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The Structure of a Language Lesson Recognizable speech event given its structure: 2 kinds of participants, recognizable activities: teaching and learning, reaching a conclusion.1
Teachers structure their lessons effectively:1. Begin a lesson with a short review (prerequisite learning).2. Provide a short statement of goals.3. Present new material in small steps, with student practice for each step.4. Give clear and detailed instructions and explanations.5. Provide a high level of active practice for all students.6. Ask a large number of questions to elicit or check students’understanding.7. Guide/monitor students during practice.8. Provide systematic feedback and corrections.
STRUCTURING:• This refers to how lessons are organized into sequences (Research by Wong-Fillmore, 1985).• OPENING: How a lesson begins.• SEQUENCING: How a lesson is divided into segments and how the segments relate to each other.• PACING: How a sense of movement is achieved within a lesson.• CLOSURE: How a lesson is brough to an end.
OPENINGS:They will depend on the PURPOSE of the lesson. Describe the goals of a State the activity lesson. students will do is State the TOPIC/SKILLS something they will Point our links with enjoy. previous lessons. Do something to engage REVIEW learning from students’interest and motivation previous lessons Describe the relationship between this lesson/activities and a forthcoming test.
SEQUENCINGIt will reflect a particular school of methodology.Situational Language Teaching(Richards&Rodgers, 1986):1. Presentation.2. Controlled practice.3. Free Practice.4. Checking.5. Further practice.
Communicative Language Teaching (Littlewood,1986)1. Pre-communicative activities: Accuracy- based activities with a focus on presentation of structures, functions and vocabulary.2. Communicative activities: Fluency-based activities which focus on information sharing and information exchange.
PACING• Decisions teachers make as regards how much time to allocate to each part of the lesson, as we monitor students’engagement in learning tasks. Avoid over-lengthy explanations. Use a variety of activities. Select activities of an appropriate level of difficulty. Set a time limit, but respect students’ progress with the activities through monitoring.
CLOSURE: bringing a lesson to an end effectively. Sumarizing what has Praising students for been covered in the what they have lesson. accomplished during Reviewing key points. the lesson. Relating the lesson to the course or lesson goals. Pointing out links with forthcoming lessons.