GEOSS - the full picture

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GEOSS - the full picture

  1. 1. THE FULL PICTURE THE FULL PICTURE
  2. 2. THE FULL PICTURE
  3. 3. Acknowledgements DISCLAIMER Edited by the GEO Secretariat.Opinions expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not engage the Group on Earth Compiled by Sean Nicklin, Ben Cornwell, James Dodd and Jacqui Griffiths of Tudor Rose. Observations (GEO). The designations employed and presentation of material in this publication, Designed by Emma Fairbrother, Karen Flavel, Bruce Graham and Paul Robinson of Tudor Rose. including maps, do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of Project manager: Stuart Fairbrother of Tudor Rose. GEO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area, or concerning the delimitations of its frontiers or boundaries. Cover design: Leigh Trowbridge Cover image: A view of the Bangladesh coastline, taken by the medium resolution imaging spectrometer (MERIS) onboard Envisat, 8 November 2003 The mention of specific companies or of certain products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by GEO in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. With thanks to all the authors listed in the contents section for their support in making The Full Picture possible. Australian Greenhouse Office Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia, Spain Group on Earth Observations (GEO) 7 bis, avenue de la Paix, www.greenhouse.gov.au www.inm.es Case postale No. 2300 CH-1211 Geneva 2 British National Space Centre Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency Switzerland www.bnsc.gov.uk www.jaxa.jp/index_e.html E-mail: secretariat@geosec.org Web: www.earthobservations.org Bureau of Meteorology, Australia Korea Meteorological Administration This publication may be freely quoted or reprinted, except for resale. www.bom.gov.au www.kma.go.kr/intro.html Acknowledgement of the source is requested. Requests for the reproduction or translation of this publication should be directed to the publisher. Department of Science and Technology, Republic of South Africa National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S.A. www.dst.gov.za www.noaa.gov Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center, Japan National Physical Laboratory, India www.ersdac.or.jp/eng/index.E.html www.nplindia.org European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts The South African Environmental Observation Network www.ecmwf.int www.saeon.ac.za European Space Agency South African Weather Service www.esa.int www.weathersa.co.za ISBN 978-92-990047-0-8 Copyright © GEO 2007 All rights reserved. Geo-Informatics and Space Technology Development U.S. Geological Survey Geneva, Switzerland. Agency, Thailand www.usgs.gov www.gistda.or.th Wageningen University & Research Centre, Centre for Geo-Information, Global Observation for Forest and Land Cover Dynamics Netherlands www.gofc-gold.uni-jena.de/sites/geo.php www.grs.wur.nl Indian National Center for Ocean Information Services Yonsei University, Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences www.incois.gov.in http://koflux.yonsei.ac.kr Infoterra France Special mention to Dr A.P Mitra (National Physical Laboratory, India) who . www.infoterra.fr passed away shortly before publication of this volume. Tudor Rose Published by Tudor Rose on behalf of the GEO. www.tudor-rose.co.uk Additional copies of this publication are available for purchase from the GEO or Tudor Rose. [ 3 ]
  4. 4. Introduction FOREWORD FROM THABO MBEKI, PRESIDENT OF SOUTH AFRICA ´ JOSE ACHACHE, DIRECTOR, SECRETARIAT, GROUP ON EARTH OBSERVATIONSIt gives me great pleasure to express my support for The Full Picture. It is an excellent publication which will Two years ago, the Group on Earth Observations, embarked on an ambitious journey to build a system thatundoubtedly contribute to the ongoing international dialogue around Earth observation data and systems. will give us the full picture of global environmental trends. This dialogue, which started at the World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg in 2002, In the following pages you will visit the construction site for this global infrastructure, one that will changehas led to the establishment of GEO, the Group on Earth Observations. the way we do business in the 21st century. Written by the construction crew itself, The Full Picture describes GEO was created to coordinate all the planet’s observing systems and to promote the sharing of the progress made on building the Global Earth Observations System of Systems. I believe this book offersobservation data. GEO will improve our understanding of the Earth system, while enhancing global policy compelling evidence that these achievements have been nothing short of remarkable.and decision-making abilities to establish a broad range of basic benefits to society, including the reduction Since its inception in 2005, GEOSS has gained momentum towards becoming a comprehensive, near-real-of loss of life and property from tsunamis, floods and other natural disasters; improved water resource and time information system that will coordinate present and future observation systems, monitor the entireenergy management, and a better understanding of environmental factors significant to public health. Earth, track changes in all of its physical, chemical and biological systems, and serve as an essential decision- I am proud to say that South Africa has played a leading role in the development of the 10-year support tool for a vast range of issues and user groups.Implementation Plan of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). For GEO to achieve its The first section of The Full Picture includes supporting statements from GEO’s four Co-Chairs and fromobjectives, it is vital that the membership include more representatives from developing countries. South other committed leaders representing countries and organizations that have made the rapid start-up ofAfrica is honoured to have been selected in Washington at the first Earth Observation Summit as one of the GEOSS possible. Chapter One features a series of national and regional reports demonstrating the strongfour co-chairs of GEO, with the specific responsibility of bringing developing countries on board and putting commitment that the GEO Member governments have made to this cooperative venture. Interestingly, whileforward their perspectives. We believe that significant progress has already been made in this regard. GEOSS was conceived as an instrument for international cooperation, it has also succeeded in promotingNevertheless, South Africa would like to urge the GEO to continue its outreach and public awareness efforts, greater cooperation within countries.which have already succeeded in significantly growing its membership since the first summit. The inclusion Chapter Two describes the progress made on various systems for collecting and, crucially, disseminatingof regional initiatives such as the New Partnership for Africa’s Development in the development of GEOSS information to decision makers, as well as in