TECHNOLOGICAL BOUNDARY OF ACCURACY OF ORTHORECTIFICATION                  OF IKONOS AND QUICK-BIRD BASED ORTHOPHOTOMAPS   ...
As there appears a lot of "information noise" in Poland as to possible ortorectification of VHR data,the authors wish to s...
expected to start their real competition as far as their archives of metropolitan cities areas areconcerned. Efficient use...
[the ortophotomap of October 2001 showing the borders of lands and building contours inBytom. Scale 1: 3,500, RMSE value o...
were decided to be carried out. The Polish Presidents of GUGiK (General Surveyors Office)and ARMA (Agency for Restructurin...
Results :RMSE                         2.65NSSDA                        5.20Max. odchyłka               20.24Min. odchyłka ...
Test No.3.The aim of the test was to determine differences of location of analysed terrain details forphotos orthorectifie...
measured using static method on the basis of reference points on 2002-03-20, using 4 GPSAshtech Z-XII and Ashtech Z-Survey...
TEST AREA 2 – GostyninTwo image strips were collected on April, 7th , 2002 for area of relatively flat Gostynin area (cent...
Three image strips were collected on April, 4th, 2002 for Nowy Sacz County, for 1150 km²,during one IKONOS pass over the a...
Total image RMSE = 1,2866 mAll works related to image collection, delivery to Poland, GCP collection,orthorectification, m...
TEST AREA 4     Drawsko Pomorskie area     Four adjacent IKONOS strips, results in review by Military Intelligence Directo...
5.   The ortophotomaps already produced do satisfy both the accuracy requirements of the     European Union (EC Directive ...
Tao C. Vincent, Yong Hu, Steve Schnick, 2002 "Photogrammetric Exploitation of IKONOS imageryusing the Rational Function Mo...
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2002 Technological boundary of accuracy of orthorectification of IKONOS and Quick Bird orthophotomaps R LACH C MISIUN L SKRZYPCZYK 2002

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Paper prepared for XII th Conference of Polish Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Bialobrzegi, Poland, June 2002,
ISBN 83-917952-0-9

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2002 Technological boundary of accuracy of orthorectification of IKONOS and Quick Bird orthophotomaps R LACH C MISIUN L SKRZYPCZYK 2002

  1. 1. TECHNOLOGICAL BOUNDARY OF ACCURACY OF ORTHORECTIFICATION OF IKONOS AND QUICK-BIRD BASED ORTHOPHOTOMAPS R.LACH, C.MISIUN, L.SKRZYPCZYK pp. 216 – 230 XII th Conference of Polish Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Bialobrzegi, Poland, June 2002, ISBN 83-917952-0-9Text of this article have been written Robert LACH, are different then My contact data they were in 2002 rlach@techmex.com.pl , in 2002 year. Disclaimer and +48 605 695 064 mobile comment on the first page were Therefore +48 22 560 82 24 direct phone added in 2003 and 2004 prior to current contact data are : +48 22 560 82 00 secretary Robert LACH World Congress of ISPRS in +48 22 560 82 30 fax GEOSPACE-PL Istanbul. robertlach00@gmail.com +48 500 739 777 mobile phone DISCLAIMER As it appears a lot of information noise; this article was submitted for review to specialists of SPACE IMAGING LLC . Precision Plus orthophotomaps production in Poland, some remarks of production orthorectification of IKONOS imagery with usage of Rational Polynomial Coefficiencies files for area of 30 000 km² for the needs of Integrated Administration and Control System of European Commission in Poland Description of the project refers to acquiring of archive imagery of SI EURASIA and new collection of area of Poland from 2003 year. SI EURASIA passed us information from 52 uncuccessful METEOSAT passes and 16 succesful IKONOS passes. 1/14
  2. 2. As there appears a lot of "information noise" in Poland as to possible ortorectification of VHR data,the authors wish to share the results of their work - they have performed all by themselves and thatrefers to fully domestic production of satellite ortophotomaps prepared for over 3,169 km² in 2002 -with both the Polish and international photogrammetric family.There had appeared international publications referring to the problem several years before IKONOSand then QUICK BIRD systems were launched and they were often full of speculations as to expectedaccuracy of ortophotomaps. After IKONOS was launched, there appeared another tide ofpublications in reference to self-dependent attempts to orthorectify the Carterra GEO products,which could hardly be successful due to lacking access to the mathematical model of IKONOS sensor 1- despite their correct mathematical approach with application of precise model to orthorectification(rational polynomial coefficiences). The error results in RMSE terms used to range to 3-4 m.  