“Let your food be thy medicine!”…. Hippoc...
Photocatalytic oxidation of NOx, CO2. SO2, CH4, N2O, CFCs gases using TiO2 - Google Search
Photocatalytic oxidation of NOx...
A Patents’ overview of the application of TiO2 photocatalysis for air treatment has recently been done by Paz
Cooling Techniques
A combination of three cooling techniques is proposed, to give flexibility in deployment and maximize t...
Since the early twentieth century, TiO2 has been widely used in sunscreens, lipsticks, ointments, toothpaste,
paints, and ...
reaction. Instead, it is surface interactions that the nanoparticles have within their environment- in this case inside
a ...
prudent to limit their ingestion through non-essential drug additives, food colors, etc.,” the study states.
Next, Schiest...
having a seat belt doesn’t mean you should drive drunk at 100 miles an hour,” he says Tagged climate,
geoengineering, nano...
Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured acellularly (without any photocatalytic activity) as
well as intr...
Spraying the Skies: 1975 U.S. Patent for Powder Contrail Generation
Posted in this story is a very interesting PDF availab...
size of about 0.3 microns. 7. Apparatus as in claim 1 wherein said radiation scattering powder particles have a
coating of...
Kelley Co. twin shell dry LB-model LB–2161 with intensifier. Batches of 1500 g were blended for 15 min. each and
packaged ...
Srm geoengineering-to stop global warming with ti02 and aluminum al- oxides- photocatalytic oxidation of n ox, co2. so2, c...
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Srm geoengineering-to stop global warming with ti02 and aluminum al- oxides- photocatalytic oxidation of n ox, co2. so2, ch4, n2-o, cfcs gases using tio2 - causes dna damage and cancer - a.e.n.t - 2014 - rsh


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Srm geoengineering-to stop global warming with ti02 and aluminum al- oxides- photocatalytic oxidation of n ox, co2. so2, ch4, n2-o, cfcs gases using tio2 - causes dna damage and cancer - a.e.n.t - 2014 - rsh

  1. 1. RESEARCHED AND COMPILED BY: ROBERT S. HARDT NUTRI-EPIGENETIC BIOCHEMICAL ANALYST “Let your food be thy medicine!”…. Hippocrates CONTACT INFORMATION ROBERTHARDT@YAHOO.COM 1-310-398-4011 2-18-2014 5-2-2014 GEOENGINEERING- Photocatalytic oxidation of NOx, CO2. SO2, CH4, N2O, CFCs gases using TiO2 - Causes DNA Damage and Cancer
  2. 2. Photocatalytic oxidation of NOx, CO2. SO2, CH4, N2O, CFCs gases using TiO2 - Google Search Photocatalytic oxidation of NOx, CO2. SO2, CH4, N2O, CFCs gases using TiO2: Regarding the oxidation mechanism of TiO2 photocatalysis, it is based on the activation of a semiconductor material upon UV-A radiation, eventually producing hydroxyl radicals. KEYWORDS: photocatalysis; greenhouse gases removal; climate forcers elimination; global warming reduction.
  3. 3. A Patents’ overview of the application of TiO2 photocatalysis for air treatment has recently been done by Paz DOD, DOE, NAVY, NASA, TiO2, Global Warming mitigation pdf - Google Search TiO2, Photocatalysis; greenhouse gases removal; climate forcers elimination; Geoengineering, global warming reduction. - Google Search Want to know about Chemtrails, HAARP , VLF, UHF and weather modification? Want to prove it to a non-believer? Here you go!….. START LOOKING SKYWARD INSTEAD OF AT YOUR I-PHONE OR THE GROUND The Truth Denied - Chemtrails Studies TiO2
  4. 4. Cooling Techniques A combination of three cooling techniques is proposed, to give flexibility in deployment and maximize the chances of success: !"stratospheric aerosols to reflect sunlight !"cloud brightening to reflect more sunlight !"cloud removal to allow thermal radiation into space. The first technique mimics the action of large volcanoes such as Mt. Pinatubo, which erupted in 1991 and had a cooling effect of 0.5°C over 2 years due to the sulphate aerosols it produced in the stratosphere. However, larger particles in the aerosol are liable to reflect thermal radiation from the planet surface, hence having a warming effect. To avoid this, there is an advantage in using TiO2 particles, as used in white paint. These can be engineered to a constant size and coated to produce required properties, such as not sticking to one another. Large quantities could be dispersed at high latitudes in the lower stratosphere, by using stratotankers (Jet Aircraft) , to have an effect lasting a few months during spring, summer and early autumn. Due to circulating winds, the aerosol will spread around the latitude where it has been injected.