establishing an architecture for GEOSS which will ensure thathas been critical. It is ultimately essential for GEO to interrogate and resolve issues such as making Earth all contributed observation systems are interoperable. These activities form the essential foundation uponobservation data available to developing countries at affordable costs. which the entire GEOSS project will rest. We should continue to be guided by global engagements such as the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation Chapter Three focuses on the user side of the equation. With an essential role in GEO, user groups includeand the Millennium Development Goals. Indeed, the creation of GEOSS is a significant landmark and one of decision-makers and professionals in the fields of disasters, health, energy, climate, water, weather,the first concrete realizations of the commitments made in Johannesburg in 2002. ecosystems, agriculture, and biodiversity. The projects presented demonstrate the value of Earth observations The GEOSS is an excellent example of how countries around the world, both north and south, can pool for environmental management, social and economic progress, and human well-being.our meagre individual resources into a powerful international observation for global public good. Many of the activities described in Chapters Two and Three are being presented at the Cape Town In conclusion, it gives me great pleasure to report that South Africa is eager to foster even stronger relations Ministerial Summit in November 2007. These Early Achievements are the first 100 steps towards an effectivewithin GEO, and to work towards realizing the objectives of the GEOSS, which will ultimately improve the GEOSS.well-being of all our people. We look forward, as one of the GEO co-chairs, to continuing our committed, I extend my warm appreciation to all GEO Members and Participating Organizations which areactive participation in the partnership. contributing their systems and services to GEOSS and my congratulations to the authors of the articles appearing in this book. Their commitment has been the true inspiration behind the dramatic progress that has been made towards the construction of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems.Thabo Mbeki José AchachePresident of South Africa Director, Secretariat, Group on Earth Observations 4 [ 5 ]
  5. 5. STATEMENT FROM MOSIBUDI MANGENA, STATEMENT FROM DR ZHENG GUOGUANG, MINISTER OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA ADMINISTRATOR OF CHINA METEOROLOGICAL ADMINISTRATION AND GEO CO-CHAIRRegrettably, natural disasters continue to devastate the lives of people across the globe. According to the United Global change is a common issue that must be addressed by the world communities together, as it affectsNations, in 2007 South Asia experienced some of the worst monsoon flooding in living memory. South Africa’s almost all aspects of national economic and social development, the ecological environment, energy andnortheastern neighbour, Mozambique, is recovering from the combined effects of drought, Cyclone Favio and water resources, human health and the sustainable development of human societies. In response to thisfloods which hit that country in the first quarter of this year. challenge, the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) was created in 2005 as an intergovernmental These disasters highlight, once again, the critical need for international collaboration on Earth observation to organization to lead and coordinate existing Earth observation systems and to plan for the development ofimprove global capacity to predict disasters and mitigate their effects. Shared Earth observation data can also the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), on which nine key areas – the ‘societal benefitassist us to tackle the challenges of sustainable development, environmental degradation and climate change. areas’ – were based. I believe it is fitting that the fourth ministerial summit of the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) takes place Remarkable progress has been achieved by the GEO community. GEO has become the largest internationalin South Africa, under the same African skies it was first conceptualised – at the World Summit on Sustainable organization in the field of Earth observations with 71 countries, the European Commission and 46Development in 2002. Participating Organizations. As a core data dissemination component of the GEOSS, GEONETCast Since then, GEO has grown to incorporate 71 member countries, the European Commission, and 46 (composed of EUMETCast, FENGYUNCast, and GEONETCast-America), has started to provide global usersparticipating organizations. We have endorsed the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) 10- with Earth observation data and products and has brought about a fundamental change in global dataYear Implementation Plan, and formally established the GEO to implement it. sharing. GEONETCast has also removed the huge costs associated with the unnecessary duplication of South Africa is honoured to host this summit, and we see it as an acknowledgement of Africa’s contribution satellite ground stations, as well as making access to data far easier. This has been made possible by the useto the promotion and development of Earth observation. Already, 15 African countries have signed up as of Digital Video Broadcast-Satellite communication technology. In the Asia-Pacific region, the Chinesemembers of GEO, with Morocco and South Africa sitting on the GEO Executive Committee. This is a clear Government has donated seventeen FENGYUNCast user-reception systems to developing countries to helpdemonstration of Africa’s commitment to active participation in developing sustainable societies. receive Earth observation data. The GEOPortal constitutes another widely recognized achievement, whichUnderstanding the Earth system is crucial to enhancing human health and safety, and alleviating poverty, which links existing Earth observation networks and provides users with data, decision making tools, andare priorities for African governments. information visualization services. Through the GEOPortal, decision-makers, researchers and the general Africa, which often bears the brunt of environmental change, looks to this forum to help us realize a future public have all the required data at their fingertips for direct application.where economic and developmental decisions will be informed by coordinated and comprehensive Earth With strong support from the GEO Secretariat, this year the Asia-Pacific region has held two workshops, inobservations. Tokyo and in Beijing. The former focused on the social benefits of GEOSS and the latter addressed GEOSS As the GEO we have a responsibility to ensure that we deliver on the targets set in the GEOSS 10-year data sharing issues. These events promoted the development of Earth observation systems in the region asImplementation Plan. I believe that this is an opportune time to reflect on the progress made in implementing well as highlighted the upcoming GEO Ministerial Summit. I would like to take this opportunity, to appeal tothe plan, and to consider matters affecting its future successful implementation. all countries to work together toward a quicker completion of GEOSS, so as to make an even greater The Full Picture is a landmark publication, which illustrates and draws attention to the social and economic contribution to disaster prevention and mitigation, to economic development and to social progress on abenefits the GEOSS Implementation Plan can bring. regional and global scale. Paging through this book, we can be proud of the way the science and technology community is workingtowards the realization of the commitments made at the World Summit on Sustainable Development inJohannesburg five years ago.Mosibudi Mangena Dr Zheng Guoguang,Minister of Science & Technology, Republic of South Africa Administrator of China Meteorological Administration and GEO Co-Chair [ 6 ] [ 7 ]
