Guidelines (4/6)

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ISWC 2010: TUTORIAL: Ten Ways to Make your Semantic App Addictive

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  • (Leon Festinger, 1954)
    (Bram Buunk and Thomas Mussweiler 2001, Jerry Suls, Rene Martin, and Ladd Wheeler 2002),
    (Solomon E. Asch 1956, George A. Akerlof 1980, Stephen R. G. Jones 1984, Douglas Bernheim 1994).

  • Guidelines (4/6)

    1. 1. Guidelines for incentivized technology design www.insemtives.eu 1 Markus Rohde, University of Siegen, DE; Roberta Cuel, University of Trento, IT and Elena Simperl, University of Innsbruck, AT ISWC 2010
    2. 2. 1/29/2015 www.insemtives.eu 2
    3. 3. 1/29/2015 www.insemtives.eu 3
    4. 4. 1/29/2015 www.insemtives.eu 4
    5. 5. • Consensus finding hard: too many options to choose from. • Game play complex: too many different stages (8 questions). • Too complex interfaces: players have to choose from widely varying Uis in different stages of the same game. • Videos too long: for a fast game play, users should not be required to watch the complete video. • Social factor: the interaction with the partner is too low – players do not enjoy the game because the emphasis on the social component is missing. 1/29/2015 www.insemtives.eu 5
    6. 6. 1/29/2015 www.insemtives.eu 6
    7. 7. 1/29/2015 www.insemtives.eu 7
    8. 8. Ten guidelines 131/29/2015 www.insemtives.eu 8 (1) Design your App Usable (2) Design your App Enjoyable (3) Design your App for Visibility (4) Design your App Sociable (5) Design your App Valuable (6) Design your App Explorable (7) Design your App Flexible (8) Design your App in a Participatory Way (9) Design your App… (10) Design your App… Effectivity, Efficiency, Satisfaction Community, Contribution, Interaction Joy of Use, Pleasure Personal Values, Egoism, Altruism, Collectivism User-centered, Needs-oriented, Practice-based Adaptability, End User Development Experiencing, Testing, Trying, … Identity, Belonging, Status, Reputation
    9. 9. Design your app usable • ISO 9241, 110: Dialogue Interface Design • Seven requirements – Suitability for the task – Self descriptiveness – Suitability for learning – Controllability – Expectation conformity – Individualization – Error tolerance 1/29/2015 www.insemtives.eu 9
    10. 10. Usability requirements • Suitability for the task: The dialogue should be suitable for the user’s task and skill level • Self-descriptiveness: The dialogue should make it clear what the user should do next • Suitability for learning: The dialogue should support learning • Controllability: The user should be able to control the pace and sequence of the interaction • Expectation Conformity: The dialogue should be consistent • Individualization: The dialogue should be able to be customized to suit the user • Error tolerance: The dialogue should be forgiving 1/29/2015 www.insemtives.eu 10
    11. 11. Example: IBM 1996 1/29/2015 www.insemtives.eu 11
    12. 12. Example: IBM 2010 1/29/2015 www.insemtives.eu 12
    13. 13. Design your app enjoyable • Design for fun: Hedonism and emotions (Hassenzahl 2004) • „Having become used to usable products, it seems inevitable that people will soon want something more: products that offer something extra; products that are not merely tools but ‘living objects‘ that people can relate to; products that bring not only functional benefits but also emotional ones” (Jordan 2002: 14) 1/29/2015 www.insemtives.eu 13
    14. 14. Joy of use • Stimulation: Desire for self-development. Tools provide new opportunities for activities • Identification – Desire for self-actualization – Tools offer new opportunities for self-expression and community membership • Evocation: Tools allow for associations with former, enjoyable memories and feelings (Hassenzahl 2004) 1/29/2015 www.insemtives.eu 14
    15. 15. Pleasure design • Physio-pleasure: Enjoyable sensual experiences, ergonomics, handling, beautiful design, etc • Socio-pleasure: Enjoyable social interactions, tools that are socially facilitating media • Psycho-pleasure: Enjoyable impressions, emotions and cognitions, memories, joy, fun, experienced success, etc • Ideo-pleasure: Accordance with personal values, attitudes, and beliefs; tools allow for representation of personal identity, social status, individuality, etc 1/29/2015 www.insemtives.eu 15
    16. 16. Pleasure design (2) • Need-Pleasures: contextual goal-oriented pleasures fulfill direct needs/desires • Appreciation-Pleasures: de-contextual emotional pleasures fulfill hedonistic desires (Jordan 2002) 1/29/2015 www.insemtives.eu 16
    17. 17. Example: White House 1996 1/29/2015 www.insemtives.eu 17
    18. 18. Example: White House 2010 1/29/2015 www.insemtives.eu 18
    19. 19. Design your app for visibility 1/29/2015 www.insemtives.eu 19 • Enabling practice, i.e., supporting practice that exists or could exist within the social group that is the intended audience of the social software system • Mimicking reality, i.e., finding or creating metaphors that relate to the real world • Building identity, i.e., providing the community with the mechanisms that allow for the development of an online identity • Actualizing self, i.e., creating mechanisms that allow users to tap into the collective wisdom and experience and use it for their own benefit, learning process and self-actualization
    20. 20. Visibility requirements 1/29/2015 www.insemtives.eu 20 • Web 2.0 design (Lazar/Preece 2002, Preece/Shneiderman 2009) • Reading: issues for the attraction/motivation of end users to visit web sites and applications, to ‘stay’ on the web site, to come back and visit again regularly and so on • Contributing: design recommendations for the attraction/motivation of end users to edit Web content, produce/generate own content, contribute to Web communities and collective repositories, etc • Collaborating: issues for the attraction/motivation of end users to collaborate with others in a user community, to coordinate their contributions with other contributors and so on • Trust: issues about web credibility or security