  5. 5. Since the early twentieth century, TiO2 has been widely used in sunscreens, lipsticks, ointments, toothpaste, paints, and as a pigment. Regarding its commercial availability, suitable optical and electronic qualities, chemical stability and non-toxicity, TiO2 seems to be the most convenient candidate for photocatalytic conversion of many mineral and organic compounds and especially for GHGs and other climate forcers. Therefore, this paper focused mainly on the photocatalytic conversion of GHG on the TiO2-based catalysts . Since the discovery by Fujishima and Honda in 1972 [3]of the photocatalytic splitting of water on a TiO2 electrode under ultraviolet (UV) light, enormous research efforts have been devoted to photocatalysis under UV light in the presence of many semiconductors and semiconductor oxides [4] such as TiO2, CdS, SnO2, WO3, SiO2, ZrO2, ZnO, Nb2O3, Fe2O3, SrTiO3,, CeO2, Sb2O4, V2O5... and this topic developed very quickly during the last twenty five years. In the past years, visible light photocatalysis has gained considerable attention, allowing a better use of sunlight spectrum (i.e. 40 – 50 % instead of 4-5% for UV). Researches on photocatalytic methods, while still in progress, have led to many promising applications for environmental purposes. Still many aspects remain to be solved like: photocatalytic efficiency improvement, increased solar energy utilization, suitable form of catalyst, all in turn influencing the economic aspects of this technique. This review article will first describe the potential of photocatalysis against all major long-lived well mixed greenhouse gases (LLGHGs). Then, the potential of photocatalysis against the principal short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs) will be discussed. A third part will be dedicated to large-scale indoor air photocatalytic treatments and outdoor applications of photocatalysis to clean off atmospheric environment. PART 1: The potential of photocatalysis against CO2, CH4, N2O and CFCs The well-mixed long-lived greenhouse gases: CO2, CH4, N2O, CFCs, hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) are collectively referred as the LLGHGs. Radiative forcing (RF) is a concept used for quantitative comparisons of the strength of different human and natural agents in causing climate change. According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) [5], the first five major LLGHGs (CO2, CH4, N2O, CFC-12 and CFC-11) account for about 96% of the direct radiative forcing since 1750. In table 1 the main characteristics of LLGHGs are listed in terms of Global Radiative Forcing in W.m-2, Global Warming Potential GWP100 (time horizon of 100 years), Atmospheric lifetimes in years and relative importance in %. Due to the increase in harmful emission gases in the World’s inner cities, it is apparent that there is a need to remove pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides, NOx, and sulphur dioxide, SO2, from the atmosphere. Not only do these gases pose a threat to health, they are also causing degradation to many inner city buildings (Allen et al., 2000). Despite attempts to lower these emissions from cars, it appears that a way of removing such pollutants once in the atmosphere needs to be sought. Inorganic photocatalysts, such as titanium dioxide, have very recently been exploited and shown to be a relatively cheap and effective way of removing organic poison compounds and pollutant gases from both air and aqueous environments (Bilmes et al., 2000; Chen et al., 1997; Hashimoto et al., 2000; Nakamura et al., 2000; Ohtani et al., 1997; Wu et al., 2000). This paper concentrates on using TiO2 as a photocatalyst for removing NOx gases from the atmosphere. Titanium dioxide is a semiconductor photocatalyst with a band gap of energy 3.2 eV. The band structure of TiO2 is discussed more fully elsewhere (Daude et al., 1977). When subjected to ultraviolet photon radiation of wavelength less than 380 nm, a valence band electron is promoted to the conduction band, creating an elec-tron-hole pair that can participate in various oxidation- reduction chemical reactions. Here, it is shown that the harmful NOx gases are oxidized to nitrates by utilizing UV radiation to activate the TiO2. These nitrates are easily consumed and recycled by plants. It has been shown that the photocatalyticeffect of TiO2 is dependent on crystal structure, particle size and surface area and that the effectiveness of the process is governed by the lifetime, or recombination probability, of the electron-hole pair (Bilmes et al., 2000; Hashimoto et al., 2000; Nakamura et al., 2000). Metal Oxide Nanoparticles TiO2, ROS, Neurotoxic, Carcinogen Nanoparticles Used in Common Household Items Cause DNA Damage- Study. Posted on September 22, 2011 Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles, found in everything from cosmetics to sunscreen to paint to vitamins, caused systemic genetic damage in mice, according to a comprehensive study conducted by researchers at UCLA’s Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center. The TiO2 nanoparticles induced single- and double-strand DNA breaks and also caused chromosomal damage as well as inflammation, all of which increase the risk for cancer. The UCLA study is the first to show that the nanoparticles had such an effect, said Robert Schiestl, a professor of pathology, radiation oncology and environmental health sciences, a Jonsson Cancer Center scientist and the study’s senior author. Once in the system, the TiO2 nanoparticles accumulate in different organs because the body has no way to eliminate them. And because they are so small, they can go everywhere in the body, even through cells, and may interfere with sub-cellular mechanisms. The study appeared the week of November 16 2009 in the journal Cancer Research. In the past, these TiO2 nanoparticles have been considered non-toxic in that they do not incite a chemical
