Task 5 Methods of Research


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Task 5 Methods of Research

  1. 1. Task 5 Methods of Research.
  2. 2. Your Tasks 1. Explain in detail why it is important to conduct research before you start planning a new advertising campaign. 2. Explain what is meant by Primary Research and outline its advantages and disadvantages. 3. Explain what is meant by Secondary Research and outline its advantages and disadvantages. 4. Explain what is meant by Quantitative Research and outline its advantages and disadvantages. 5. Explain what is meant by Qualitative Research and outline its advantages and disadvantages.
  3. 3. Tasks 6-8 6 Explain why a an advertising company will conduct audience research and what the stages of audience research are. 7 Explain why an advertising company will conduct market research 8 Explain why a an advertising company will conduct production research. 9. Write your own questionnaire for a “Kwiki” a kiwi fruit soft drink. 10. Write appropriate questions and interview at least one person to gain qualitative audience research for “Kwiki” your kiwi fruit soft drink
  4. 4. Hiyerrr! I’m Steve the researcher. It’s my job to find out about the people who use a certain product. I use different types of research depending on what I want to find out.
  5. 5. Sometimes it is important that I do research that is completely new and no one else has ever done before This is called.... PRIMARY RESEARCH •Usually has a specific purpose •Original data (not copied)
  6. 6. Original data PRIMARY RESEARCH
  7. 7. Primary Research • Primary research — is research an organisation conducts or commissions itself to find out the answers to specific questions.
  8. 8. Primary Research • examples of primary research are carrying out questionnaires, surveys, internet forums, and interviews or group research. • An advantage of primary research is being able to explore the secondary research already performed by other researchers. • Carrying out their own research allows the media organization to address issues specific to their own situation.
  9. 9. Primary Research Advantages • One advantages of primary research is “greater control – not only does primary research enable the marketer to focus on specific issues, it also enables the marketer to have a higher level of control over how the information is collected” • This means a researcher can focus on his/her product only. They can analyse it better.
  10. 10. Primary Research • One advantage of primary research is “greater control”. • Primary research means you can focus on specific issues. • It also gives the researcher a higher level of control over how the information is collected. This means a media company can focus on their product only and will have better information on which to base their analysis.
  11. 11. Primary Research Disadvantages • Some of the disadvantages of primary research are the costs and the time it takes. It is time consuming because primary researchers have to start with no existing data so all the research has to be done from start to finish by the researcher. • Primary research may be very expensive because all of the data has to be independently collected without any help from previously existing data and it can take a lot of money to do that.
  12. 12. A student’s analysis of primary research • “I had some limitations on my primary research, which were the biased view of the people that responded to my questionnaire (not a true cross section of the public). In the interviews the people I asked mainly said stuff that I wanted to hear not their general opinion. The process was time consuming when creating the questionnaire and interview, also checking the availability of the interviewees and I did not get enough information that I needed. And when I was conducting the interview the people I asked were not honest in their response and the environment they were in influenced their response as they were not taking it seriously their friends were around …”
  13. 13. Sometimes, I can use data that other people have already collected. If necessary I might change it a bit though... This is called.... SECONDARY RESEARCH •Research done by someone else •Can be used alongside other primary research
  14. 14. Data originally researched by someone else SECONDARY RESEARCH
  15. 15. Secondary Research • Secondary research uses outside information assembled by media sources. it is a form of research where the information already exists and can be used as a form of second hand research. It is usually published in pamphlets, newsletters, trade publications, magazines, and newspapers. Media firms can also get information from the government, competitors or trade publications. • There are advantages and disadvantages to secondary research. Some of the advantages of secondary research are that it is easy to do because of the already existing data. Most of the pre –existing sources are accurate therefore making your research easier. However there are also some disadvantages of this type of research.
  16. 16. Secondary Research Disadvantages • A major disadvantage is you don’t know who did the research and how honest and accurate it is. • Secondary research can be biased and inaccuracies cannot be checked.
  17. 17. Sometime I just want to know simple things like how old my audiences are or how often they buy my product This is called.... QUANTITIVE RESEARCH •Can be shown as a set of numbers •Can be displayed as charts and graphs •Can be measured
  18. 18. Data that deals with numbers and amounts of things QUANTITIVE RESEARCH
  19. 19. Quantative data collection. • Questionnaires are usually used. • Quantative data is ‘number crunching’. • Advantages • – you can have a relatively large sample – a large ‘quantity’ of data. • - it is relatively easy to administer. • Disadvantages • Hard to design a questionnaire that finds out exactly what you want. • ‘Closed’ questions cannot be altered or adapted.