  6. 6. v STATEMENT FROM JANEZ POTOCNIK, STATEMENT FROM DR PHIL MJWARA, DIRECTOR-GENERAL, EUROPEAN COMMISSIONER FOR SCIENCE AND RESEARCH DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA, AND GEO CO-CHAIRIn my view, the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) initiative is an outstanding example of international South Africa is pleased with the progress being made by the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) incooperation in the domain of science and technology. Systematic monitoring of the Earth’s systems will intensifying and sustaining gains made since the last Earth Observation Summit in Brussels, in 2005. Duringsupport our global efforts to achieve the UN Millennium Development Goals, thereby improving human this period we have experienced growth not only in GEO membership, but also in progress with the capacity-welfare while maintaining dynamic economies and sound ecosystems. We will see the results in improved building strategy, which is particularly important for the Global Earth Observation System of Systemsdecision-making on essential issues that concern the well-being of the planet and its people. (GEOSS). This publication is timed to celebrate GEO’s successes. The European Commission is pleased to be a co-chair of the GEO initiative. The European Community is GEOSS will never succeed as intended if we do not ensure that all the nations of the world have access toalso proud to offer its contributions to the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), examples Earth observation (EO) data. However, all partners agree that access to such data is meaningless unless it isof which are as follows: coupled with the necessary resources. Providing the infrastructure and developing the skills base required to• The 7th Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development is open to international manage data and translate it into useful information will go a long way to enabling developing countries to participation and supports Earth observation activities in the areas of environment, space activities, and store, disseminate and make meaningful use of EO data. information and communications technologies. To South Africa these issues are paramount, as we are convinced that a lack of capacity and infrastructure• Operational Earth observation activities are being pursued through the Global Monitoring for Environment has the potential to derail the process of attaining GEOSS targets. We will therefore continue to advocate for and Security (GMES) initiative. GMES will not only serve European needs for information services, but developing countries to move from being consumers of EO data to being providers operating their own EO exchange data with our international partners. systems. In this publication we propose a vibrant partnership between those whose capacity needs to be• The ‘Infrastructure for Spatial Information in Europe’ (INSPIRE) directive provides measures that address developed and those who can assist in developing the requisite capacity. exchange, sharing, access and use of interoperable spatial data and services in Europe. INSPIRE will In this regard it is important for South Africa to support regional initiatives aimed at addressing skills contribute to establishing global standards for geospatial data and information and provide a backbone for shortages in countries that are still struggling with resources, and South Africa is therefore committed to the the proposed European Shared Environmental Information System (SEIS), which is intended to provide an provision of resources, expertise and information to its neighbours in the GEO community. We also efficient and interoperable infrastructure for sharing environmental information. encourage developing countries to take advantage of the 2007 EO Ministerial Summit in Cape Town and,• Specific support is being provided for sustainable geo-information and capacity building projects in the with increased awareness of the instrument’s potential for global good, to add their efforts to the realization African Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) group of states to ensure that developing countries master the of GEOSS. technology they require, while allowing their own capacities, knowledge base, institutions and South Africa is privileged to have been one of the GEO pioneers. It has been a rewarding and enriching infrastructure to grow without duplication. experience to see our country’s participation in GEOSS increasing in user forums, as well as in scientific and technical advisory roles, and we are optimistic that the EO community will find this publication useful.I think it is appropriate that the GEO IV Summit should take place in South Africa, five years after it hostedthe World Summit for Sustainable Development that took landmark decisions to combat poverty andpromote environmental sustainability. The progress, demonstrated in this book, in developing the GEOSS isa clear response to the calls for action to meet global challenges in areas such as health, the environment andclimate change. These efforts have my full support. vJanez Potocnik Dr Phil MjwaraEuropean Commissioner for Science and Research Director-General, Department of Science & Technology, Republic of South Africa, and GEO Co-Chair [ 8 ] [ 9 ]
