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Aim High!

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Thorium energy cheaper than from coal can solve more than just global warming. Fossil fuel burning releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, contributing to global warming and deadly air pollution. Natural resources are rapidly being depleted by world population growth. Safe, inexpensive energy from the liquid fluoride thorium reactor can stop global warming and raise prosperity of humanity to adopt US and OECD lifestyles, which include lower, sustainable birth rates.

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Aim High!

  1. 1. Aim High! <ul><li>Limits to growth </li></ul><ul><li>Thorium </li></ul><ul><li>Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Aim High </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul>Robert Hargraves, Hanover NH http://rethinkingnuclearpower.googlepages.com/aimhigh
  2. 2. Global environmental problems mount.
  3. 3. Global environmental problems mount.
  4. 4. Global environmental problems mount.
  5. 5. Global environmental problems mount.
  6. 6. Dennis Meadows’ Limits to Growth showed effects of finite resources. http://www.aspoitalia.net/images/stories/aspo5presentations/Meadows_ASPO5.pdf Resources Population Food Pollution Industrial Output 2010 1972
  7. 7. Population is stable in developed nations. http://caliban.sourceoecd.org/vl=1260748/cl=17/nw=1/rpsv/factbook/010101.htm US World OECD 6.7 billion 2008 http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/13/38/16587241.pdf
  8. 8. Prosperity stabilizes population. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/docs/rankorderguide.html GDP per capita Children per woman 82 nations with populations over 10 million.
  9. 9. Prosperity stabilizes population. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/docs/rankorderguide.html GDP per capita Children per woman 82 nations with populations over 10 million.  Stable replacement rate
  10. 10. Prosperity stabilizes population. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/docs/rankorderguide.html GDP per capita Children per woman 82 nations with populations over 10 million.  Stable replacement rate Prosperity
  11. 11. Prosperity depends on energy. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2042rank.html GDP per capita Annual kWh per capita Nations with populations over 10 million.
  12. 12. Prosperity depends on energy. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2042rank.html GDP per capita Annual kWh per capita Nations with populations over 10 million.
  13. 13. Prosperity depends on energy. Prosperity https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2042rank.html GDP per capita Annual kWh per capita Nations with populations over 10 million.
  14. 14. Energy and coal use is growing rapidly in developing nations. Non-OECD energy use World coal use http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/ieo/world.html
  15. 15. Conservation won’t stop the growth. 3.8 1.9 US Scenario US cuts per capita energy use in half to 6,000 KWH per person per year. Rest Of World nations cut or grow to achieve the same. Units are 10 15 watt hours per year
  16. 16. Conservation won’t stop the growth. 15.4 3.8 1.9 37.7 ROW US Scenario US cuts per capita energy use in half to 6,000 KWH per person per year. Rest Of World nations cut or grow to achieve the same. Units are 10 15 watt hours per year
  17. 17. Technology policy lies at the core of the climate change challenge. http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?id=technological-keys-to-climate-protection-extended &quot;If we try to restrain emissions without a fundamentally new set of technologies, we will end up stifling economic growth, including the development prospects for billions of people. Prof. Jeffrey Sachs Economist, Columbia University Director of The Earth Institute
  18. 18. Technology policy lies at the core of the climate change challenge. http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?id=technological-keys-to-climate-protection-extended &quot;If we try to restrain emissions without a fundamentally new set of technologies, we will end up stifling economic growth, including the development prospects for billions of people. &quot;We will need much more than a price on carbon. Prof. Jeffrey Sachs Economist, Columbia University Director of The Earth Institute