Application of the IKONOS sensor model, implemented, for the first time upon consent of SPACE IMAGING Inc., by ERDAS,  a collection of images for Poland with not exceeding deviation of 180 from nadir,  fulfilling of strict requirements of SPACE IMAGING INC 2. as to accuracy of the control points measurement (GCPs.) with application of GPS technology,  application of Digital Elevation Model (characterised with accuracy of height delimitation of 2-3 m) to the orthorectification process,made it possible to produce orthophotomaps with the RMSE value below 1 m. Production of theortophotomaps has been realised in full by a Polish team : Baltyckie Centrum Systemow InformacjiPrzestrzennej [the Baltic Centre for Spatial Information Systems] thanks to logistic technological andfinancial support of the TECHMEX S.A. and an open-minded position of Space Imaging Eurasia.A short introduction to the VHR systems competitionA delayed start of that prognosticated era of VHR satellites, which began with placingIKONOS 2 system on the orbit in 1999, has been more and more dynamically advanced.However, the users expectations as to the quality of VHR satellite data have not been satisfiedyet by the EROS satellite system the information content of which hardly differs from theKOSMOS system KVR-1000 data functioning on the Polish market. Launching the QuickBird system in October 2001 will advance origination of the VHR imagery market, not earlier,however, than in the perspective of 2-3 years from 2002 on as at that time the systems are 2/14
  3. 3. expected to start their real competition as far as their archives of metropolitan cities areas areconcerned. Efficient use of the VHR satellite system does not depend on resolution itself buton the access to the wanted data on the market first of all. Meanwhile, the archives of imagesof Poland that are available in Internet - of the Digital Globes Quick Bird system - show thaton September,17th 2002 there are only 57 images characterised with less than 20% cloudcover. In consideration of the speed of growth of archive of the IKONOS system with thecapacity to register large areas of interest (AOI) growing even up to four times bigger thanthat of Quick Bird (Kurczynski, Wolniewicz) as well as the process of establishing of thePolish archive of IKONOS system for 3 years now - the fact of disproportion between thearchives of IKONOS and of Quick Bird in Poland is not to be wondered at. Meanwhile,SPACE IMAGING Inc. started constructing IKONOS BLOCK II system that, in 2004, isgoing to have resolution of 40 cm and it seems that in two years time IKONOS and IKONOSBLOCK II joint collection capacity will be at least 6 times of Quick Bird.DEM produced from the IKONOS stereopair and the ortophotomap of Presision Plusclass as the first in Poland.Having heard a lot of "information noise" in Poland as to the fact whether VHR imageries cangive a product as precise as to make the RMSE value smaller than 1 m and - having had noaccess to the sensor model yet - in 2001we purchased Precision Plus orthophoto from SPACEIMAGING Inc. We acted on behalf of the Municipality of Bytom that placed an order with usto perform a detection of changes by comparing ortophotomaps of 1997 and 2001. SPACEIMAGING Inc. requested us to measure only GCPs (ground control points) only and produceda Numerical Terrain Model from the IKONOS stereogram with 6 meters post spacing (using aStereo Analyst module of ERDAS Inc.) and they next sent us imagery material after it wasortorectified. The report on ortorectification process showed value of RMSE = 0.9 m. Afterthe ortophotomap sent by SPACE IMAGING Inc. was overlapped over the ortophotomap ofBytom, performed in Poland by OPGK Olsztyn) on the basis of aerial photos from 1997, thetwo ortophotomaps visually fitted together and only the radiometry of IKONOS imageriesdistinguished itself with more "lively colours than the ortophoto taken from the PHAREprogram aerial photographs. In the course of technical acceptance of the product in the GISunit of Bytom Municipality there cadastral data were overlapped onto the IKONOSorthophotomap. Result, shown below proves that cadastral data (earlier created withapplication of DGPS measurements asr fitting together with the IKONOS-based orthophoto. 3/14