  6. 6. reaction. Instead, it is surface interactions that the nanoparticles have within their environment- in this case inside a mouse — that is causing the genetic damage, Schiestl said. They wander throughout the body causing oxidative stress, which can lead to cell death. It is a novel mechanism of toxicity, a physicochemical reaction, these particles cause in comparison to regular chemical toxins, which are the usual subjects of toxicological research, Schiestl said. “The novel principle is that titanium by itself is chemically inert. However, when the particles become progressively smaller, their surface, in turn, becomes progressively bigger and in the interaction of this surface with the environment oxidative stress is induced,” he said. “This is the first comprehensive study of titanium dioxide nanoparticle-induced genotoxicity, possibly caused by a secondary mechanism associated with inflammation and/or oxidative stress. Given the growing use of these nanoparticles, these findings raise concern about potential health hazards associated with exposure.” The manufacture of TiO2 nanoparticles is a huge industry, Schiestl said, with production at about two million tons per year. In addition to paint, cosmetics, sunscreen and vitamins, the nanoparticles can be found in toothpaste, food colorants, nutritional supplements and hundreds of other personal care products. “It could be that a certain portion of spontaneous cancers are due to this exposure,” Schiestl said. “And some people could be more sensitive to nanoparticles exposure than others. “I believe the toxicity of these nanoparticles has not been studied enough.” Schiestl said the nanoparticles cannot go through skin, so he recommends using a lotion sunscreen. Spray-on sunscreens could potentially be inhaled and the nanoparticles can become lodged in the lungs. The mice were exposed to the TiO2 nanoparticles in their drinking water and began showing genetic damage on the fifth day. The human equivalent is about 1.6 years of exposure to the nanoparticles in a manufacturing environment. However, Schiestl said, it’s not clear if regular, everyday exposure in humans increases exponentially as continued contact with the nanoparticles occurs over time. “These data suggest that we should be concerned about a potential risk of cancer or genetic disorders especially for people occupationally exposed to high concentrations of titanium dioxide nanoparticles, and that it might be
  7. 7. prudent to limit their ingestion through non-essential drug additives, food colors, etc.,” the study states. Next, Schiestl and his team will study exposure to the nanoparticles in mice that are deficient in DNA repair, to perhaps help find a way to predict which people might be particularly sensitive to them. Source Posted in biotechnology, Journal papers, nanotech, Photocatalysis | Tagged DNA Damage, Household Items, nanoparticles, TiO2 | Leave a reply Climate scientists suggest geoengineering approach with engineered nanoparticles Posted on September 8, 2010 There may be better ways to engineer the planet’s climate to prevent dangerous global warming than mimicking volcanoes, a University of Calgary climate scientist says in two new studies. “Releasing engineered nano-sized disks, or sulphuric acid in a condensable vapour above the Earth, are two novel approaches. These approaches offer advantages over simply putting sulphur dioxide gas into the atmosphere,” says David Keith, a director in the Institute for Sustainable Energy, Environment and Economy and a Schulich School of Engineering professor. Keith, a global leader in investigating this topic, says that geoengineering, or engineering the climate on a global scale, is an imperfect science. “It cannot offset the risks that come from increased carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. If we don’t halt man-made CO2 emissions, no amount of climate engineering can eliminate the problems – massive emissions reductions are still necessary.” Nevertheless, Keith believes that research on geoengineering technologies,their effectiveness and environmental impacts needs to be expanded. “I think the stakes are simply too high at this point to think that ignorance is a good policy.” Keith suggests two novel geoengineering approaches–’levitating’ engineered nano-particles, and the airborne release of sulphuric acid–in two newly published studies. One study was authored by Keith alone, and the other with scientists in Canada, the U.S. and Switzerland. Scientists investigating geoengineering have so far looked mainly at injecting sulphur dioxide into the upper atmosphere. This approach imitates the way volcanoes create sulphuric acid aerosols, or sulphates, that will reflect solar radiation back into space – thereby cooling the planet’s surface. Keith says that sulphates are blunt instruments for climate engineering. It’s very difficult to achieve the optimum distribution and size of the aerosols in the atmosphere to reflect the most solar radiation and get the maximum cooling benefit. One advantage of using sulphates is that scientists have some understanding of their effects in the atmosphere because of emissions from volcanoes such as Mt. Pinatubo, he adds. “A downside of both these new ideas is they would do something that nature has never seen before. It’s easier to think of new ideas than to understand their effectiveness and environmental risks,” says Keith. In his study–published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, a top-ranked international science journal–Keith describes a new class of engineered nano-particles that might be used to offset global warming more efficiently, and with fewer negative side effects, than using sulphates. According to Keith, the distribution of engineered nano-particles above the Earth could be more controlled and less likely to harm the planet’s protective ozone layer. Sulphates also have unwanted side-effects, ranging from reducing the electricity output from certain solar power systems, to speeding up the chemical process that breaks down the ozone layer. Engineered nano- particles could be designed as thin disks and built with electric or magnetic materials that would enable them to be levitated or oriented in the atmosphere to reflect the most solar radiation. It may also be possible to control the position of particles above the Earth. In theory, the particles might be engineered to drift toward Earth’s poles, to reduce solar radiation in polar regions and counter the melting of ice that speeds up polar warming–known as the ice-albedo feedback. “Such an ability might be relevant in the event that warming triggers rapid deglaciation,” Keith’s study says. “Engineered nano-particles would first need to be tested in laboratories, with only short-lived particles initially deployed in the atmosphere so any effects could be easily reversible,” says Keith. Research would also be needed to determine whether such nano-particles could be effectively distributed, given the complex interplay of forces in the atmosphere, and how much cooling might be achieved at the planet’s surface. It is also unknown whether the amount of particles needed–about 1 trillion kilograms per year or 10 million tonnes over 10 years–could be manufactured and deployed at a reasonable cost. However, Keith notes another study, which looked at the cost of putting natural sulphates into the stratosphere. “You could manipulate the Earth’s climate at large scale for a cost that’s of the order of $1 billion a year. It sounds like a lot of money, but compared to the costs of managing other environmental problems or climate change, that is peanuts.” “This is not an argument to do it, only an indication that risk, not