held liable for gross neglect of duty.
“The Court takes this opportunity topay a sincere tribute to the schoolteachers, who are always at the forefrontin the battle against illiteracy andignorance. If only because it is theywho open the minds of their pupils to an unexplored world awash willthe magic of letters and numbers,which is an extraordinary feat indeed, these humble mentorsdeserve all our respect andappreciation.” Justice Isagani A. Cruz Chiang Kai Shek School vs. CA G.R. No. 58028, April 18, 1989
Halley’s Comet A memorandum, as it goesdown the chain of commandin an educational institution.
SUBJECT : Operation Halley’s CometFROM : Chairman of the Board of TrusteesTO : The President Tomorrow evening at approximately eight (8) p.m., Halley‟s Comet will be visible in this area, an event which occurs only once every seventy five (75) years. Have the students fall out in the football field in uniforms and I will explain thisrare phenomenon to them. In caseof rain, we will not beableto see anything, so assemble the students in the auditorium and I will show them film of it.
FROM : The PresidentTO : Vice President for Academic Affairs By order of the Chairman of the Board, tomorrow, at eight in the evening, Halley‟s Comet will appear above the football field, if it rains, fall the students out in uniforms. Then lead them to the auditorium where the rare phenomenon will take place, something which occurs only once every seventy five years.
FROM : Vice President for Academic AffairsTO : College Dean By order of the Chairman of the Board, in uniform, at eight o‟clock in the evening tomorrow, the phenomenal Halley‟s Comet will appear in the auditorium. In case of rain in the football field, the Chairman of the Board will give another order, something which occurs once every seventy five years.aria
FROM : Dean of CollegeTO : Academic Coordinators Tomorrow at eight o‟clock in the evening, the Chairman of the Board will appear in the auditorium with Halley‟s Comet, something which happens every seventy-five years. If it rains, the Chairman of the Board will order the COMET into the football area in uniform.
FROM : Academic CoordinatorsTO : Department Heads When it rains tomorrow at eight in the evening, the phenomenal, seventy-five year old Chairman Halley, accompanied by the President will drive his Comet thru the football field area theater in uniform.