  19. 19. Technology policy lies at the core of the climate change challenge. http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?id=technological-keys-to-climate-protection-extended &quot;If we try to restrain emissions without a fundamentally new set of technologies, we will end up stifling economic growth, including the development prospects for billions of people. &quot;We will need much more than a price on carbon. &quot;The US, Europe and Japan will need to start all this technological innovation soon …technologies developed in the rich world will need to be adopted rapidly in poorer countries. Prof. Jeffrey Sachs Economist, Columbia University Director of The Earth Institute
  20. 20. Aim High! Set aggressive goals. Develop a new energy source that
  21. 21. Aim High! Set aggressive goals. <ul><li>Develop a new energy source that </li></ul><ul><li>produces electricity cheaper than from coal, </li></ul>
  22. 22. Aim High! Set aggressive goals. <ul><li>Develop a new energy source that </li></ul><ul><li>produces electricity cheaper than from coal, </li></ul><ul><li>synthesizes vehicle fuel , </li></ul>
  23. 23. Aim High! Set aggressive goals. <ul><li>Develop a new energy source that </li></ul><ul><li>produces electricity cheaper than from coal, </li></ul><ul><li>synthesizes vehicle fuel , </li></ul><ul><li>is inexhaustible , </li></ul>
  24. 24. Aim High! Set aggressive goals. <ul><li>Develop a new energy source that </li></ul><ul><li>produces electricity cheaper than from coal, </li></ul><ul><li>synthesizes vehicle fuel , </li></ul><ul><li>is inexhaustible , </li></ul><ul><li>reduces waste , and </li></ul>
  25. 25. Aim High! Set aggressive goals. <ul><li>Develop a new energy source that </li></ul><ul><li>produces electricity cheaper than from coal, </li></ul><ul><li>synthesizes vehicle fuel , </li></ul><ul><li>is inexhaustible , </li></ul><ul><li>reduces waste , and </li></ul><ul><li>is affordable to developing nations. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Thorium is a plentiful fuel. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thorium Thorium, discovered in Norway in 1828, is named after Thor, the Norse god of thunder and lightning.
  27. 27. Thorium is a plentiful fuel. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thorium Thorium, discovered in Norway in 1828, is named after Thor, the Norse god of thunder and lightning. Idaho's Lemhi Pass has enough thorium to power the US for a millennium.
  28. 28. Thorium is a plentiful fuel. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thorium Thorium, discovered in Norway in 1828, is named after Thor, the Norse god of thunder and lightning. Idaho's Lemhi Pass has enough thorium to power the US for a millennium. Thorium is not fissionable. How can thorium be a fuel?
  29. 29. U-233, U-235, and Pu-239 are three possible reactor fission fuels. fission Natural nucleons Th 90 Pa 91 U 92 Np 93 Pu 94 241 240 239 238 237 236 235 234 233 232 Am 95
  30. 30. Uranium-235 fissions to krypton and barium releasing energy. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_fission The total mass of the resulting barium-141 krypton-92 neutrons (3) is less than the mass of the U-235 + neutron, releasing 166 MeV of energy.
  31. 31. Uranium-238 neutron absorption makes fissionable plutonium-239. neutron absorption beta decay fission nucleons Th 90 Pa 91 U 92 Np 93 Pu 94 241 240 239 238 237 236 235 234 233 232 Am 95
  32. 32. Uranium-238 neutron absorption makes fissionable plutonium-239. neutron absorption beta decay fission nucleons Th 90 Pa 91 U 92 Np 93 Pu 94 241 240 239 238 237 236 235 234 233 232 Am 95
  33. 33. Thorium-232 neutron absorbtion makes fissionable uranium-233. neutron absorption beta decay fission nucleons Th 90 Pa 91 U 92 Np 93 Pu 94 241 240 239 238 237 236 235 234 233 232 Am 95
  34. 34. Thorium-232 neutron absorbtion makes fissionable uranium-233. neutron absorption beta decay fission nucleons Th 90 Pa 91 U 92 Np 93 Pu 94 241 240 239 238 237 236 235 234 233 232 Am 95
  35. 35. U-238 and Th-232 are called fertile because they make fissionable fuel. neutron absorption beta decay fission fertile nucleons Th 90 Pa 91 U 92 Np 93 Pu 94 241 240 239 238 237 236 235 234 233 232 Am 95
  36. 36. Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor fuel is dissolved in liquid.