cost, will be the deciding issue,” he adds. In a separate new study published in the journal Geophysical Research Letters, Keith and international scientists describe another geoengineering approach that may also offer advantages over injecting sulphur dioxide gas. Releasing sulphuric acid, or another condensable vapour, from an aircraft would give better control of particle size. The study says this would reflect more solar radiation back into space, while using fewer particles overall and reducing unwanted heating in the lower stratosphere. The study included computer modeling that showed that the sulphuric acid would quickly condense in a plume, forming smaller particles that would last longer in the stratosphere and be more effective in reflecting solar radiation than the large sulphates formed from sulphur dioxide gas. Keith stresses that whether geoengineering technology is ever used, it shouldn’t be seen as a reason not to reduce man-made greenhouse gas emissions now accumulating in the atmosphere. “Seat belts reduce the risk of being injured in accidents. But
  8. 8. having a seat belt doesn’t mean you should drive drunk at 100 miles an hour,” he says Tagged climate, geoengineering, nanoparticles When nano may not be nano Posted on September 14, 2009 The same properties of nanoparticles that make them so appealing to manufacturers may also have negative effects on the environment and human health. However, little is known which particles may be harmful. Part of the problem is determining exactly what a nanoparticle is. A new analysis by an international team of researchers from the Center for the Environmental Implications of NanoTechnology (CEINT), based at Duke University, argues for a new look at the way nanoparticles are selected when studying the potential impacts on human health and the environment. They have found that while many small particles are considered to be “nano,” these materials often do not meet full definition of having special properties that make them different from conventional materials. Under the prevailing definition, a particle is deemed nano if its diameter is between 1 and 100 nanometers (nm) and if it has properties that significantly differ from its naturally occurring, or bulk, counterpart. The special properties of nanoparticles come from their high surface-area-to-volume ratio. They also have a considerably higher percentage of atoms on their surface compared to bulk particles, which can make them more reactive. These man-made materials can be found in a vast array of consumer products, including paints and sunscreens, as well as in water treatment plants and drug delivery systems. For most of this decade, discussions of nanoparticles have tended to focus more on their size than their properties. However, after reviewing the scientific literature, the Duke-led team believes that the old definition is not specific enough. A definition that focuses on properties is critical, they say, to help scientists determine which particular nanoparticles are the most likely to represent a threat to the environment or human health. Generally speaking, it is the very smallest particles (less than 30 nanometers) that should receive the most attention in studying the environmental and human health impacts of nanomaterials, according to Mark Wiesner, a Duke professor of civil and environmental engineering and director of the federally funded CEINT. “There are an infinite number of potential new man-made nanoparticles, so we need to find a way to narrow our efforts to those that have the greatest likelihood of having the unique properties with unique effects,” Wiesner said. “A key question to be answered is whether or not a particular nanoparticle has toxic or hazardous properties that are truly different from identical particles in their bulk form,” Wiesner continued. “This question has not been answered. To do so, we need to be speaking the same language when assessing any unique properties of these novel materials.” The results of Wiesner’s analysis were published online in the journal Nature Nanotechnology. The study was supported by CEINT, which is jointly funded by the National Science Foundation and Environmental Protection Agency. Specifically, the researchers found that nanoparticles approaching the 100 nm end of the size spectrum tend to have fewer special properties when compared to their bulk counterparts. Furthermore, they found that nanoparticles smaller than 30 nm tend to exhibit the unique properties that should command increased scrutiny, Wiesner said. “Many nanoparticles smaller than 30 nanometers undergo drastic changes in their crystalline structure that enhance how the atoms on their surface interact with the environment,” Wiesner said. For example, because of the increased surface-area-to-volume ratio, nanoparticles can be highly reactive with other chemicals in the environment and can also disrupt certain activities within cells. “While there have been reports of nanoparticle toxicity increasing as the size decreases, it is still uncertain whether this increase in reactivity is harmful to the environment or human safety,” Wiesner said. “To settle this issue, toxicological studies should contrast particles that exhibit novel size-dependant properties, particularly concerning their surface reactivity, and those particles that do not exhibit these properties.” Titanium dioxide nanoparticles induce oxidative stress and DNA adduct formation but not DNA breakage in human lung cells Posted on June 22, 2009 Titanium dioxide (TiO2), also known as titanium (IV) oxide or anatase, is the naturally occurring oxide of titanium. It is also one of the most commercially used form. To date, no parameter has been set for the average ambient air concentration of TiO2 nanoparticles (NP) by any regulatory agency. Previously conducted studies had established these nanoparticles to be mainly non-cyto- and - genotoxic, although they had been found to generate free radicals both acellularly (specially through photocatalytic activity) and intracellularly. The present study determines the role ofTiO2-NP (anatase, <100 nm) using several parameters such as cyto- and genotoxicity, DNA-adduct formation and generation of free radicals following its uptake by human lung cells in vitro. For comparison, iron containing nanoparticles (hematite, Fe2O3, <100 nm) were used. The results of this study showed that both types of NP were located in the cytosol near the nucleus. No particles were found inside the nucleus, in mitochondria or ribosomes. Human lung fibroblasts (IMR-90) were more sensitive regarding cyto- and genotoxic effects caused by the NP than human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). In contrast to hematite NP, TiO2-NP did not induce DNA-breakage measured by the Comet-assay in both cell types.
