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UNIT 29: MUSIC
VIDEO
PRODUCTION
ASSIGNMENT 1: TASK 1
THE PURPOSE OF A MUSIC
VIDEO
AS1: Task One:
Understand the purpose of music videos:
You will need to write about the following:








promotion...
Music Promo video

What is the purpose
of a music promo
video?


Promotional
Advertisement
 Draws attention to the music/song
 Illustrates the song
 Appeals to a visual audience
 Expr...
Creating a Brand






Often artists/groups are sold as a brand and
the music video acts as a product of the brand,
in ...
Marketing an image
Compare the image of these two artists:

Lady Gaga

Adele
What makes it memorable?


Ok Go – “Here it Goes Again” “White Knucklers”



Lady Gaga “Born This Way”



http://www.yo...
Availability of Artist






In 1964, The Beatles starred in their first feature
film A Hard Day's Night, directed by R...
Availability of Artist




It was only after the success of Queen‟s
"Bohemian Rhapsody" that it became regular
practice ...
Availability of Artist








Before promo video‟s became popular if the
artist was unavailable they would have their...
Extension of income
Promotes the artist/single/album
 Persuades audience to buy –
CD/download
 Raises the audience aware...
Extension of outlets





Music channel
Direct DVD and CD sales
Website
Download
The End of the Music Channel?








With competition from a variety of online
platforms, music channels are no longe...
Synergy












Films
TV programmes
Sky Fall
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=StJLvbPIvT
w
Military Wives
http://...
Producers‟ strategies




Major label
Independent
Artist self-produced
Major Record Labels




The music industry is dominated by four multi
national corporations;
• Universal
• Sony Music
• ...
Major-Independents











Most of these ‘Majors’ own, or license, a series of
smaller subsidiary companies in o...
Major Label Strategies VEVO






Vevo is a music video website owned and
operated by Universal Music Group, Google, So...
Independents








There are a huge number of small companies
with little or no financial connection to the
majors.
...
Independent Label Strategies




Independent or “indie” producers often see
their work as an art-form and not just an
ad...
Chris Cunninham




Chris Cunningham made his directorial debut
in 1997 with the music video for "Come to
Daddy" by Aphe...
Artist self-produced




Artist self-produced videos have the smallest
budgets and are usually unknown artists.
Making y...
Justin Bieber




Justin Bieber was discovered in 2008 by
American talent manager Scooter Braun.
He came across Bieber's...
CASE STUDY - Emil Nava


Emil Nava



Began as a runner
for film production
companies
Worked for Blink
Productions
Now f...
CASE STUDY - Emil Nava






After working as a runner graduated to Assistant
Director (A.D.) where he would manage the...
CASE STUDY - Emil Nava






At his busiest Emil has made 24 music videos
in one year
When he began shooting videos for...
CASE STUDY - Emil Nava











Emil‟s first budget was for the band Kid British
and the track Our House
Budget ...
CASE STUDY - Emil Nava


Kid British – Our House
CASE STUDY – OB
Management








OB Management work as agents for music
video directors
Their aim is to:
Nurture t...
CASE STUDY - Emil Nava








Some of the Production Companies that OB
work with are:
Pulse Films
Rocket
Agile Film...
CASE STUDY - Emil Nava


Paloma Faith ‘30 Minute Love Affair'
Client Sony - Director Emil Nava



http://www.youtube.com...
CASE STUDY - Emil Nava



Paloma Faith 'Picking Up the Pieces'
Client Sony - Director Emil Nava
Cost - £80,000



http:/...
CASE STUDY - Emil Nava


Ed Sheeran 'Lego House'
Client Atlantic - Director Emil Nava



http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=...
CASE STUDY - Emil Nava



Jessie J 'Do It Like A Dude'
Client Island - Director Emil Nava
Cost - £25,000



http://www.y...
CASE STUDY - Emil Nava


Rita Ora 'RIP'
Client RocNation - Director Emil Nava



http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L1l9WST5...
CASE STUDY - Emil Nava



Ed Sheeran 'You Need Me'
Client Atlantic - Director Emil Nava
Cost - £35,000



http://www.you...
CASE STUDY - Emil Nava



Jessie J 'Price Tag'
Client Island
Director Emil Nava



http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qMxX-Q...
CASE STUDY - Emil Nava


Has now begun to make adverts, which
generally have a far higher budget and
production values bu...
ASSIGNMENT 1: TASK 2
STYLES AND CONVENTIONS
AS1: Task 2




Andrew Goodwin‟s six key conventions
Different forms of music video such as digital
or stop-motion anima...