  37. 37. Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor fuel is dissolved in liquid. Molten fluoride salt mix: LiF and BeF 2
  38. 38. Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor fuel is dissolved in liquid. Molten fluoride salt mix: LiF and BeF 2 Excellent heat transfer
  39. 39. Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor fuel is dissolved in liquid. Molten fluoride salt mix: LiF and BeF 2 Excellent heat transfer Continuous chemical processing
  40. 40. Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor fuel is dissolved in liquid. Molten fluoride salt mix: LiF and BeF 2 Excellent heat transfer Continuous chemical processing Atmospheric pressure
  41. 41. Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor fuel is dissolved in liquid. Molten fluoride salt mix: LiF and BeF 2 Excellent heat transfer Continuous chemical processing Atmospheric pressure Room temperature solid
  42. 42. In a thorium reactor the Th-232 blanket becomes the U-233 core. Fertile Th-232 blanket Fissile U-233 core n n
  43. 43. In a thorium reactor the Th-232 blanket becomes the U-233 core. Chemical separator Fertile Th-232 blanket Fissile U-233 core Th-232 in n n
  44. 44. In a thorium reactor the Th-232 blanket becomes the U-233 core. Chemical separator Fertile Th-232 blanket Fissile U-233 core New U-233 fuel Th-232 in n n
  45. 45. In a thorium reactor the Th-232 blanket becomes the U-233 core. Chemical separator Chemical separator Fertile Th-232 blanket Fissile U-233 core Fission products out New U-233 fuel Th-232 in n n
  46. 46. In a thorium reactor the Th-232 blanket becomes the U-233 core. Chemical separator Chemical separator Fertile Th-232 blanket Fissile U-233 core Fission products out New U-233 fuel Th-232 in n n Heat
  47. 47. Start up the LFTR by priming it with a fissile fuel. Chemical separator Chemical separator Fertile Th-232 blanket ? Th-232 in n n .
  48. 48. Start up the LFTR by priming it with a fissile fuel. Chemical separator Chemical separator Fertile Th-232 blanket ? Th-232 in n n The US government has 500 kg of U-233.
  49. 49. Start up the LFTR by priming it with a fissile fuel. Chemical separator Chemical separator Fertile Th-232 blanket ? Th-232 in n n The US government has 500 kg of U-233. Prime with U-235, or Pu from spent LWR fuel.
  50. 50. Thorium fuel is plentiful, compact, and inexpensive. http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/thorium/690798.pdf  dense, silvery, ½ m, 1 ton thorium sphere
  51. 51. Thorium fuel is plentiful, compact, and inexpensive. http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/thorium/690798.pdf 1 ton, 1 city, 1 year  dense, silvery, ½ m, 1 ton thorium sphere
  52. 52. Thorium fuel is plentiful, compact, and inexpensive. http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/thorium/690798.pdf 500 tons, entire US, 1 year 1 ton, 1 city, 1 year  dense, silvery, ½ m, 1 ton thorium sphere
  53. 53. Thorium fuel is plentiful, compact, and inexpensive. http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/thorium/690798.pdf $300,000 per ton 500 tons, entire US, 1 year 1 ton, 1 city, 1 year  dense, silvery, ½ m, 1 ton thorium sphere
  54. 54. Thorium fuel is plentiful, compact, and inexpensive. http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/thorium/690798.pdf 3,752 tons in US storage $300,000 per ton 500 tons, entire US, 1 year 1 ton, 1 city, 1 year  dense, silvery, ½ m, 1 ton thorium sphere
  55. 55. Two Nobel laureates conceived two breeder reactors. One made better weapons faster. Eugene Wigner <ul><li>2.5 </li></ul><ul><li>Th  U </li></ul>
  56. 56. Two Nobel laureates conceived two breeder reactors. One made better weapons faster. Eugene Wigner Enrico Fermi <ul><li>2.5 </li></ul><ul><li>Th  U </li></ul><ul><li>2.9 </li></ul><ul><li>U  Pu </li></ul>
  57. 57. Rickover's drive, Nautilus submarine, and Shippingport power plant  100 US PWRs.
  58. 58. Weinberg and Oak Ridge developed the first molten salt nuclear reactor in 1954. 860 C Red hot! 100 hours 2.5 MW
  59. 59. 1.4 m diameter NaK metal would transfer 200 MW thermal power to jet engines.
  60. 60. Weinberg had envisioned LFTR ever since the 1943 Wigner design. &quot; humankind's whole future depended upon this &quot;
  61. 61. The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment ran until 1965. Salt flowed through channels in this graphite core.