  9. 9. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured acellularly (without any photocatalytic activity) as well as intracellularly for both types of particles, however, the iron-containing NP needed special reducing conditions before pronounced radical generation. A high level of DNA adduct formation (8-OHdG) was observed in IMR-90 cells exposed to TiO2-NP, but not in cells exposed to hematite NP. Our study demonstrates different modes of action for TiO2- and Fe2O3-NP. Whereas TiO2-NP were able to generate elevated amounts of free radicals, which induced indirect genotoxicity mainly by DNA-adduct formation, Fe2O3-NP were clastogenic (induction of DNA-breakage) and required reducing conditions for radical formation. Author: Kunal BhattacharyaMaria DavorenJens BoertzRoel SchinsEik HoffmannElke Dopp Credits/Source: Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2009, 6:17 PostedinPhotocatalysis |Taggednanoparticles,oxidativestressDNAadduct,Titaniumdioxide Mar 26, 2013 – It is well known that nano TiO2 is a photocatalyst, non-selectively kills virus and bacteria by decomposition. ... with the high effective 4-10 nanometer modified titanium oxide. Monsanto Shares Surge Dupont Deal NEW YORK (TheStreet) -- Monsanto shares were surging Tuesday after the world's biggest seed company and chemicals giant DuPont agreed to drop their matching antitrust and soybean technology patent lawsuits, and choose instead to sign licensing agreements .....»» Monsanto CEO says deal with DuPont "improves confidence" in outlook See the rest of the story here. provides the latest financial news as it breaks. Known as a leader in market intelligence, The Fly's real-time, streaming news feed keeps individual investors, professional money managers, active trader.....»» Seeds And TiO2 Tiding DuPont Over For Now Apr 23 2012, 15:07 | about: DD, includes: DOW, HUN, KRO, MMM, MON, OMG, PPG, SHW, SYT, VAL Disclosure: I am long MON, MMM. I was surprised to see relatively little coverage of DuPont's (DD) earnings on Seeking Alpha. This is, after all, one of the largest American companies, a Dow Jones Industrial component, and a major bellwether in multiple industries. All told, then, a stock worth following. So, once more into the breach ... A Decent Start To The Year Although a lot of DuPont's constituent pieces were weak this quarter, the company has a whole did a little bit better than expected - due in very large part to success in pushing through price increases. Revenue rose 12%, with price chipping in about two-thirds of that (+8%), the Danisco acquisition adding seven points of growth, and volume (down 2%) and foreign exchange (down 1%) weighing down results. Profitability was pretty good as well. Pre-tax operating profits exceeded expectations by a high single-digit percentage and grew nearly 17%. What's more, this result could have been even better, but for the company's ongoing spending on productivity initiatives and investments in new businesses. Ag Leads The Way DuPont is probably still thought of primarily for its advanced material products like Kevlar and Tyvek, but the reality is that agriculture is a huge part of this business - fully one-third of sales and proportionately more of the company's growth. Ag revenue this quarter rose 16% on a 20% jump in seed sales. Although Monsanto (MON) has recovered from its foibles of recent years, DuPont is holding its own and keeping a lot of share - suggesting that it's companies like Syngenta (SYT) and the smaller players in seeds that are really under pressure. That said, Monsanto is ahead in the lab, and could be more than three years ahead of DuPont with advanced drought resistance traits. Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia DuPont aerosol applications, patents easy to disperse, Dry TiO2 pigment. highly reflective - Google Search DuPont patents easy to disperse, high durability TiO2 pigment Description: U.S. 8,105,432 B2 E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company has received a patent for a method for making titanium dioxide particles surface coated with silica and alumina, comprised of the steps in order: A. (1) heating a slurry of raw titanium dioxide particles to a temperature of from 85 to 100° C, (2) adding citric acid as a solution in water to the slurry to form a mixture, (3) adjusting the pH of the mixture to 10 or more, (4) adding sufficient sodium silicate as a water solution to the mixture to deposit silica on the surface of the particles of from 1 to 6% based on the weight of the titanium dioxide particles in the slurry, (5) neutralizing the slurry by addition of a mineral acid over the course of one hour, thereby forming a slurry of silica coated titanium dioxide particles; B. (1) adjusting the temperature of the slurry of silica coated titanium dioxide particles to a temperature of from 55 to 90° C, (2) adding sufficient sodium aluminate as a water solution to the slurry in step B(1) and adjusting the pH of the mixture formed to from 5 to 9 by addition of a strong mineral acid to deposit alumina as Al2O3 of from 1 to 4% by weight based on the weight of titanium dioxide particles present in the slurry of step A(1) on the surface of the silica coated particles, and digesting the resulting mixture for from 15 to 30 minutes to form the titanium dioxide particles surface coated sequentially with amorphous silica and amorphous alumina; and C. dispersing the surface coated titanium dioxide into a resin to form a coating formulation.