  7. 7. Contents STATEMENT FROM VADM CONRAD C. LAUTENBACHER, JR., US NAVY (RET.), UNDER SECRETARY OF COMMERCE FOR OCEANS AND ATMOSPHERE AND US CO-CHAIR, GEO Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 The UK piece of the GEO puzzle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49 Mark Churchyard and Ruth Kelman, BNSC Partnership Foreword by Thabo Mbeki, President of South Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4As the US co-chair of the intergovernmental Group on Earth Observations (GEO), I am privileged to express United States Group on Earth Observations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52 Introduction by José Achache, Gene Whitney, OSTP; Teresa Fryberger, NASA; Helen Wood, NOAAmy enthusiastic support for the emerging Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The Director, Secretariat, Group on Earth Observations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5progress we document and celebrate at this fourth Earth Observation Summit is truly remarkable. Preface by Mosibudi Mangena, II For decades, scientists have discussed the potential applications of integrated observing technology. Minister of Science & Technology, Republic of South Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6However, it was not until the first Earth Observation Summit some four years ago that political will caught up THE GLOBAL EARTH OBSERVATION Statement from Dr Zheng Guoguang, SYSTEM OF SYSTEMS COMPONENTSwith scientific vision. At that summit, nations came together at the ministerial level to express their Co-Chair, Group on Earth Observations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56commitment to linking their various observational platforms into a global network and sharing the vinformation for the benefit of all. Statement from Janez Potocnik, Observing Systems The impetus for this commitment was a realization that sound policy decisions about economic growth, European Commissioner for Science and Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 More ‘eyes in the skies’ provide a full picture: a reportpublic safety and environmental health must rest on sound scientific data. The growth of GEO through the Statement from Dr Phil Mjwara, Director-General, Department of from the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) . . . . . . . . .58next two summits has demonstrated that GEOSS will be the realization of this vision to ‘take the pulse of the Science & Technology, Republic of South Africa and GEO Co-Chair . . . . . . . .9 Barbara J. Ryan, US Geological Survey (2007 CEOS Chair); Timothy S.planet.’ Statement from VADM Conrad C. Lautenbacher, Jr., US Navy (Ret.), Stryker, US Geological Survey; Rebecca L. Johnson, Science Applications In the United States, we are institutionalizing GEOSS through the United States Group on Earth Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere and International, contractor to the US Geological SurveyObservations (USGEO), a subcommittee of the National Science and Technology Council. Some fifteen US Co-Chair, GEO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 The Sensor Web: GEOSS’s foundation layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61federal agencies and three White House offices coordinate through USGEO to leverage our domestic Earth Ingo Simonis, GEO Spatial Research Statement from Wolfgang Tiefensee,observation operational and research and development assets in the most effective way for our nation, and German Federal Minister of Transport, Building and Urban Affairs . . . . . . .14 GCOS, a system of systems for the globalalso to inform and integrate our US contribution to the intergovernmental GEO process. observation of climate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63 Our world is increasingly connected. Just as economic and environmental challenges know no geographical Statement from Cristina Narbona, Minister of Environment, Spain . . . . . . .15 Gilles Sommeria, GCOS Secretariat; John W. Zillman, Chairman, GCOSboundaries, the prospective benefits of a comprehensive Earth observation system are without limitation. Statement from Dr Keiji Tachikawa, Steering Committee and David Goodrich, Director, GCOS SecretariatWorking together – locally, regionally and globally – we can provide our leaders with the information President of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Argo – a global ocean observing system for the 21st century . . . . . . . . .67necessary to promote the safety of our citizens, the sustainable growth of our economies, and the effective Statement from Jean-Jacques Dordain, Howard Freeland, Institute of Ocean Sciences/Fisheries and Oceans Canada;management of our planet’s precious resources. Director-General of the European Space Agency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 Dean Roemmich, Scripps Institute of Oceanography; John Gould, National Oceanography Centre, and Mathieu Belbéoch, Argo Technical Coordinator Statement from Michel Jarraud, Secretary-General of the World Meteorological Organization . . . . . . . . . . . .18 The blue planet – observations of the global ocean . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72 D. James Baker, Tom Gross and Howard S. J. Roe, Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO and Partnership for Observation I of the Global Ocean; the GOOS writing team NATIONAL & REGIONAL REPORTS Why the world needs a Global Ocean Observing System . . . . . . . . . . . .76 Delivering GEOSS – the value and the vision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 Keith Alverson, Chief of Ocean Observations and Services, IOC/UNESCO Dr Susan L. Barrell, Australian Bureau of Meteorology Toward a global biodiversity observation network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79 Coordinating GEO in Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 Bruno A. Walther and Anne Larigauderie, DIVERSITAS, Muséum National The Canadian Group on Earth Observations d’Histoire Naturelle; Neville Ash, UNEP-WCMC; Gary N. Geller, NASA Chinese space-based Earth observation Ecological Forecasting Program; Norbert Jürgens, University of Hamburg; system – a contribution to GEOSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 Meredith A. Lane, Global Biodiversity Information Facility SecretariatVADM Conrad C. Lautenbacher, Jr., US Navy (Ret.) China Meteorological Administration Smithsonian Institution Global Earth Observatories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans Getting the full picture: the European Commission and GEOSS . . . . . .30 Ira Rubinoff, Smithsonian Institution, Office of the Undersecretary for Science;and Atmosphere and US Co-Chair, GEO European Commission Eldredge Bermingham and Charles Lydeard, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute; Stuart J. Davies, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute and Arnold GMES and GEOSS: towards a new era in Earth observation . . . . . . . . . .34 Arboretum, Harvard University V. Liebig, Director, ESA Earth Observation Programmes European geological surveys and GEOSS – observing the Implementing GEOSS in Germany . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 Earth beneath our feet: why does it matter? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85 Jörn Hoffmann, D-GEO Secretariat, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Space Patrice Christmann, Secretary-General, EuroGeoSurveys Agency NSF’s observing systems: platforms for Earth observations – JAXA’s role . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 large-scale environmental research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88 Kazuo Umezawa, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency Arden Bement, Jr., Director; James Collins, Assistant Director for Biological Sciences; Jeannette Wing, Assistant Director for Computer and Information Earth observation in South Africa – an increasingly pivotal function . . .42 Sciences and Engineering; Richard Buckius, Assistant Director for Engineering; Department of Science and Technology Jarvis Moyers, Acting Assistant Director for Geosciences; David Lightfoot, The INM’s Izaña Atmospheric Research Centre, Assistant Director for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences; Daniel Atkins, a GEO-oriented experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44 Director, Office of Cyberinfrastructure; Karl Erb, Director, Office of Polar Emilio Cuevas, Director, Izaña Atmospheric Research Centre, Instituto Nacional Programs; Kathie Olsen, Deputy Director, US National Science Foundation de Meteorologia (INM), Spain New marine observing systems around Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92 GISTDA’s viewpoint towards GEOSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47 Geoff Brundrit and Stewart Bernard, GOOS Africa; Mika Odido, ODINAfrica Dr Thongchai Charuppat, Director, GISTDA and Lucy Scott, ACEP [ 10 ] [ 11 ]