Andrew Goodwin in
Dancing in the
Distraction Factory
(1992) has identified
the following
features of music
videos:
Key features












Music videos demonstrate genre characteristics (eg stage
performance in metal video, dance ...
Relation of Visuals to Song
Music videos can
use a set of images
to illustrate the
meaning of lyrics &
genre, this is the
...
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Music Video Purpose

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Music Video Purpose

  1. 1. UNIT 29: MUSIC VIDEO PRODUCTION
  2. 2. ASSIGNMENT 1: TASK 1 THE PURPOSE OF A MUSIC VIDEO
  3. 3. AS1: Task One: Understand the purpose of music videos: You will need to write about the following:       promotional availability of artist extension of income extension of outlets (music channel, direct DVD and CD sales, website, download) synergy (films, TV programmes) the strategies producers‟ use (major label, independent, artist self-produced)
  4. 4. Music Promo video What is the purpose of a music promo video? 
  5. 5. Promotional Advertisement  Draws attention to the music/song  Illustrates the song  Appeals to a visual audience  Expresses an individual‟s emotions  Tells a story  Markets an image 
  6. 6. Creating a Brand    Often artists/groups are sold as a brand and the music video acts as a product of the brand, in the hope that the audience will be inspired to “buy into the brand” For some artists the ‘image’ is of greater importance than the quality of the product. The Spice Girls are a good example of this. Other times it is the song and the meaning of the song that is sold, and the artists ‘image’ has little to do with the sale of the song.
  7. 7. Marketing an image Compare the image of these two artists: Lady Gaga Adele
  8. 8. What makes it memorable?  Ok Go – “Here it Goes Again” “White Knucklers”  Lady Gaga “Born This Way”  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wV1FrqwZyKw  PSY – Gangnam Style  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CH1XGdu-hzQ  Why is this a good example of a promo video? How does it achieve a range of different promotional aspects? 
  9. 9. Availability of Artist    In 1964, The Beatles starred in their first feature film A Hard Day's Night, directed by Richard Lester. A year later in1965 they then began making promotional clips for distribution and broadcast in other countries. They did so to enable them to promote their record releases without having to make in-person appearances.
  10. 10. Availability of Artist   It was only after the success of Queen‟s "Bohemian Rhapsody" that it became regular practice for record companies to produce promotional videos for artists' single releases. These videos could then be shown on television shows, such as Top of the Pops, without the need for the artist to appear in person.
  11. 11. Availability of Artist     Before promo video‟s became popular if the artist was unavailable they would have their music broadcast and accompanied rather than dancers such as Pan's People. Brian May said the video was produced: A) so the band could avoid miming such a complex song on Top of the Pops. B) as they would be unable to appear on the programme every week as they were scheduled to appear on tour (It was number 1 for 9 weeks).
  12. 12. Extension of income Promotes the artist/single/album  Persuades audience to buy – CD/download  Raises the audience awareness or profile of the artist/group – tours, festivals  Product placement e.g. Christine Aguillera & perfume (Not Myself Tonight) 
  13. 13. Extension of outlets     Music channel Direct DVD and CD sales Website Download
  14. 14. The End of the Music Channel?     With competition from a variety of online platforms, music channels are no longer the strong promotional platforms they once were. In many ways the music video channel is in danger of becoming defunct and irrelevant. Online streaming and downloads mean that music videos are instantly accessible. Gone are the days of TOTP!
  15. 15. Synergy        Films TV programmes Sky Fall http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=StJLvbPIvT w Military Wives http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0hR6O7VxK aQ Why is synergy a good thing ?
  16. 16. Producers‟ strategies    Major label Independent Artist self-produced
  17. 17. Major Record Labels   The music industry is dominated by four multi national corporations; • Universal • Sony Music • Warner Brothers • EMI These are referred to as ‘The Majors’. The majority of these are backed by conglomerates with stakes in other industries such as; Film, TV and Electronics.
  18. 18. Major-Independents        Most of these ‘Majors’ own, or license, a series of smaller subsidiary companies in order to reach different kinds of audiences in different kinds of genre. Columbia Island Syco RCA Virgin, These companies are known as „majorindependents’.
  19. 19. Major Label Strategies VEVO    Vevo is a music video website owned and operated by Universal Music Group, Google, Sony Music Entertainment, and Abu Dhabi Media. It was launched on December 82009. The videos on Vevo are syndicated across the web, with Google and Vevo sharing the advertising revenue. Vevo offers music videos from three of the "big four" major record labels: Universal, Sony Music Entertainment, and EMI Records. Warner Music Group was initially reported to be considering hosting its content on the service, but formed a rival alliance with MTV Networks