  10. 10. Spraying the Skies: 1975 U.S. Patent for Powder Contrail Generation Posted in this story is a very interesting PDF available for download here for a 1975 U.S. Patent issued to Donald K. Werle, Romas Kasparas, Sidney Katz, assigned through the U.S. Navy, that describes a dispersion method for a “powder contrail.” As other researchers have also pointed out, the Powder Contrail Generation patent document could be a useful clue into the true agenda and purpose of the “chemtrail” phenomenon, which is clearly tied to almost a century of man-made weather manipulation. Already, it is admitted that the government has experimented with geo-engineering, which is says would help reflect heat and combat phony global warming / climate change. It also references 5 other patents that deal with aviation fuel dispersants that go back to the 1920s. It further references the “chaff” application, as to create a radar jamming reflective screen, and other potential applications, including the use of numerous other powder formulas. • March 1, 1927 Patent #1619183 by Bradner and Olgesby for the Process of Producing Smoke Clouds from Moving Aircraft • June 30, 1936 Patent# 2045865 by Glen H. Morey and assigned by Phillips Petroleum for Skywriting Apparatus • April 8, 1952 Patent# 2591988 by Oswin B. Willcox and assigned to “Pont DU” (a.k.a. DuPont?) for Process for producing improved tio2 titanium pigments •See Also: April 8, 1969 Patent# 3437502 by Alfred J. Werner and assigned to “Pont DU” for TITANIUM DIOXIDE PIGMENT COATED WITH SILICA AND ALUMINA • September 29, 1970 Patent# 3531310 by Neil C. Goodspeed, Russell R. May Jr. and Joseph Ross assigned to PPG Industries for PRODUCTION OF IMPROVED METAL OXIDE PIGMENT • February 1924 Patent# R15771 by Savage • March 1966 Patent# 1022621 in United Kingdom ——– Download PDF S3899144: Powder contrail generation Inventors: Werle; Donald K. , Hillside, IL Kasparas; Romas , Riverside, IL Katz; Sidney , Chicago, IL Applicants: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy, Washington, DC Appplication #: US1974000490610 Date of Issue: Aug. 12, 1975 / July 22, 1974 Abstract: Light scattering pigment powder particles, surface treated to minimize inparticle cohesive forces, are dispensed from a jet mill deagglomerator as separate single particles to produce a powder contrail having maximum visibility or radiation scattering ability for a given weight material. What claim is: 1. Contrail generation apparatus for producing a powder contrail having maximum radiation scattering ability for a given weight material, comprising: a. an aerodynamic housing; b. a jet tube means passing through said housing, said tube means having an inlet at a forward end of said housing and an exhaust at a rearward end thereof; c. a powder storage means in said housing; d. a deagglomeration means also in said housing; e. means connecting said powder storage means with said deagglomeration means for feeding radiation scattering powder from said powder storage means to said deagglomeration means; f. the output of said deagglomeration means dispensing directly into said jet tube means for exhausting deagglomerated powder particles into the atmosphere to form a contrail; and h. means for controlling the flow of said powder from said storage means to said deagglomeration means. 2. Apparatus as in claim 1 wherein said jet tube means is a ram air jet tube. 3. Apparatus as in claim 1 wherein an upstream deflector baffle is provided at the output of said deagglomeration means into said jet tube means to produce a venturi effect for minimizing back pressure on said powder feeding means. 4. Apparatus as in claim 1 wherein said deagglomerator means comprises: a. means for subjecting powder particles from said powder storage means to a hammering action to aerate and precondition the powder; and b. a jet mill means to further deagglomerate the powder into separate particles. 5. Apparatus as in claim 4 wherein pressurized gas means is provided for operating said deagglomeration means. 6. Apparatus as in claim 1 wherein said radiation scattering powder particles are titanium dioxide pigment having a median particle
  11. 11. size of about 0.3 microns. 7. Apparatus as in claim 1 wherein said radiation scattering powder particles have a coating of extremely fine hydrophobic colloidal silica thereon to minimize interparticle cohesive forces. 8. Apparatus as in claim 1 wherein the formulation of said powder consists of 85% by weight of TiO2 pigment of approximately 0.3 micron media particle size, 10% by weight of colloidal silica of 0.007 micron primary particle size, and 5% by weight of silica gel having an average particle size of 4.5 microns. 9. The method of producing a light radiation scattering contrail, comprising: a. surface treating light scattering powder particles to minimize interparticle cohesive forces; b. deagglomerating said powder particles in two stages prior to dispensing into a jet tube by subjecting said powder particles to a hammering action in the first stage to aerate and precondition the powder, and by passing said powder through a jet mill in the second stage to further deagglomerate the powder; c. dispensing the deagglomerated powder from the jet mill directly into a jet tube for exhausting said powder into the atmosphere, thus forming a contrail. 10. A method as in claim 9 wherein said light scattering powder particles is titanium dioxide pigment. 