  8. 8. Observing systems for the Pacific Islands region – unique All-hazards, all-media public warning standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .139 The importance of Earth observations in the assessment of malaria, Understanding the coupled human-environmental Earth system:challenges for a unique environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95 Eliot Christian, United States Geological Survey respiratory and ocular diseases in South Asia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .188 science without borders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .233Paul Eastwood, Marc Overmars, Cristelle Pratt, Komal Raman, Peter Sinclair, A. P Mitra, National Physical Laboratory, India . Kevin Noone, International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) The North American Drought Monitor andLloyd Smith, Arthur Webb and Linda Yuen, Secretariat of the Pacific Islands a global drought early warning system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .142 AIRNow: the beginning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .191 Global land cover observations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .235Applied Geoscience Commission; Dean Solofa, Secretariat of the Pacific Jay Lawrimore, Richard Heim and Tim Owen, NOAAs Natioal Climatic Data Phil Dickerson, AIRNow programme director, US EPA Martin Herold, Global Observation of Forest andRegional Environment Programme Center, USA; Mark Svoboda, National Drought Mitigation Center, USA; The Air Quality Health Index: using Canadian Land Cover Dynamics (GOFC-GOLD)Canada’s National Land and Water Information Service . . . . . . . . . . . . .98 Valentina Davydova, Servicio Meteorólógico Nacional, Mexico; Dwayne Chobanik, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, National Agroclimate Earth observations for health protection from air pollution . . . . . . . . .193 Rapid biological and ecological assessments usingIan Jarvis, Manager; Heather McNairn, Research Scientist; Allan Howard, Dave Henderson, Policy Advisor, Air Issues and Sean Daley, Program Officer,Manager; Catherine Champagne, Scientist; Ryan Ogston, Scientist, Agriculture Information Service; Brad Rippey, US Department of Agriculture, and Doug Earth observation data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .238 LeComte, NOAA Climate Prediction Center, USA Business Policy, Meteorological Service of Canada, Environment Canada; David Douglas M. Muchoney, Group on Earth Observationsand Agri-Food Canada M. Stieb, Medical Epidemiologist, Healthy Environments and Consumer SafetyCanada’s sustained Arctic monitoring programme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100 GEOSS and the prediction of short-term changes Branch, Health Canada Monitoring land degradation with long-termDoug Bancroft, Director, Canadian Ice Service, Environment Canada; Andrew in the oceanic environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .146 satellite data in South Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .240 Ian T. Hunter, Principal Researcher, South African Weather Service Energy Konrad Wessels, Remote Sensing Research Unit, Meraka Institute andEddy, President, Athena Global; Guy Séguin, Director, Spacecraft Payloads,Canadian Space Agency Informing decision making in the energy sector using NASA Department of Geography, University of Maryland, and Stephen Prince, III spaceborne observations and model predictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .195 Department of Geography, University of MarylandTerraSAR-X – a new system in the system of systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . .102 Richard S. Eckman and Paul W. Stackhouse, Jr., NASA Langley Research CenterDr Stefan Knabe, Infoterra GmbH; Dr Jörn Hoffman and Achim Roth, German SOCIETAL BENEFIT AREAS OF GEOSS The business of capacity-development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .243Aerospace Center Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .152 Space for solar energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .198 Ehrlich Desa, Joannes Berque, Mika Odido and Stefano Mazzilli, M. Schroedter-Homscheidt, Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) UNESCO/IOC; Geoff HollandKoFlux contribution to GEOSS: Disasters e.V; P Stackhouse, NASA Langley Research Center and f. Sarti, European Space .HydroKorea II and CarboEastAsia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104 Agriculture Improved use of satellites for risk management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .158 Agency; T. Ranchin, Ecole des Mines de ParisJoon Kim, Department of Atmospheric Sciences & Global Environmental Global agriculture in the 21st century: sustainable GEO DI-06-09 Steering Committee: Guy Séguin, Chair, Canadian Space Winds of change from space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .202Laboratory, Yonsei University, Soeul; Sung Kim, Sustainable Water Resources production of food, fibre, fuel and more . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .246 Agency; Stephen Ambrose, NASA; Robert Backhaus, DLR; Jérôme Béquignon, Pierre-Philippe Mathieu, European Space Agency, ESA/ESRIN; CharlotteResearch Center/KICT, Korea ESA; Andrew Eddy, Athena Global; Jérôme Lafeuille, WMO; Francesco Pisano, Ghassem R. Asrar, PhD, Deputy Administrator, Agricultural Research Service, Hasager, RISOE National Laboratory DTUGEOSS architecture principles and the GEOSS Clearinghouse . . . . . . .106 UNOSAT; Giovanni Rum, GEO Secretariat and David Stevens, UNOOSA United States Department of AgricultureEliot Christian, United States Geological Survey Climate Disaster risk management: an investment in development . . . . . . . . . .160 Sustainable agriculture and Earth observation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .249Dissemination/Information Systems Maryam Golnaraghi, PhD and Jean-Baptiste Migraine, WMO Disaster Risk State of the climate – using Earth observations to monitor Glenn R. Bethel, US Department of Agriculture and Gregory L. Stensaas, Reduction Programme the global climate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .204 US Geological SurveyGEONETCast: nerve system for the