  4. 4. [the ortophotomap of October 2001 showing the borders of lands and building contours inBytom. Scale 1: 3,500, RMSE value of 0.9m]IKONOS DATA ORTORECTIFICATION TESTSAn independent ortorectification of the Carterra GEO data with an IGM (ImageGeometry Model) modelHaving carried out those tests and purchased the programming for independentortorectification of the IKONOS imageries from ERDAS Inc., we decided to performortophotomaps of Precision Plus class by ourselves. On March 8 2002, Mr. Murat Erciyes,President of SPACE IMAGING EURASIA had a meeting with the authorities of the NationalOffice of Geodesy and Cartography and Mr. Aleksander Bentkowski - President of Agency forRestructuring and Modernisation of Agriculture. Tests of the IKONOS system that were toinclude testing different kinds of land - from almost a flat one to those of big height variety - 4/14
  5. 5. were decided to be carried out. The Polish Presidents of GUGiK (General Surveyors Office)and ARMA (Agency for Restructuring and Modernisation of Agriculture) did hope to receiveso accurate a product that might satisfy both the IACS accuracy requirements and the accuracyrequirements for modernisation of the cadastral system with application of photogrammetrictechnologies. Shortly speaking, the question consisted in performance of ortophotomaps of thebiggest possible accuracy - even of 1:5,000 scale. Additionally, the purpose of testing was alsoto check whether, in the course of one passage, the system would register several adjacentstripes of photographs in order to optimise the way of collection of IKONOS . On April 42002 SPACE IMAGING EURASIA registered images of 1150 sq. km of the Nowy S¹czadministrative district area that had been chosen due to big overheights there (the lowest pointin the district is 200 m high and the highest - 1200m).DETERMINATION OF ACCURACY of APPLIED DIGITAL ELEVATION MODEL.The D.E.M. delivered by external partner was applied for ortorectification. Two D.E.M.swere compared from the area surrounding Debrzno in the administrative district of Czluchów– and are shown below. This DEM. was compared with the one performed for Debrzno fromthe photographs of PHARE LIS 9206 program in SoftPlotter v.1.3. The area of about 36 sq.km surrounding Debrzno was examined. The area is diversified as to the relief, the differencesin height being from 135 m to 178 m. DEM delivered by external source on the left, DEM created from serial photogrammetric photos ( 1: 26 000 scale) on the rightDigital Elevation Model provided by external partner was converted to ASCI file. Resulting file wasimported into Microstation package. Blue lines of DEM sections were defined in 500 meters intervalson from each other. Profiles were generated in Microstation. Test was executed on 3739 points ,placed in 20 meter distances, grouped in 13 profiles. Each profile included 200 measured points. 5/14
  6. 6. Results :RMSE 2.65NSSDA 5.20Max. odchyłka 20.24Min. odchyłka -6.68 0 - 0,5m 1045 1 0 - 1m 1862 2 1 - 5m 1737 3 5 - 10m 70 4 >10m 68Accuracy of determination of z coordinate was better than one meter for 50 % of compared zpoints as shown above. Preliminary test proved that 96 % of points of checked sample have zaccuracy – better than 5 meters.Test No.2.The same DEM sample was checked again in different way. Tested DEM with 20 meter postspacing was converted from original file to ACSI format file. ASCI file was imported toERDAS IMAGINE 8.5.v. Sample DEM was compared with DEM produced from aerialPHARE program photos, but these DEMs were delivered in different coordinate systems.After unification of projections and coordinate systems both files were compared, where eachz values from one DEM file were substracted from z values of second DEM file. Test wasexecuted for DEM 165 248 points with 20 meter post spacing.Results : RMSE 1.91 Rozk³ad procentowy ró¿nic NSSDA 3.75 wysokoœ ci Max. odchyłka 15.24 Min. -19.86 1% Odchyłka 9% 0% 0 - 1m 0 - 0,5m 41564 14% 1 - 2m 1 0 - 1m 76571 47% 2 - 3m 3 - 5m 2 1 - 2m 48230 5 - 10m 3 2 - 3m 23086 >10m 4 3 - 5m 14842 29% 5 5 - 10m 2308 6 >10m 211Three classes of determination of z accuracy (green, light yellow and orange), within range of1-3 meters errors form 92 % of checked DEM sample. 6/14