  20. 20. Fact not Opinion • The objective of quantitative research is to develop and employ measurable facts and information rather than opinions because it is based on actual data. • Quantitative Research can help to determine how many people are likely to buy a new product idea, which group of individuals will react best to which type of advert, which incentive (e.g. free gift) will appeal to which target market.
  21. 21. Quantitative • An advantage of Quantitative research is that it allows the researcher to measure and analyse data. • Another advantage is the researcher is more objective about the findings of the research.
  22. 22. The disadvantage of Quantitative Research • The main disadvantage of quantitative research is that you cannot ask subsidiary questions. You often get a ‘yes’ or ‘no’ when the true answer might be somewhere in the middle. • You also have the disadvantage of not being sure the person filling in the questionnaire fully understands the question or is being honest. Is s/he saying what they think you want to hear?
  23. 23. But sometimes, its more important that I know what people are thinking and why This is called.... QUALITITIVE RESEARCH •Helps to find out the way people feel •Responses are personal •Can’t really be measured
  24. 24. All about peoples thoughts and feelings QUALITITIVE RESEARCH
  25. 25. Qualitative data collection  Qualitative surveys: • Focus groups • One-to-one interviews
  26. 26. Advantages and Disadvantages of Qualitative Research. Advantage = quality information – you can ask subsidiary questions. Disadvantages = relatively small sample, possibly not representative and very time consuming.
  27. 27. Another disadvantage of Qualitative Research Another disadvantage of qualitative research is that “qualitative research does not ensure accuracy in the same way quantitative research does. Opinion and bias are far more likely to distort results. Qualitative Researchers ask questions to a small group of people. It does not represent the views of the entire population so it is difficult to analyse what the majority of an audience feel about a particular subject
  28. 28. Audience Research • There are four basic types of audience research: • Descriptive research — describes your audience and their characteristics; for example, who are your current audiences, where do they live, how old are they? • Analytical research — seeks to understand ‘how’ and ‘why’. What motivates audiences? For example, why did they buy every other Ryan Gosling DVD but not the last one? • Predictive research — considers ‘what if’ situations; for example, what will happen if we change the name of our company? • Tracking research — long-term research that monitors changes taking place over time; for example, how has the pattern for subscription season ticket sales changed over the past three years?
  29. 29. The Stages of Audience Research.  The basic principles in the lifecycle Plan – 1. Target audience: describe and define the target audience – 2. Plan: plan your research – 3. Research: collect the data – 4. Analyse: what did you find out? – Apply Target audience Research Analyse 5. Apply: use the evidence in your own advert. www.jisc.ac.uk/contentalliance | Slide 29 02 December 2013
  30. 30. Step 1. Describe and define the target audience  Knowing who you would like your audience to be is vital –  You may have more than one distinct audience with different needs Plan Defining your target audience doesn’t need to be a difficult exercise – Picture an ideal audience member… – Their occupation, gender, interests, technological expertise… – …Start thinking about categories for audience segmentation Apply Target audience Research Analyse  Perhaps your target audience might be a group such as…… – Students in full-time education – Retired people – People who travel abroad on their holidays. www.jisc.ac.uk/contentalliance | Slide 30 02 December 2013
  31. 31. Before You Start. Step 2. Plan your research  Set clear objectives for your research – –  What do you want to know about your audience? Why do you want to know it? Reach, uptake, quality and impact – what are your priorities? WHO are they? WHY do they use Our product ? WHO is not using our product ? HOW do they reach our Product? DOES the product meet their needs and expectations? WHY are they not using our Product? WHAT are the longer term effects of the product ? Plan Target audience HAVE they ever used our product? www.jisc.ac.uk/contentalliance | Slide 31 Apply Research Analyse 02 December 2013
  32. 32. Step 3 How will you collect the Data? .  Do it yourself (In-house research) or commission a research agency? – – Consider time, resources and available expertise – Companies can choose to outsource specific elements Plan Most techniques can be adapted by non-specialists  Do you want Quantitative and/or Qualitative information? Target audience Research Data collection methods  Apply – Focus groups – qualitative data – One-to-one interviews – qualitative data – Analyse Questionnaire – quantitative data www.jisc.ac.uk/contentalliance | Slide 32 02 December 2013
  33. 33. Make use of the Research (Apply).   Evidence from audience research can help make informed decisions Plan Consider the conclusions of the research Apply  Target audience Research Did you find out everything you need? Do you need further Analyse research? www.jisc.ac.uk/contentalliance | Slide 33 02 December 2013
  34. 34. Market Research – successful companies are…….. • interested in what the market looks like • aware who their competitors are • Driven by the potential revenue available - growth potential.