planet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .110 Jay Lawrimore, NOAA National Climatic Data CenterLinda Moodie, US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Michael Global Observation of Forest and Land Cover Dynamics Applications of remote sensing in fisheries and aquaculture . . . . . . . . .253 (GOFC-GOLD): monitoring and early warning systems GOSAT in practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .207 Trevor Platt, Research Scientist; Shubha Sathyendranath, Executive Director,Williams, EUMETSAT; Fan Jinlong, China Meteorological Administration for wildland fire disaster reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .164 Takashi Hamazaki, GOSAT Project Manager, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency Partnership for the Observation of the Global Oceans; Venetia Stuart, ProjectThe GEOPortal – gateway to GEOSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .112 William J. de Groot, Tim J. Lynham, Michael A. Brady, Natural Resources Earth observation contributions to assessing Australian terrestrial Scientist, International Ocean Colour Coordinating Group, all of BedfordHermann Ludwig Moeller and Jolyon Martin, European Space Agency Canada; Ivan A. Csiszar, Diane Davies, Christopher O. Justice, University of ecosystems, carbon stocks and greenhouse gas emissions . . . . . . . . . .209 Institute of Oceanography, Nova Scotia, Canada Maryland; Elaine M. Prins, University of Wisconsin; Johann G. Goldammer,CBERS – the Chinese-Brazilian Earth Resources Satellite programme . . .116 Gary Richards, Australian Greenhouse Office; Alex Held & Peter Caccetta, Global Fire Monitoring Center Satellite-based fishery service in India . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .256José Carlos Neves Epiphânio, João Vianei Soares, Hilcéa Ferreira and Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation Shailesh Nayak, T. Srinivaskumar and M. Nagarajakumar;Gilberto Câmara Neto, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Brazil The advanced fire information system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .168 Climate monitoring and prediction in Korea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .212 Indian National Centre of Ocean Information Services Philip Frost and Dr Bob Scholes, South African Advanced Fire Information SystemGEOSS: a platform for sharing information and expertise Man-Ki Lee, Administrator, Korea Meteorological Administration Disaster monitoring using ASTER and PALSAR data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .170 Biodiversityfor sustainable management of natural resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .118 African Climate Atlas: making IPCC AR4 data available . . . . . . . . . . . .215Driss Elhadani, Director, the Royal Centre for Remote Sensing Dr Hiroji Tsu, Managing Director, Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center Bridging scaling gaps for the assessment of biodiversity from space . . .258 Richard Washington, GEO-WCRP-CLIVAR-VACS (ERSDAC), Japan Michael E. Schaepman, Centre for Geo-Information, Wageningen University andCapacity building networks for Earth observation and geo-ICT: Water Contribution of the International Federation of Digital Seismographic Alterra; Zbynĕk Malenovský and Lammert Kooistra, Centre for Geo-a first step towards a virtual university . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .120Martien Molenaar and Chris Mannaerts, Networks (FDSN) to the Global Earth Observation System of Systems . .172 Global water quality monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .217 Information, Wageningen University’ C.A. (Sander) Mücher, Centre for Geo-International Institute for Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation Gerardo Suárez, Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Steven R. Greb, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources; Antti Herlevi, World Information, Alterra; Wilfried Thuiller, Université J. Fourier, Laboratoire México; Torild van Eck, Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI), the Meteorological Organization, and Paul DiGiacomo, National Oceanic and Atmospheric d’Ecologie AlpineEuropean monitoring service: achievements, Netherlands; Rhett Butler, Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology Administration, National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Serviceoperational perspectives and new challenges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .124 Predicting the impact of climate change on (IRIS), USA; Domenico Giardini, Swiss Seismological Service, and Tim Ahern,Marc Tondriaux, CEO and Gil Denis, Head of Business Development, The observational aspects of water cycle knowledge and applications . . .221 biodiversity – a GEOSS scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .262 Data Management Center, (IRIS)GMES Applications and Services, Infoterra Group Richard G. Lawford, Director, International GEWEX Project Office Stefano Nativi and Paolo Mazzetti, Italian National Research Council; Hannu Sentinel Asia: supporting disaster management in the Asia-Pacific region . .174 Saarenmaa, Finnish Museum of Natural History; Jeremy Kerr and HeatherEuropean Marine Core Service: global and regional Hideshi Kozawa and Kazuya Kaku, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency Development of a global in situ soil moisture network . . . . . . . . . . . . .224 Kharouba, Canadian Facility for Ecoinformatics Research; Éamonn Ó Tuama,ocean monitoring and forecasting, a service to society . . . . . . . . . . . . .128 Peter J. van Oevelen, International GEWEX Project Office; Thomas J. Jackson, Sea-level rise and vulnerable coastal populations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .177 Global Biodiversity Information Facility; Siri Jodha Singh Khalsa, National SnowYves Desaubies, MERSEA project and European Marine Core Service Consortium USDA Hydrology and Remote Sensing Lab; Pedro Viterbo, Instituto de John A. Church, CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Antarctic Climate and Ice Data Center Meteorologica; Dara Entekhabi, MIT, and Yann Kerr, CNES/CESBIOLinking GEOSS and European environmental monitoring . . . . . . . . . .131 and Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre; Throkild Aarup, Intergovernmental A possibility of land vegetation observation with SGLI/GCOM-C . . . . .265Markus Erhard and Tim Haigh, European Environment Agency; Oceaographic Commission, UNESCO; W. Stanley Wilson, US National Oceanic Weather Y. Honda, Center for Environmental Remote Sensing (CEReS), Chiba University;Bo Normander, National Environmental Research Institute and Atmospheric Administration, and Philip L. Woodworth, Permanent Service for The reanalysis of daily weather observations at ECMWF . . . . . . . . . . .226 M. Moriyama, Nagasaki University; K. Kajiwara, CEReS; A. Ono, Earth Mean Sea Level, Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory Manfred Kloeppel, Adrian Simmons and Sakari Uppala, European Centre forSERVIR: putting Earth observation Observation Research Center (EORC), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agencyscience