  20. 20. Independents     There are a huge number of small companies with little or no financial connection to the majors. These companies often concentrate on a small number of acts, within specialised niches in the industry, Hip Hop/Rap/Electronica/Dance These are called ‘Independents’. An example of a highly successful independent is „Warp Records‟. It is often that record labels begin as independents, but then are bought by a major and then become major-independents.
  21. 21. Independent Label Strategies   Independent or “indie” producers often see their work as an art-form and not just an advertisement for the music industry. These types of producers often become well sort after by mainstream artists,
  22. 22. Chris Cunninham   Chris Cunningham made his directorial debut in 1997 with the music video for "Come to Daddy" by Aphex Twin It was praised, banned, and raved about by many people in the business.
  23. 23. Artist self-produced   Artist self-produced videos have the smallest budgets and are usually unknown artists. Making your own video and utilising a website such as Youtube can lead to great success.
  24. 24. Justin Bieber   Justin Bieber was discovered in 2008 by American talent manager Scooter Braun. He came across Bieber's videos on YouTube and then became his manager.
  25. 25. CASE STUDY - Emil Nava  Emil Nava  Began as a runner for film production companies Worked for Blink Productions Now freelances for OB Management  
  26. 26. CASE STUDY - Emil Nava    After working as a runner graduated to Assistant Director (A.D.) where he would manage the video shoots He signed to Academy – who are the biggest music video production company Then worked for Between the Eyes and now works mainly for Pulse
  27. 27. CASE STUDY - Emil Nava    At his busiest Emil has made 24 music videos in one year When he began shooting videos for independent labels the budget would be as low as £5,000 to £10,000 His most expensive video to date has been for Jessie J and the budget was £160,000
  28. 28. CASE STUDY - Emil Nava         Emil‟s first budget was for the band Kid British and the track Our House Budget - £20,000 Location – Manchester Cast – local people 1 day for filming 2/3 days for editing 10 days pre-production Demonstrates the very tight timescales involved
  29. 29. CASE STUDY - Emil Nava  Kid British – Our House
  30. 30. CASE STUDY – OB Management       OB Management work as agents for music video directors Their aim is to: Nurture talent Work with production companies Work with record labels Match the right director to the right artists
  31. 31. CASE STUDY - Emil Nava       Some of the Production Companies that OB work with are: Pulse Films Rocket Agile Films Friends Wonda
  32. 32. CASE STUDY - Emil Nava  Paloma Faith ‘30 Minute Love Affair' Client Sony - Director Emil Nava  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O0O2DfNRxv4 
  33. 33. CASE STUDY - Emil Nava  Paloma Faith 'Picking Up the Pieces' Client Sony - Director Emil Nava Cost - £80,000  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ijel4Vcqd9g  
  34. 34. CASE STUDY - Emil Nava  Ed Sheeran 'Lego House' Client Atlantic - Director Emil Nava  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c4BLVznuWnU 
  35. 35. CASE STUDY - Emil Nava  Jessie J 'Do It Like A Dude' Client Island - Director Emil Nava Cost - £25,000  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pOf3kYtwASo  
  36. 36. CASE STUDY - Emil Nava  Rita Ora 'RIP' Client RocNation - Director Emil Nava  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L1l9WST5lXM 
  37. 37. CASE STUDY - Emil Nava  Ed Sheeran 'You Need Me' Client Atlantic - Director Emil Nava Cost - £35,000  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZXvzzTICvJs  
  38. 38. CASE STUDY - Emil Nava  Jessie J 'Price Tag' Client Island Director Emil Nava  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qMxX-QOV9tI  
  39. 39. CASE STUDY - Emil Nava  Has now begun to make adverts, which generally have a far higher budget and production values but which allow for less creative freedom
  40. 40. ASSIGNMENT 1: TASK 2 STYLES AND CONVENTIONS
  41. 41. AS1: Task 2   Andrew Goodwin‟s six key conventions Different forms of music video such as digital or stop-motion animation; in-concert; “as live‟ footage; studio based;   Different styles of music video such as a narrative based; impressionist; surrealist; pastiche; parody; homage; intertextual
  42. 42.  Andrew Goodwin in Dancing in the Distraction Factory (1992) has identified the following features of music videos:
  43. 43. Key features       Music videos demonstrate genre characteristics (eg stage performance in metal video, dance routine for boy/girl band). There is a relationship between lyrics and visuals (either illustrative, amplifying, contradicting). There is a relationship between music and visuals (either illustrative, amplifying, contradicting). The demands of the record label will include the need for lots of close-ups of the artist and the artist may develop motifs which recur across their work (a visual style). There is frequently reference to the notion of looking (screens within screens, telescopes, etc) and particularly voyeuristic treatment of the female body. There is often intertextual reference (to films, TV programmes, other music videos, etc).
  44. 44. Relation of Visuals to Song Music videos can use a set of images to illustrate the meaning of lyrics & genre, this is the most common This is where the meaning of the song is completely ignored This is similar to repeatability. Meanings and effects are manipulated and constantly shown through the video and drummed into our vision There are three ways in which music videos work to promote a song

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