  35. 35. Market Research – successful companies ask these questions. • What other products are on the market? • What are their sales figures compared to ours? • Why? Why do they do better/worse than us? How competitive are our prices? What can be done to improve our product? How do we know? What is our unique selling point?
  36. 36. Achieving your marketing objectives • • • • • • • • • Most companies have a number of marketing objectives. They generally want to: – retain current audiences and build loyalty – attract new audiences by ‘stealing’ customers from the opposition. – find ways to persuade lapsed audiences to return – spend limited marketing budgets to make the most effective advert possible – monitor how audiences feel about their product – identify competitors and understand their strengths and weaknesses – identify new opportunities – identify changes in the operating environment (eg shop closures) which may impact on the organisation
  37. 37. Production research • If the audience research goes well and the market analysis is favourable a media company might decide to launch a new product in that market’ • To do this they need production research. • This type of research is done to gather material to allow a company to develop new products and ensure the whole process will run smoothly. • Does your company have the budget to complete the task successfully? • Production research involves: investigating the technology and personnel available, planning production and post-production to ensure it all runs smoothly. Eg are there staff who can write a script, film, edit, distribute etc?
  38. 38. Production Research • A company making a television advert will need: • to have some state of the art equipment (such as apple mac computers, high definition digital video cameras, microphones, headphones, audio and sound equipment’s, lightings, costumes, makeup and prosthetics) • to have a studio for editing with video editing software which includes graphics and captions and ‘animatic’ which is required for animation in an advert. • to hire a scriptwriter, actors and ‘crew’. • to consider transport cost for: going to set locations, costume and make up.
  39. 39. Part 1 — Introduction — writing and using the questionnaire • As part of this task you will conduct your own audience research surveys. • You may well do some qualitative research and interview potential customers. • You will certainly do some qualitative research via a questionnaire. When writing your questionnaire it is essential you think carefully about what it is you wish to find out. Your questions must give you useful, practical information in an easy-to-use/analyse format.
  40. 40. Remember  Audience research does not need to be perfect to be useful  Even a small audience research project is worthwhile  Audience research should be seen as an ongoing process  Understand your limitations (expertise, time and money)  Many techniques can be implemented quite cheaply or adapted to a shoestring budget  Commitment and support from senior management helps www.jisc.ac.uk/contentalliance | Slide 40 02 December 2013
  41. 41. Scenario • Scenario • You have been commissioned to produce a television advertisement for Kwiki – a new Kiwi fruit soft drink. • Activity • As part of your research you need to find out what current users think of: existing fruit drink products and their initial reaction to this new product. • Work in groups of 3-4 people to work out how you will get qualitative and quantitative information. www.jisc.ac.uk/contentalliance | Slide 41 02 December 2013
  42. 42. Think about …… • What are your research objectives? • What information do you need to find out about your audiences? • What types of questions do you need to ask? • What methods will you use to collect this information? • What elements of the research will you outsource and what will you do yourself? • Timescales and costs www.jisc.ac.uk/contentalliance | Slide 42 02 December 2013
  43. 43. Think about ……… • What information you need to find out about your target audience? • Who uses your current product and what for? • How/where/when do they buy it? • What competition is there? • What methods will you use to collect this information? • Quantative and/or Qualitative? • Questionnaire? • Focus groups and/or interviews? • Advantages/disadvantages of both. www.jisc.ac.uk/contentalliance | Slide 43 02 December 2013
  44. 44. Questionnaires • Audience Survey – be polite and specific. • Thank you for completing this questionnaire. We are using it to help us market ??? (EG A Kiwi Fruit drink) via a television advertisement. Please take a few moments to complete this questionnaire by ticking the boxes or writing your answers in the space provided. Be assured that your responses are entirely confidential. • Please fold and place your completed questionnaire in ???? the box provided.
  45. 45. Questionnaires – how will you phrase the questions? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Age – will you give categories? 10-16, 16-20 ??? Sex? Do you ever drink fruit juices? How often? If yes, which fruit juices do you drink? Why do you drink this particular fruit juice? Cost? Taste? Who buys the fruit juice for you? Where does he/she buy your fruit juice? How often do you buy fruit juice? How much would you be prepared to pay for fruit juice? What do you think about a Kiwi fruit drink? Which television programmes do you watch? Etc etc