and technology into practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .134 Earth Observation System response to disaster reduction in Thailand . . .180 Medium-Range Weather Forecasts The green ocean – observations of marine biodiversity . . . . . . . . . . . .267Carrie Stokes, US agency for International Development Dr Darasri Dowreang, Deputy Director, GISTDA The Thorpex Interactive Grand Global Ensemble (TIGGE) D. James Baker, David Farmer and Kristen Yarincik, Scientific SteeringForecasting and Warning Systems Health concept and current status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .229 Committee, Census of Marine Life Philippe Bougeault, European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts,The socio-economic and environmental benefits of a revolution Human health and biodiversity: making the connection . . . . . . . . . . .182 UK; Co-Chair, GIFS-TIGGE WG, and Zoltan Toth, National Centers for Reliable Earth observation systems for science andin weather, climate and Earth system analysis and prediction . . . . . . . .136 Gary Foley, Montira Pongsiri and Aaron Ferster, Environmental Preduction, USA; Co-Chair, GIFS-TIGGE WG sustainable development in Southern Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .271Melvyn Shapiro, Jagadish Shukla, Brian Hoskins, John Church, Kevin US Environmental Protection Agency J. C. Pauw, South African Environmental Observation Network EcosystemsTrenberth, Michel Beland, Guy Brasseur, Mike Wallace, Gordon McBean, Jim Applications of remote sensing technologiesCaughey, David Rogers, Gilbert Brunet, Leonard Barrie, Ann Hendersen-Sellers, for monitoring human health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .184 Mapping global ecosystems – the GEOSS approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . .231David Burridge, Tetsuo Nakazawa, Martin Miller, Phillippe Bougeault, Rick Pietro Ceccato, Michael A. Bell, Tufa Dinku and Stephen J. Connor, International Roger Sayre, US Geological Survey; Alberto Yanosky, Guyra Paraguay;Anthes, Zoltan Toth and Tim Palmer Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI), Columbia University Douglas Muchoney, Group on Earth Observations/US Geological Survey Notes & References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .274 [ 12 ] [ 13 ]
  9. 9. STATEMENT FROM WOLFGANG TIEFENSEE, STATEMENT FROM CRISTINA NARBONA, GERMAN FEDERAL MINISTER OF TRANSPORT, BUILDING AND URBAN AFFAIRS MINISTER OF ENVIRONMENT, SPAINThe world around us is changing at a rapid pace. If we want to not only observe but also shape global The growing vulnerability of today’s society, which is faced with the evolution and processes taking place onchange, we have to learn how to understand it. We will not succeed in sustainably ensuring peaceful our planet, has meant data and information about our planet have become fundamentally important, notcoexistence among people and the prudent use of our natural resources unless we comprehensively only for real time activities but also scheduled strategic activities and, of course, research. The need to haveunderstand global processes. as much data as possible to ensure its quality, and that these are processed quickly and efficiently, especially Given the complexity of global change, learning to understand it means above all learning from one in emergency situations, justify the high priority given to the implantation of a Global Earth Observationanother. The Group on Earth Observations has realized this. System of Systems (GEOSS) to coordinate and foster all these activities. If we want to meet global challenges, we have to look beyond national boundaries and develop strategies Two years after the GEO was created as the driving force behind the global implantation of the GEOSS,jointly. The information that the Group on Earth Observations provides to policymakers is an important basis some encouraging results have been obtained, but there is still a lot to be done. The quick, efficient deliveryfor this. of data and predictions regarding communities at risk of the effects of adverse phenomena must be ensured. The Group on Earth Observations has set itself ambitious goals. We want to make optimum use of the It is also necessary to ensure that any new technology projects are introduced appropriately in the social andobservation systems and models that are already available throughout the world. We also want to jointly seek human contexts they are to serve, taking into account their own specifics and requirements, and ensuringnew approaches and methods, and expand our knowledge of the global environmental context. that suitable training is given and the highest degree of responsibility is accepted for their operation and The Federal Republic of Germany is playing its part in ensuring that the goals of the Group on Earth maintenance.Observations are achieved. We are contributing our experiences and knowledge of the operation of Extensive training and diffusion activities must also be developed, processes must be simplified andobservation systems, as well as providing innovative methods for the evaluation and analysis of the data. administrative obstacles must be removed, to facilitate collaboration and the quick, efficient introduction of There are already some success stories to report. Globally coordinated earth observation provides the states projects and systems. Perhaps the most important aspect is the progressive construction of an extensiveinvolved with important findings to help them evolve their strategies and programmes effectively. What we planetary awareness that we all depend on each other to achieve decent, healthy living conditions on Earth. Ihave achieved so far should encourage us to continue with the idea of the Group on Earth Observations. think GEOSS plays a key role in all of this and that initiatives such as this book, The Full Picture, within this framework may contribute to greater understanding and dialogue concerning this planetary challenge, something to which the Spanish Government is firmly committed.Wolfgang Tiefensee Cristina NarbonaGerman Federal Minister of Transport, Building and Urban Affairs Minister of Environment, Spain [ 14 ] [ 15 ]