11. A method as in claim 9 wherein said powder particles are treated with a coating of extremely fine hydrophobic colloidal silica to minimize interparticle cohesive forces. 12. A method as in claim 11 wherein said treated powder particles are further protected with a silica gel powder. DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENT The powder contail generator in pod 10, shown in FIG. 1, is provided with a powder feed hopper 12 positioned in the center section of the pod and which feeds a powder 13 to a deagglomerator 14 by means of screw conveyors 16 across the bottom of the hopper. The deagglomerator 14 produces two stages of action. In the first stage of deagglomeration, a shaft 18 having projecting radial rods 19 in compartment 20 is rotated by an air motor 21, or other suitable drive means. The shaft 18 is rotated at about 10,000 rpm, for example. As powder 13 descends through the first stage compartment 20 of the deagglomeration chamber, the hammering action of rotating rods 19 serves to aerate and precondition the powder before the second stage of deagglomeration takes place in the jet mill section 22. In the jet mill 22, a plurality of radial jets 24 (e.g., six 0.050 inch diamter radial jets) direct nitrogen gas (at e.g., 120 psig) inward to provide energy for further deagglomeration of the powder. The N2, or other suitable gas, is provided from storage tanks 25 and 26, for example, in the pod. The jet mill 22 operates in a similar manner to commercial fluid energy mills except that there is no provision for recirculation of oversize particles. Tests with the deagglomerator show that at a feed rate of approximately 11/2 lb/ min, treated titanium dioxide powder pigment is effectively dispersed as single particles with very few agglomerates evident. The nitrogen gas stored in cylinder tanks 25 and 26 is charged to 1800 psig, for example. Two stages of pressure reduction, for example, by pressure reduction valves 28 and 29, bring the final delivery pressure at the radial jets 24 and to the air motor 21 to approximately 120 psig. A solenoid valve 30 on the 120 psig line is connected in parallel with the electric motor 32 which operates the powder feeder screws 16 for simultaneous starting and running of the powder feed, the air motor and the jet mill deagglomerator. Air enters ram air tube 34 at its entrance 35 and the exhaust from the jet mill deagglomerator passes directly into the ram air tube. At the deagglomerator exhaust 36 into ram air tube 34, an upstream deflector baffle 38 produces a venturi effect which minimizes back pressure on the powder feed system. The powder is then jetted from the exhaust end 40 of the ram air tube to produce a contrail. A pressure equalization tube, not shown, can be used to connect the top of the closed hopper 12 to the deagglomeration chamber 14. A butterfly valve could be provided at the powder hopper outlet 39 to completely isolate and seal off the powder supply when not in use. Powder 13 could then be stored in hopper 12 for several weeks, without danger of picking up excessive moisture, and still be adequately dispensed. Preparation of the light scatter powder 13 is of a critical importance to production of a powder “contrail” having maximum visibility for a given weight of material. It is essential that the pigment powder particles be dispensed as separate single particles rather than as agglomerates of two or more particles. The powder treatment produces the most easily dispersed powder through the use of surface treatments which minimize interparticle cohesive forces. Titanium dioxide pigment was selected as the primary light scattering material because of its highly efficient light scattering ability and commercially available pigment grades. Titanium dioxide pigment (e.g., DuPont R–931) with a median particle size of about 0.3u has a high bulk density and is not readily aerosolizable as a submicron cloud without the consumption of a large amount of deagglomeration energy. In order to reduce the energy requirement for deagglomeration, the TiO2 powder is specially treated with a hydrophobic colloidal silica which coats and separates the individual TiO2 pigment particles. The extremely fine particulate nature (0.007u primary particle size) of Cobot S–101 Silanox grade, for example, of colloidal silica minimizes the amount needed to coat and separate the TiO2 particles, and the hydrophobic surface minimizes the affinity of the powder for absorbtion of moisture from the atmosphere. Adsorbed moisture in powders causes liquid bridges at interparticle contacts and it then becomes necessary to overcome the adsorbed- liquid surface tension forces as well as the weaker Van der Waals’ forces before the particles can be separated. The Silanox treated titanium dioxide pigment is further protected from the deleterious effects of adsorbed moisture by incorporation of silica gel. The silica gel preferentially adsorbs water vapor that the powder may be exposed to after drying and before use. The silica gel used is a powder product, such as Syloid 65 from the W. R Grace and Co., Davison Chemical Division, and has an average particle size about 4.5u and a large capacity for moisture at low humidities. A typical powder composition used is shown in Table 1. This formulation was blended intimately with a Patterson-