  62. 62. http://www.ornl.gov/~webworks/cppr/y2006/pres/124659.pdf <ul><li>The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment succeeded. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hastelloy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Xe off-gas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pumps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluorination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dump tanks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U-233 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>17,655 hours </li></ul></ul>
  63. 63. Aim High! Develop the Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor. Waste separator Uranium separator Cooler Reactor core and blanket Heat exchanger Turbine and generator Control system H 2 O H 2 O 2 Hydrogen generator
  64. 64. Aim High! Develop the Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor. Reactor core and blanket
  65. 65. Aim High! Develop the Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor. Uranium separator Reactor core and blanket
  66. 66. Aim High! Develop the Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor. Waste separator Uranium separator Reactor core and blanket
  67. 67. Aim High! Develop the Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor. Waste separator Uranium separator Reactor core and blanket Heat exchanger
  68. 68. Aim High! Develop the Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor. Waste separator Uranium separator Reactor core and blanket Heat exchanger Turbine and generator
  69. 69. Aim High! Develop the Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor. Waste separator Uranium separator Cooler Reactor core and blanket Heat exchanger Turbine and generator
  70. 70. Aim High! Develop the Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor. Waste separator Uranium separator Cooler Reactor core and blanket Heat exchanger Turbine and generator Control system
  71. 71. Aim High! Develop the Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor. Waste separator Uranium separator Cooler Reactor core and blanket Heat exchanger Turbine and generator Control system H 2 O H 2 O 2 Hydrogen generator
  72. 72. Aim High! Develop a small modular reactor. Small LFTR modules can be transported by trucks. Many will be installed where there are no rails or rivers. 100 MW, < $200 million
  73. 73. Aim High! Develop a small modular reactor. Small LFTR modules can be transported by trucks. Many will be installed where there are no rails or rivers. 100 MW, < $200 million Affordable to developing nations
  74. 74. Aim High! Develop a small modular reactor. Small LFTR modules can be transported by trucks. Many will be installed where there are no rails or rivers. 100 MW, < $200 million Affordable to developing nations Power sources near points of use -- low transmission line losses -- less vulnerable to terrorism
  75. 75. Aim High! Develop a small modular reactor. Small LFTR modules can be transported by trucks. Many will be installed where there are no rails or rivers. 100 MW, < $200 million Affordable to developing nations Power sources near points of use -- low transmission line losses -- less vulnerable to terrorism Multiple units for large power stations
  76. 76. Aim High! Develop a small modular reactor. Small LFTR modules can be transported by trucks. Many will be installed where there are no rails or rivers. 100 MW, < $200 million Affordable to developing nations Power sources near points of use -- low transmission line losses -- less vulnerable to terrorism Multiple units for large power stations Incremental capital investments
  77. 77. Aim High! Use air cooling. A typical 1 GW coal or nuclear plant heats 600,000 gal/min of river water, or evaporates 20,000 gal/min.
  78. 78. Aim High! Use air cooling. A typical 1 GW coal or nuclear plant heats 600,000 gal/min of river water, or evaporates 20,000 gal/min. High temperature LFTR halves heat loss.
  79. 79. Aim High! Use air cooling. A typical 1 GW coal or nuclear plant heats 600,000 gal/min of river water, or evaporates 20,000 gal/min. High temperature LFTR halves heat loss. Air cooling is needed in arid lands, or any place water is in short supply.
  80. 80. Aim High! Design aesthetic structures. Can a cooling tower be graceful?
  81. 81. Aim High! Design aesthetic structures. Can a cooling tower be graceful? Cora Kent painted Boston's Rainbow Gas Tank.
  82. 82. Aim High! Use automated controls, backed by inherent passive safety. <ul><li>Use high reliability systems for automated, unattended plant operations. </li></ul>
  83. 83. Aim High! Use automated controls, backed by inherent passive safety. <ul><li>Use high reliability systems for automated, unattended plant operations. </li></ul>
  84. 84. Aim High! Use automated controls, backed by inherent passive safety. <ul><li>Use high reliability systems for automated, unattended plant operations. </li></ul><ul><li>In event of loss of power or control the freeze plug melts, molten salt flows into containment, cools, solidifies. Freeze plug. </li></ul>
  85. 85. Aim High! Use automated controls, backed by inherent passive safety. <ul><li>Use high reliability systems for automated, unattended plant operations. </li></ul><ul><li>In event of loss of power or control the freeze plug melts, molten salt flows into containment, cools, solidifies. Freeze plug. </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate on-site workers. -- Lower operational costs. -- Low risk of safety over-rides, operator error, experimentation, terrorism </li></ul>
  86. 86. Aim High! Produce less long lived radiotoxic waste.