    21. 21. Example: MovieLens • A key challenge to the online community designer is to motivate the peripheral participants to become active contributors • http://www.movielens.org is an online movie recommender system that invites users to rate movies and in return makes personalized recommendations and predictions for movies the user has not already rated. • Personalized recommendations are based on collaborative filtering technology
    22. 22. Background knowledge: social information might affect behaviors • People lean toward social comparisons in situations that are ambiguous • When information regarding prevalent behavior is available, people exhibit the tendency to copy this behavior, a phenomena referred to as conformity • We compare ourselves to others who are better off for guidance, and to others who are worse off to increase our self-esteem • When outcome information regarding other people’s payoffs is available, people show distributional concerns, such as inequality aversion
    23. 23. Hypothesis • MovieLens makes “predictions” on user preference based on other user’s recommendations (similar users) • Problem: underutilization (significant numbers are required to work) • MovieLens field experiment (Chen et al. 2008): – social comparison on contributions helps spur contributions – personalized information encourages contribution – Comparing benefits and costs helps
    24. 24. Method • Method: field experiment – Randomized sample of 398 users with 30 or more reviews – Random money prize assigned to participants – Divided into 3 experimental groups • Personal newsletter 1: median number of contributions (of their cohort) • Personal newsletter 2: net benefit (benefit-cost in time) of average user in own cohort • Control with their own ratings • Stage one: pre-experimental survey to estimate benefits in membership
    25. 25. Phases of analysis • Stage two: newsletter is sent suggesting two kinds of behavior – Improve your net benefit score – Spur others to improve net benefit • Stage three: re-run survey • Model for net-benefit (benefit – costs) • Benefit: f(Quality, Fun, NonRating activities) • Cost: f(Time, Rare movie)
    26. 26. Previous results • Use function to compute net-benefit • Results: – In Relative Info conformity strikes: • below-median users contributed 530% more, • above-median 62% less! – Net benefit: • below-median users contribute more “easy” (popular film) reviews (selfish behavior); • high contributors (users with net benefit scores above average contribute) contribute even more (94%): altruistic motive.
    27. 27. Practical consequences • For users with a low number of ratings, information on the median user’s ratings can induce significantly more ratings • For users with high net benefit scores, information on their scores and those of an average user can lead to an increase in contributions to the database updating and rating of rare movies • What is particularly intriguing is that average users, upon learning that they are about average, can be challenged to increase their ratings as well
    28. 28. Design your app sociable • Registration issues: Should people have to register? There are pros and cons: Sensitive data, privacy issues. • Trust and security issues: Trust and security are important issues in any type of online community. • Governance issues: Governance covers many issues from registration to moderation and democracy. The trick is to get just the right level of policies to set the community on a good course as it evolves. 1/29/2015 www.insemtives.eu 28
    29. 29. Design your app valuable • VSD is about systematically considering human values throughout the design and deployment of information and other technologies (Friedman et al. 2006) • Motivation for community involvement (Batson et al. 2002) – Egoism, increase one’s own welfare – Altruism, increase the welfare of another individual or individuals – Collectivism, increase the welfare of a group – Principlism uphold one or more moral principles 1/29/2015 www.insemtives.eu 29
    30. 30. Value-sensitive design • Reputation building: Individuals’ desire to establish their reputation and to gain approval from others in the field (Oreg/Nov 2008) • Self-development: The desire for self-development through learning from others in the field, receiving feedback, and enhancing one’s abilities and skills (Oreg/Nov 2008) • Autonomy: The freedom of independent decision making (Kuznetsov 2006) • Status and Recognition: The desire for social acceptance and appreciation (Fang/Neufeld 2009) • Sense of ownership and control: The desire for personal power, prosperity and control (Fang/Neufeld 2009) • Free software ideology: Altruistic structure of belief, public good attitude (Fang/Neufeld 2009) 1/29/2015 www.insemtives.eu 30
    31. 31. Example: AOL 1996 1/29/2015 www.insemtives.eu 31
    32. 32. Example: AOL 2010 1/29/2015 www.insemtives.eu 32
    33. 33. Design your app explorable • User-experience design • Error tolerance/undo – redo • Try-and-error functionality • Help, tutorials 1/29/2015 www.insemtives.eu 33
    34. 34. Design your app flexible • Design for personalization • Design for adaptation • Tailorability • End-user development 1/29/2015 www.insemtives.eu 34
    35. 35. Design your app in a participatory way • Involve End Users • Users‘ „cognitive maps“ • Usability Engineering • Redesign-Cycles • Feedback Channels 1/29/2015 www.insemtives.eu 35
    36. 36. Ten guidelines 131/29/2015 www.insemtives.eu 36 (1) Design your App Usable (2) Design your App Enjoyable (3) Design your App for Visibility (4) Design your App Sociable (5) Design your App Valuable (6) Design your App Explorable (7) Design your App Flexible (8) Design your App in a Participatory Way (9) Design your App… (10) Design your App… Effectivity, Efficiency, Satisfaction Community, Contribution, Interaction Joy of Use, Pleasure Personal Values, Egoism, Altruism, Collectivism User-centered, Needs-oriented, Practice-based Adaptability, End User Development Experiencing, Testing, Trying, … Identity, Belonging, Status, Reputation

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