  7. 7. Test No.3.The aim of the test was to determine differences of location of analysed terrain details forphotos orthorectified on the basis of one and the other DEM. Two orthorectification processeswere run, using different DEMs. Later differences between resulting images were measured inERDAS IMAGINE, after orthorectification in the same software environment.Results : basic DEM Compared DEM RMSE Nr X Y X Y różnica H dX dY dX 2  dY 2Próbki 1 3510473.42 6003560.43 3510473.70 6003560.43 0.63 -0.28 0.00 0.28 3 3512706.63 6002257.10 3512706.49 6002257.52 0.46 0.14 -0.42 0.44 16 3508956.00 6001406.41 3508956.35 6001406.77 0.56 -0.35 -0.35 0.50 2 3512819.75 6002610.88 3512818.77 6002611.02 1.18 0.98 -0.14 0.99 6 3513496.60 6002775.67 3513497.25 6002775.28 -0.94 -0.65 0.39 0.76 13 3511764.34 6003508.14 3511763.96 6003508.14 0.99 0.37 0.00 0.37 15 3509259.43 6001342.26 3509259.23 6001341.65 -1.08 0.20 0.61 0.64 7 3512790.99 6002125.73 3512791.69 6002125.16 -2.14 -0.70 0.57 0.90 8 3512028.98 6002205.98 3512029.28 6002206.14 -2.06 -0.30 -0.16 0.34 12 3511673.58 6003466.58 3511673.10 6003466.58 1.99 0.48 0.00 0.48 10 3508671.23 6001889.33 3508673.11 6001890.01 3.01 -1.88 -0.67 2.00 11 3511502.19 6003257.71 3511501.80 6003257.94 3.20 0.38 -0.23 0.45 4 3513389.03 6002851.19 3513392.44 6002850.05 -4.31 -3.41 1.14 3.60 9 3511971.94 6002026.77 3511970.87 6002028.32 4.03 1.07 -1.55 1.89 14 3511848.81 6005095.52 3511847.67 6005094.00 4.09 1.14 1.52 1.90 5 3513609.47 6002833.79 3513619.61 6002831.06 -18.43 -10.14 2.73 10.50Orthorectification of IKONOS scenes begun for several different landscapes after these initialDEM tests. Several different test areas were selected from almost flat to mountain-type area.We also wanted to test ability to register IKONOS imagery in different modes of collection,including collection of each individual scenes, two-image strips collection, three image-stripscollection and four image-strips collection. These ways of collecting were applied duringtesting process to 4 TEST AREAS.TEST AREA 1 - KrasnikFirst image of Krasnik village was acquired from Space Imaging Inc archive, since at thebeginning of testing process SI EURASIA did not have imagery for southern area of Poland,characterized by large number of very small farms. Therefore we have purchased scene fromSI Inc archive , collected with viewing angle of less than 18 º angle from nadir, delivered to ustogether with rpc files. (GeoOrthoKit)., registered on June 3rd of 2001. Number of GCPs wasdetermined on the basis of former findings of IKONOS orthorectification. MSPM program ofAshtech was used for analysis of number of satellites and their geometric configuration.Project of location of GCPs was prepared and 4 points of national POLREF network wereselected as tie points. (numbered 1701, 1802, 1803 and 2808). Twelve (12) points were 7/14
  8. 8. measured using static method on the basis of reference points on 2002-03-20, using 4 GPSAshtech Z-XII and Ashtech Z-Surveyor receivers. Tropospheric correction was applied forstandard meteo conditions. Minimal elevation angle was set for 15 º. Rigorous eualization ofnetwork was realized with usage of FILLNET program of Ashtech. Results were achieved inWGS-84/ERTF’89.B & L coordinates received were transformed from WGS-84 system to Krasowski 1942(Pulkovo) on the basis of 4 common points of POLREF network .Orthorectification was performed with usage of ERDAS IMAGINE 8.5.version withapplication of OrthoBase module. Used DEM had 20 meter post spacing. Results achieved atcontrol points 12 CGPs were checked and then, after removing of worst point wererecaltulated again on 11 GCPs. Obtained result is shown on next page in the form of windowfrom part of ERDAS Imagine orthorectification report.RESULTS ACHIEVED : RMSE received for 1 IKONOS scene = 0.8661 m 8/14
  9. 9. TEST AREA 2 – GostyninTwo image strips were collected on April, 7th , 2002 for area of relatively flat Gostynin area (central-northern part of Poland ) of total area of 583 km².20 meter post spacing DEM was used for orthorectification. GCPs were collected in similar way,remembering about fulfilling strict accuracy requirements of SPACE IMAGING Guidelines for CGPcollection . These guidelines require to collect CGPs for most precise orthorectification withplanimetric accuracy better than 20 cm and “z” accuracy better than 60 cm.RESULTS ACHIEVED :(for particular image strips)image id 1: RMS Errors for 28 GCPs: x: 0.2952 y: 0.2603 total: 0.3936image id 2: RMS Errors for 24 GCPs: x: 0.2922 y: 0.3295 total: 0.4404image id 3: RMS Errors for 23 GCPs: x: 0.3117 y: 0.4108 total: 0.5157TEST AREA 3 – Nowy Sacz County 9/14