  87. 87. 250 t uranium containing 1.75 t U-235 35 t of enriched uranium (1.15 t U-235) 215 t of depleted U-238 (0.6 t U-235) U-235 is burned; some Pu-239 is formed and burned. 35 t of spent fuel stored containing: 33.4 t U-238 0.3 t U-235 1.0 t fission products 0.3 t Pu Aim High! Mine < 1% of the ore; bury < 1% of the waste.
  88. 88. http://wwf 250 t uranium containing 1.75 t U-235 35 t of enriched uranium (1.15 t U-235) 215 t of depleted U-238 (0.6 t U-235) U-235 is burned; some Pu-239 is formed and burned. 35 t of spent fuel stored containing: 33.4 t U-238 0.3 t U-235 1.0 t fission products 0.3 t Pu 1 t thorium Fluoride reactor converts Th-232 to U-233 and burns it. 1 t fission products In 10 yrs, 83% FP stable. 17% FP stored ~300 years. .0001 t Pu Aim High! Mine < 1% of the ore; bury < 1% of the waste.
  89. 89. Atomic physicist Edward Teller promoted the LFTR to the last month of his life. http://www.geocities.com/rmoir2003/moir_teller.pdf
  90. 90. Energy cheaper than from coal is critical.
  91. 91. Energy cheaper than from coal is critical. Copenhagen failed.
  92. 92. Energy cheaper than from coal is critical. Copenhagen failed. Coal costs $40 a ton – $0.02 / kWh just for the coal.
  93. 93. Aim High! Cost-engineer to < $2/watt capital and < 3¢ / kWh electricity cost. Fluoride-cooled reactor with gas turbine power conversion system
  94. 94. Aim High! Cost-engineer to < $2/watt capital and < 3¢ / kWh electricity cost. <ul><li>All radioactive material at low pressure. </li></ul>Fluoride-cooled reactor with gas turbine power conversion system
  95. 95. Aim High! Cost-engineer to < $2/watt capital and < 3¢ / kWh electricity cost. <ul><li>All radioactive material at low pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>No large containment structure. </li></ul>Fluoride-cooled reactor with gas turbine power conversion system
  96. 96. Aim High! Cost-engineer to < $2/watt capital and < 3¢ / kWh electricity cost. <ul><li>All radioactive material at low pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>No large containment structure. </li></ul>Fluoride-cooled reactor with gas turbine power conversion system
  97. 97. Aim High! Cost-engineer to < $2/watt capital and < 3¢ / kWh electricity cost. <ul><li>All radioactive material at low pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>No large containment structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Negative temperature reactivity and intrinsic load following. </li></ul>Fluoride-cooled reactor with gas turbine power conversion system
  98. 98. Aim High! Cost-engineer to < $2/watt capital and < 3¢ / kWh electricity cost. <ul><li>All radioactive material at low pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>No large containment structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Negative temperature reactivity and intrinsic load following. </li></ul><ul><li>Simple inherent safety. </li></ul>Fluoride-cooled reactor with gas turbine power conversion system
  99. 99. Aim High! Cost-engineer to < $2/watt capital and < 3¢ / kWh electricity cost. <ul><li>All radioactive material at low pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>No large containment structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Negative temperature reactivity and intrinsic load following. </li></ul><ul><li>Simple inherent safety. </li></ul><ul><li>Factory production.. </li></ul>Fluoride-cooled reactor with gas turbine power conversion system
  100. 100. Aim High! Cost-engineer to < $2/watt capital and < 3¢ / kWh electricity cost. <ul><li>All radioactive material at low pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>No large containment structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Negative temperature reactivity and intrinsic load following. </li></ul><ul><li>Simple inherent safety. </li></ul><ul><li>Factory production. </li></ul><ul><li>Cheap thorium fuel in liquid. </li></ul>Fluoride-cooled reactor with gas turbine power conversion system
  101. 101. Aim High! Cost-engineer to < $2/watt capital and < 3¢ / kWh electricity cost. <ul><li>All radioactive material at low pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>No large containment structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Negative temperature reactivity and intrinsic load following. </li></ul><ul><li>Simple inherent safety. </li></ul><ul><li>Factory production. </li></ul><ul><li>Cheap thorium fuel in liquid. </li></ul>Fluoride-cooled reactor with gas turbine power conversion system Maintain the cost objective in all design decisions.
