Introduction to Action Research

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Introduction to Action Research

  1. 1. Robert CrokerNUFS Grad Schoolrobertcroker@mac.com
  2. 2. What is action research? What?
  3. 3. What is action research? look do think
  4. 4. What is action research?LOOK: notice an opportunity or problem, thensystematically collect information about yourclassroom and your studentsTHINK: reflect about that information - byyourself, or with your students or other teachersDO: use these new understandings to change yourteaching - this is the ACTION
  5. 5. What is action research?action research
  6. 6. What is action research?outcomes (to publish)processes (to improve)
  7. 7. How do you do action research? How?
  8. 8. How do you do action research? look do think
  9. 9. What do you look at in the classroom? look do think
  10. 10. What do you look at in the classroom?
  11. 11. What do you look at in the classroom? Teacher Students Students Activities Students Materials
  12. 12. Ways to understand your classroomask:  ask your students to write comments about your class  give your students a questionnaire  interview your studentswatch:  observe yourself and make notes / record yourself  observe your students / record your students  keep a ‘teaching portfolio’read:  get students to keep a ‘learning portfolio’  give students ‘learning tests’
  13. 13. Ways to understand your classroom ask: Ask  ask your students to write comments about your class  give your students a questionnaire  interview your students
  14. 14. ask students to write comments about class
  15. 15. reflect on today’s class –or the semester!
  16. 16. ask students to answer a questionnaire
  17. 17. what language should students write in? English or 日本語?
  18. 18. interview some of the students
  19. 19. ask some students to do a ‘think-aloud’
  20. 20. Ways to understand your classroom Watch watch:  observe yourself and make notes  observe your students  record yourself / record your students
  21. 21. observe yourself and make short notes
  22. 22. make notes about your class Lesson Plans Comments Reflections (before class) (in class) (after class)1.2.3.
  23. 23. observe your students
  24. 24. observe some students only …
  25. 25. … or observe the whole class
  26. 26. make notes about your class and students Lesson Plans / Tasks Notes about the Class Notes about Student 1 Notes about Student 21.2.3.
  27. 27. make audio or visual recordings
  28. 28. take pictures of your white board
  29. 29. take pictures of your white board
  30. 30. take pictures of your class
  31. 31. take pictures of your class activities
  32. 32. keep a teaching portfolio
  33. 33. Ways to understand your classroom Read read:  get students to write a language learning history  get students to keep a ‘learning portfolio’  give students ‘learning tests’
  34. 34. ask students to write a learning history
  35. 35. ask students to keep a learning portfolio
  36. 36. give students ‘learning tests’
  37. 37. Ways to understand your classroomask:  ask your students to write comments about your class  give your students a questionnaire  interview your studentswatch:  observe yourself and make notes / record yourself  observe your students / record your students  keep a ‘teaching portfolio’read:  get students to keep a ‘learning portfolio’  give students ‘learning tests’
  38. 38. Ways to understand your classroomTriangulation
  39. 39. How do you think about your classroom? look do think
  40. 40. Ways to think about your classroomwrite:  reflect about your lesson plans  write structured and unstructured reflections  keep a teaching journalanalyze: analyze the information that you have createdtalk:  talk with a friend or colleaguepresent: make presentations here at NUFS or at conferences  write up your research for the NUFS report
  41. 41. Ways to understand your classroom Write write:  reflect about your lesson plans  reflect about your class – unstructured and structured  keep a teaching journal
  42. 42. reflect about your lesson plans Lesson Plans Comments Reflections (before class) (in class) (after class)1.2.3.
  43. 43. reflect about your class –unstructured reflectionNote: Just write generally about how your feel the classwent, and note any ideas that you have. You could look atyour class notes as you do this.Example:Today’s class went well. I was feeling relaxed,and fully prepared. All of the students haddone their homework, so we could start thespeaking activity immediately …..
  44. 44. reflect about your class –structured reflectionNote: You could write your answers to a list of questions.Example questions:What went well in the class today?What didn’t go well?What will I do differently next time?What did I learn about my students?What did I learn about my teaching?
  45. 45. reflect about your class –structured reflection
  46. 46. keep a reflective journal
  47. 47. Ways to understand your classroomAnalyze steps: manage your data display your data analyze your data
  48. 48. steps in analyzing your data manage display analyze
  49. 49. Ways to check and develop your ideas Talk talk:  talk with a friend or colleague
  50. 50. talking helps you to check in with reality!
  51. 51. talk with a friend or colleague
  52. 52. check back with your teaching portfolio
  53. 53. look again at the pictures of your class
  54. 54. Ways to share your ideas and get feedback Present present: make presentations here at NUFS or at conferences  tell your colleagues what you’re learning
  55. 55. make presentations here at NUFS
  56. 56. write up your action research into a report
  57. 57. Why do action research? outcomes processes
  58. 58. How do you think about your classroom? look do think
  59. 59. How do you do action research?not researching ON students … but researching WITH students … and researching about YOURSELF
  60. 60. Ways to understand your classroomAnalyze steps: manage your data display your data analyze your data
  61. 61. steps in analyzing your data manage display analyze
  62. 62. managing your datawrite research numbers eg S1Q1, S1Int1keep different data in separate foldersmake photocopies – and store originals
  63. 63. displaying and analyzing numerical datadisplaying data: summarize on a master sheet do quickly as soon as possible create simple visual graphs use simple charts to help you understand your data
  64. 64. Pie graph – shows proportions (few groups) Time in Class Listening Reading Writing Sleeping
  65. 65. Bar chart –shows many groups of data Changes in U.S. Family Structure,1970-200090  80  70  60   2 parents50   mother40   father30   no adult20  10   0   1970 1980 1990 2000
  66. 66. Line graph – shows changes over time Changes in U.S. Family Structure, 1970-200090  80  70  60   2 parents50   mother40   father30   no adult20  10   0   1970 1980 1990 2000
  67. 67. displaying and analyzing numerical dataanalyzing data: descriptions – describe basic facts comparisons – compare groups of information relationships – explain relationships
  68. 68. displaying and analyzing textual datadisplaying data: number each piece of text cut each piece out, ready for analysisanalyzing data: put data in groups label each group, and write a description
  69. 69. first cycle: from text to groups first • grouping the data step second • labeling the groups step third • defining the groups step
  70. 70. first step: grouping data
  71. 71. first step: grouping data• It’s easy! • Group data together that is similar … • … and separate data that is different.
  72. 72. second step: labeling groups• giving each group a label = a ‘code’• these codes are: • usually a WORD or A PHRASE • concrete • describes the group’s data • created by the researcher(s), or using words from the data (in vivo coding)
  73. 73. third step: defining groups• define each group • write one or two sentences to define each group – to explain what data is in each group (and perhaps what is not!). • use your own words, but try to include some words or phrases that the participants wrote.
  74. 74. second cycle: from groups to themes first • putting similar groups together into ‘themes’ step second • labeling these themes step third • defining these themes step
  75. 75. second cycle: finding patterns• grouping and labeling •  Group similar groups together … … and separate different groups. •  Label these new, larger groups using words or phrases. •  These labels are usually more abstract, like STUDENT MOTIVATION, LEARNING GOALS. •  Define them. •  Note: these new groups are called ‘themes’.

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