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言語と文明.Class 3

Class 3

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言語と文明.Class 3

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  24. 24. Phonation Gooing, expansion Canonical Babbling First words
  25. 25. THE ACQUISITION PROCESS Learning through imitation Learning through correction Developing morphology Developing syntax Developing semantics
  26. 26. 1) Learning through imitation • Basis of child’s speech production used by young children. • They may repeat single words or phrases, but not the sentences structures. • It is likely that the children understand what are the sentences but they express what they understand by their own. • For examples : • Mum is hungry = mum hungry • The cat is sleeping = cat sleep
  27. 27. 2) Learning through correction• It is unlikely that adult “corrections” are a very effective determiner of how the child speaks. • The child will continue to use a personally constructed form, despite the adult’s repetition of what the correct form should be. • Example : Child : My teacher holded the baby rabbits. Mother : Did you say your teacher held the baby rabbits? Child :Yes. Mother : Did you say she held them tightly? Child : No, she holded them loosely.
  28. 28. 3) Developing morphology • By the time a child is two-and-a-half years old, he or she is going beyond telegraphic speech and the child indicates the grammatical function of the nouns and verbs used.
  29. 29. 4) Developing syntax • In the formation of questions and the use of negatives. • The child goes through with 3 stages : Stage 1 occurs between 18 – 26 months Stage 2 occurs between 22 - 30 months Stage 3 occurs between 24 - 40 months
  30. 30. Forming questions Forming negatives First stage : Wh- form (Where,Who) to the beginning of the expression. Examples :Where mummy? Who is that person? First stage : A simple strategy of putting NO or NOT at the beginning. Examples : not a teddy bear not sit here Second stage : More complex expressions can be formed.Wh-forms, such as What and Why. Examples : What is mummy doing? Why daddy is not home yet? Second stage : Additional negative forms “don’t” and “can’t” appear, and with no and not. Examples : He not bite you You cant dance Third stage : The movement of the auxiliary in English questions (I can have… -> Can I have…?) Generally quite close to adult model. Examples : Can I have a piece? Third stage : Other auxiliary forms such as didn’t and won’t. Examples : I didn’t buy it. She won’t let go.
  31. 31. 5) Developing semantics • During the two-word stage, children use their limited vocabulary to refer to a large number of unrelated objects. • Overextension : overextend the meaning of a word on the basis of similarities of shape, sound and size. • Example : use ball to refer an apple, an egg or a ball. BACK TO QUESTION 3

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