  10. 10. Three image strips were collected on April, 4th, 2002 for Nowy Sacz County, for 1150 km²,during one IKONOS pass over the area. Nowy Sacz county is located in the south of Poland,bordering with Slovakia . It was most difficult area for orthorectification, since difference in hight atthe territory of the county are larger than 1000 m. Lowest point has 200 meters above the sea level,the highest has more than 1200 m . Six images were orthorectified in one block, with usage of 53GCPs. First stage of work was orthorectification of panchromatic imagery. GCPs causing greatesterrors were rejected. Next stage of work lead to creation of pseudo-natural color composition andorthorectification of multicpactral data. Last phase of work was merging of panchromatic andmultispectral imagery with application of PCA method.RESULTS ACHIEVED :Image accuracy for control and check points for each scene: image id 1: RMS Errors for 13 GCPs: x: 0.8224 y: 1.1841 total: 1.4416 image id 2: RMS Errors for 9 GCPs: x: 0.7305 y: 0.7736 total: 1.0640 image id 3: RMS Errors for 10 GCPs: x: 1.0780 y: 0.9510 total: 1.4375 image id 4: RMS Errors for 10 GCPs: x: 0.9687 y: 0.7371 total: 1.2173 image id 5: RMS Errors for 7 GCPs: x: 0.6371 y: 1.4884 total: 1.6191 image id 6: RMS Errors for 6 GCPs: x: 0.0000 y: 0.0000 total: 0.0000 10/14
  11. 11. Total image RMSE = 1,2866 mAll works related to image collection, delivery to Poland, GCP collection,orthorectification, mozaicking took only two weeks.Resulting orthorectified naighbouring scenes. Please notify this is not a mozaicked orthoimagery, butonly set of two orthorectified scenes. Border between scenes may be observed in the forest area in thesouthern part of image (at its centre). Currently cadastral records existing for part of the county areoverlapped over IKONOS orthophoto. 11/14
  12. 12. TEST AREA 4 Drawsko Pomorskie area Four adjacent IKONOS strips, results in review by Military Intelligence Directorate of Polish Army General StaffCONCLUSIONS:1. Registration of IKONOS imagery should be taken at 18o deviation angle from nadir to produce ortophotomaps of RMSE <= 1 m,2. Measurement accuracy of GCPs should - according to the technical instructions of SPACE IMAGING Inc. and SPACE IMAGING EURASIA - be better than 20 cm (x and y) and better than 60 cm vertically to make the summary error of measurement and point determination not exceed 0.5 m (x,y) and 1 m (z)3. Application of Terrain Numerical Model and post spacing of 20 metres as well as height determination accuracy of 2-3 metres makes possible the domestic production of Precision Plus class ortophotomaps where RMSE error is better than 90 cm.4. The mode of registration of a bigger area (3 or 4 stripes of photographs one after another) in the course of one route of the satellite (Objects: Nowy Sacz and Drawsko Pomorskie), tested in 2002, shows the optimum way of registering the area of Poland. 12/14
  13. 13. 5. The ortophotomaps already produced do satisfy both the accuracy requirements of the European Union (EC Directive No 1593/2000) in reference to construction of ortophotomaps and Land Parcel Identification System within the Integrated System of Administration and Control as well as geodetic-cartographic regulations referring to the accuracy of the ortophotomaps for the cadastral purposes for scale 1: 5000 Literature Kaczynski R., Ewiak I., Ren Wei Chun, Yang Ming Hui, 2001 "Evaluation of Panchromatic IKONOS Data for Mapping, Geodesy and Cartography", Vilnius, Vol. XXVII, No 4, pp 157-160 Bruno Biagini, Riccardo Nasini, 22-23 March 2002, EURIMAGE European Resellers Meeting, Roma Zdzislaw Kurczynski, July 2002, Wies³aw Wolniewicz "VHR satellite imagery systems" Part I pp 18 - 22 GEODETA Zdzislaw Kurczynski, Wieslaw Wolniewicz "VHR satellite imagery systems" Part II What is the pixel below 1 m" pp 26 - 30 GEODETA, August 2002 Ryszard Preuss, Zdzislaw Kurczyñski "Conception of production of a ortophotomap of Poland for the purposes of identification of land parcels - LPIS" pp 6 - 10 GEODETA, August 2002 Jan Konieczny, September 2002 "National System of Identification of Farms and Stock, the Polish IACS and LPIS, Quickly, Properly, Cheaply ?" pp 8 - 11, GEODETA Robert Lach, Murat Erciyes, September 2002 "Our Movement Now" pp 12 - 14, GEODETA 13/14
  14. 14. Tao C. Vincent, Yong Hu, Steve Schnick, 2002 "Photogrammetric Exploitation of IKONOS imageryusing the Rational Function Model", ASPRS Congress, WashingtonOlivier Leo, Guido Lemoine, Jacques Stakenborg, 2001 "Discussion Paper on Land ParcelIdentification System v. 1.4.< Ispra, ItalyEuropean Council Regulation No 1593/2000 of 17 July 2000.1 (T. Toutin, Ph. Cheng, R. Kaczynski)2 QA-042, Rev D, 11/28/00, GCP Specifications, Space Imaging proprietary 14/14

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