  10. 10. STATEMENT FROM DR KEIJI TACHIKAWA, STATEMENT FROM JEAN-JACQUES DORDAIN, PRESIDENT OF THE JAPAN AEROSPACE EXPLORATION AGENCY DIRECTOR GENERAL OF THE EUROPEAN SPACE AGENCYWe are now facing difficulties on the Earth. Problems that were caused by ourselves are forcing us to change At the dawn of the third millennium, humankind faces many severe challenges. Our collective responsibilityour lifestyles and living environments. And if we are facing these problems now, what might we be facing in is nothing less than to manage a planet, our planet, for the benefit of all the citizens of the world, and even30 years’ time? more importantly, for the generations that follow. What should give us confidence in this undertaking is the Presently, there are many global issues such as shortage of water resources, desertification, and increasing fact that we have already successfully developed the tools and means required, and also, that we have learnednatural disasters, which seriously impact our community. To overcome such problems and take appropriate to cooperate.measures against them, it is necessary for many countries to cooperate and ensure the establishment of GEO, the Group on Earth Observations, represents such an endeavour. It is the result of an inter-comprehensive, coordinated and sustained Earth observation, enabling accurate policy decisions based on governmental effort to advance our understanding of Earth and consequently managing life thereon.correct information. Space technologies constitute a tool to support this challenging objective. We have learned to develop The Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) is working toward a solution for the Earth’s platforms that use of the unique capabilities space offers, in order to deliver applications for the benefit of all.environmental issues, which is one of its current priorities for sustainable growth and development. Communication, navigation and observation form the magic triangle of space applications.Contributing to the GEOSS implementation, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has Earth ESA’s Earth observation satellites, such as Envisat, the world’s largest environmental satellite ever built,observation programmes such as disaster and crisis monitoring, as well as water cycle and climate change provide huge amounts of daily data for users and institutions worldwide. The view from Earth observationobservation, to contribute towards a safe and secure society. satellites gives us a new perspective: what has always seemed an unimaginable expanse has been transformed The issue of climate change is no longer a question; it is a reality. I hope that GEOSS will give high priority in to a blue sphere that can be orbited in just 90 minutes.to this issue, which threatens people around the world. GEOSS could play a critical role here. More than ever, satellites play a vital role in managing our lives and understanding the human impact on GEOSS should also pay attention to the many regional issues, and the need for regional cooperation – our environment. They feed Earth system sciences, the global climate change discussion, applications,GEOSS can lend valuable support to regional Earth observations. business cases and disaster management efforts. As such, space has become a type of natural asset. GMES, JAXA promotes the Sentinel Asia Project with disaster prevention organizations and space agencies in the the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security programme managed by the EU and ESA, constitutesAsia Pacific region to share disaster information. I believe that the project can contribute to solving local the European contribution to GEO.issues in the region. It is a demanding task the GEO faces to integrate all these efforts, from space and in situ observations, to Japan has been and will be calling on other non-member countries to join GEO. GEOSS is a very timely governments and organizations, from regions and countries, to systems and stations. I am convinced thatand very important programme for the Earth’s environment. JAXA is looking forward to working for this GEO’s mission should be at the top of political agenda. It’s a difficult task. But I am confident that the GEO,critical programme. in establishing a Global Earth Observation System of Systems, will succeed in providing decision makers with all data they need to act quickly and confidently. Such a success will benefit every single one of us.Dr Keiji Tachikawa Jean-Jacques DordainPresident of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency Director General of the European Space Agency [ 16 ] [ 17 ]
  11. 11. STATEMENT FROM MICHEL JARRAUD, SECRETARY-GENERAL OF THE WORLD METEOROLOGICAL ORGANIZATIONThe World Meteorological Organization (WMO) evolved in 1950 from the International MeteorologicalOrganization (IMO), which in 1873 received from the First International Meteorological Congress the mandate forthe safety of life and the protection of property through the provision of services in weather and climate, and tocoordinate the appropriate observation systems. In 1951 WMO became a specialized agency of the United NationsSystem and shortly thereafter, in 1959, it received an additional mandate in water. Today, the vision of WMO is toprovide world leadership in expertise and international cooperation in weather, climate, hydrology and waterresources and related environmental issues and thereby contribute to the safety and well being of peoplethroughout the world and to the economic benefit of all nations. While 90% of natural disasters are of hydrometeorological origin, it is indeed possible to protect our societiesand to save lives through a clear understanding of the potential threats, reliable early warnings and efficientdisaster reduction and mitigation efforts. Systematic observations of weather, climate and water, as well as thederived assessments, predictions and warnings are daily disseminated through WMO’s World Weather Watch andthe National Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHSs) of WMO’s 188 Members. Building upon the well-established and consolidated services provided in their mandated areas of competenceby WMO and other organizations, a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) will provide a keyopportunity to serve additional users and to share a broader-scoped environmental monitoring and predictionsystem with the global community. The possibility of new observational partnerships with organizations in suchdiverse fields as food and energy production, human and ecosystems or health and biodiversity, will significantlycontribute to mitigate further the impacts of natural disasters and to increase the socio-economic benefits. The Fifteenth World Meteorological Congress (Geneva, May 2007) endorsed the GEOSS concept as a keyinitiative to enable WMO to better address the challenges of the coming decades, and emphasized that the relevantWMO components should also be GEOSS components. WMO contributions to GEOSS would include WMO’sunique systems as well as its co-sponsored systems. WMO participation in GEOSS would be on a basis of mutualbenefit, to maximize synergies and minimize duplication, and to facilitate the free and unrestricted exchange ofdata, metadata and products, in particular to make available all essential data, as defined in WMO Resolution 40(Cg-XII), through the GEO interoperable arrangements to serve the needs of the global community. The Full Picture comprises an excellent overview of WMO’s contributions towards GEOSS as well as expectationsin terms of what could be achieved as GEOSS develops into a true “system of systems”, to enable us to bettercomprehend and monitor our planet, and to increasingly provide to the global community all the information thatis needed to meet and to respond to the challenges that societies will be facing in a changing environment.Michel JarraudSecretary-General, World Meteorological Organization [ 18 ]
  12. 12. I NATIONAL &REGIONAL REPORTS

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