Suture & laura mulvey

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Suture & laura mulvey

  1. 1. A2 Media Studies Audiences and Audience Theory
  2. 2. Audiences and Audience Theory <ul><li>We have so far studied 3 theories of audience </li></ul><ul><li>The Effects Model </li></ul><ul><li>The Uses and Gratifications Model </li></ul><ul><li>Reception Theory </li></ul>
  3. 3. Audiences and Audience Theory <ul><li>We will now go on to consider </li></ul><ul><li>Suture </li></ul><ul><li>Feminist Film Theory and Audiences </li></ul>
  4. 4. Audiences and Audience Theory <ul><li>Suture </li></ul><ul><li>Classical Hollywood narrative and editing ‘sutures’ or positions the audience in certain ways making only one preferred reading possible, however unconscious the audience is of that position </li></ul>
  5. 5. Audiences and Audience Theory <ul><li>Feminist Film Theory and Audiences </li></ul><ul><li>Laura Mulvey </li></ul><ul><li>Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema (1975) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Audiences and Audience Theory <ul><li>Cinema reflects society </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore cinema reflects a patriarchal society </li></ul><ul><li>How does a patriarchal society manifest itself in cinema? </li></ul>
  7. 7. Audiences and Audience Theory <ul><li>An example: </li></ul><ul><li>Patriarchy and phallocentrism are linked </li></ul><ul><li>The phallus is the symbol of power </li></ul><ul><li>Note how guns are used in films </li></ul><ul><li>Guns = phallus = power </li></ul>
  8. 8. Audiences and Audience Theory <ul><li>The male mid-life crisis and phallocentrism </li></ul><ul><li>The E-Type Jaguar </li></ul>
  9. 9. Audiences and Audience Theory
  10. 10. Audiences and Audience Theory <ul><li>The Gaze </li></ul><ul><li>The ‘gaze’ of the camera is the male ‘gaze’ </li></ul><ul><li>The male gaze is active, the female passive </li></ul><ul><li>Within the narrative male characters direct their gaze towards female characters </li></ul>
  11. 11. Audiences and Audience Theory <ul><li>The spectator is made to identify with the male gaze, because the camera films from the optical, as well as libidinal, point of view of the male character. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus three levels of the cinematic gaze – camera, character and spectator – that objectify the female character (the triple gaze) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Audiences and Audience Theory <ul><li>Therefore the audience is constructed as though everyone was male </li></ul><ul><li>Women are forced to look as though they were a male audience member </li></ul>
  13. 13. Audiences and Audience Theory <ul><li>Agency </li></ul><ul><li>In the classical Hollywood cinema the male protagonist has agency – he is active and powerful </li></ul><ul><li>He is the agent around whom the dramatic action unfolds </li></ul><ul><li>The female character is passive and powerless – she is the object of desire for protagonist and audience </li></ul>
  14. 14. Audiences and Audience Theory <ul><li>Erotic Desire </li></ul><ul><li>Mulvey argues that women have two roles in film: </li></ul><ul><li>As an object of erotic desire for the characters </li></ul><ul><li>As an object of erotic desire for the audience </li></ul>

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