  12. 12. Kelley Co. twin shell dry LB-model LB–2161 with intensifier. Batches of 1500 g were blended for 15 min. each and packaged in 5-lb cans. The bulk density of the blended powder is 0.22 g/cc. Since deagglomeration is facilitated by having the powder bone dry, the powder should be predried before sealing the cans. In view of long periods (e.g., about 4 months) between powder preparation and use it is found preferable to spread the powder in a thin layer in an open container and place in a 400*F over two days before planned usage. The powder is removed and placed in the hopper about 2 hours before use. Table 1 CONTRAIL POWDER FORMULATION Ingredient % by Weight TiO2 (e.g., DuPont R-931) 85 median particle size 0.3u Colloidal Silica (e.g., Cabot S-101 Silanox) 10 primary particle size 0.007u Silica gel (e.g., Syloid 65) 5 average particle size 4.5uOther type powder compositions can also be used with the apparatus described herein. For example, various powder particles which reflect electromagnetic radiation can be dispensed as a chaff or the like from the contrail generator. Obviously many modifications and variations of the present invention are possible in the light of the above teachings. It is therefore to be understood that within the scope of the appended claims the invention may be practiced otherwise than as specifically described. BACKGROUND The present invention relates to method and apparatus for contrail generation and the like. An earlier known method in use for contrail generation involves oil smoke trails produced by injecting liquid oil directly into the hot jet exhaust of an aircraft target vehicle. The oil vaporizes and recondenses being the aircraft producing a brilliant white trail. Oil smoke trail production requires a minimum of equipment; and, the material is low in cost and readily available. However, oil smoke requires a heat source to vaporize the liquid oil and not all aircraft target vehicles, notably towed targets, have such a heat source. Also, at altitudes above about 25,000 feet oil smoke visibility degrades rapidly. SUMMARY The present invention is for a powder generator requiring no heat source to emit a “contrail” with sufficient visibility to aid in visual acquisition of an aircraft target vehicle and the like. The term “contrail” was adopted for convenience in identifying the visible powder trail of this invention. Aircraft target vehicles are used to simulate aerial threats for missile tests and often fly at altitudes between 5,000 and 20,000 feet at speeds of 300 and 400 knots or more. The present invention is also suitable for use in other aircraft vehicles to generate contrails or reflective screens for any desired purpose. The powder contail generator is normally carried on an aircraft in a pod containing a ram air tube and powder feed hopper. Powder particles, surface treated to minimize interparticle cohesive forces are fed from the hopper to a deagglomerator and then to the ram air tube for dispensing as separate single particles to produce a contrail having maximum visibility for a given weight material. Other object, advantages and novel features of the invention will become apparent from the following detailed description of the invention when considered in conjunction with the accompanying drawing. Fresh food that lasts from eFoodsDirect (AD) CChemtrails: The List of Patents For Stratospheric Aerial Spraying Programs Here is a long list of other patents related to atmospheric or weather manipulation posted by Neil Foster of the Sovereign Independent: United States Patent and Trademark Office 1338343 – April 27, 1920 – Process And Apparatus For The Production of Intense Artificial Clouds, Fogs, or Mists 1619183 1631753 1665267 1892132 1928963 1957075 2097581 2409201 2476171 2480967 2550324 2510867 2582678 2591988 2614083 2633455 2688069 2721495 Particles 2730402 2801322 3990987 2881335 2908442 2986360 2963975 – March 1, 1927 – Process of Producing Smoke Clouds From Moving Aircraft – June 7, 1927 – Electric Heater – Referenced in 3990987 – April 10, 1928 – Process of Producing Artificial Fogs – December 27, 1932 – Atomizing Attachment For Airplane Engine Exhausts – October 3, 1933 – Electrical System And Method – May 1, 1934 – Airplane Spray Equipment – November 2, 1937 – Electric Stream Generator – Referenced in 3990987 – October 15, 1946 – Smoke Producing Mixture – July 18, 1945 – Smoke Screen Generator – September 6, 1949 – Aerial Discharge Device – April 24, 1951 – Process For Controlling Weather – October 9, 1951 – Method of Crystal Formation and Precipitation – June 15, 1952 – Material Disseminating Apparatus For Airplanes – April 8, 1952 – Production of TiO2 Pigments – Referenced in 3899144 – October 14, 1952 – Metal Chloride Screening Smoke Mixture – March 31, 1953 – Smoke Generator – August 31, 1954 – Steam Generator – Referenced in 3990987 – October 25, 1955 – Method And Apparatus For Detecting Minute Crystal Forming Suspended in a Gaseous Atmosphere – January 10, 1956 – Controllable Dispersal Device – July 30, 1957 – Decomposition Chamber for Monopropellant Fuel – Referenced in – April 7, 1959 – Generation of Electrical Fields – October 13, 1959 – Method For Dispersing Natural Atmospheric Fogs And Clouds – May 30, 1962 – Aerial Insecticide Dusting Device – December 13, 1960 – Cloud Seeding Carbon Dioxide Bullet THE UNINTENDED CONSEQUENCES OF GEOENGINEERING THE PLANET…MINI ICE AGE, DROUGHT A CREATED GLOBAL WARMING LIE AND CORPORATE CONTROLLED FOOD, WATER AND ALL LIFE SUSTAINING COMMODITIES