  102. 102. The median of five cost estimates for molten salt reactors is < $2/watt. Estimate Year $/watt 2009 $/watt Sargent & Lundy 1962 0.650 4.64 Sargent & Lundy ORNL TM-1060 1965 0.148 1.01 ORNL-3996 1966 0.243 1.62 Engel et al, ORNL TM7207 1978 0.653 2.16 Moir 2000 1.580 1.98
  103. 103. High thermal energy efficiencies keep LFTR compact at low cost. High thermal capacity heat exchange fluid Carbon composite high temperature heat exchanger
  104. 104. LFTR needs no costly 160-atmosphere pressure vessel and containment dome. GE-Hitachi ABWR 1,356 MW 36 x 29 meter containment 1,000 ton crawler cranes
  105. 105. The Westinghouse AP-1000 is massively larger than LFTR. 1.4 m Samen, China Jan 2010
  106. 106. The Westinghouse AP-1000 is massively larger than LFTR. 1.4 m 1.4 m Samen, China Jan 2010
  107. 107. Compact closed cycle Brayton turbine raises power conversion efficiency. Halving rejected heat enables air cooling.
  108. 108. Boeing factories produce a $200 million aircraft every day.
  109. 109. The learning curve reduces costs. 10% learning ratio
  110. 110. Aim High! Electricity cheaper than from coal. http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601080&refer=asia&sid=aV_2FPlVxISE 100 MW LFTR $ Cost $ per mo, 40 yrs, 8% $ per KWH @ 90% Construction 200,000,000 1,390,600 0.0214
  111. 111. Aim High! Electricity cheaper than from coal. http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601080&refer=asia&sid=aV_2FPlVxISE 100 MW LFTR $ Cost $ per mo, 40 yrs, 8% $ per KWH @ 90% Construction 200,000,000 1,390,600 0.0214 100 kg U startup 1,000,000 6,953 0.000108 Thorium fuel 30,000/yr 2500 0.00000386
  112. 112. Aim High! Electricity cheaper than from coal. http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601080&refer=asia&sid=aV_2FPlVxISE 100 MW LFTR $ Cost $ per mo, 40 yrs, 8% $ per KWH @ 90% Construction 200,000,000 1,390,600 0.0214 100 kg U startup 1,000,000 6,953 0.000108 Thorium fuel 30,000/yr 2500 0.00000386 Decomm (½ const) 100,000,000 960 0.00000148 Operations 1,000,000/yr 83,333 0.00128 TOTAL 0.0228
  113. 113. Aim High! Check global warming. http://www.eia.doe.gov/pub/international/iealf/table63.xls Install one 100 MW LFTR each day, worldwide, to replace all coal power. 2020 2058 10 billion tons CO 2 Annual emissions from world coal power plants  1400 GWY
  114. 114. Aim High! Synthesize vehicle fuel. http://wwwtest.iri.tudelft.nl/~klooster/reports/hydro_slides_2003.pdf Dissociate water at 900 o C to make hydrogen, with sulfur-iodine process. CO 2 + 3 H 2  CH 3 OH + H 2 O Methanol for gasoline Dimethyl ether for diesel Ammonia
  115. 115. Aim High! Cut US oil imports. http://www.eia.doe.gov/pub/international/iealf/table63.xls Dissociate H 2 and synthesize fuel (50% x 50% efficiency). Standard LFTR makes 250,000 bbl/year. Install one LFTR each week. 2020 4.9 billion bbl Annual US oil imports for gasoline
  116. 116. Aim High! Cut US oil imports. http://www.eia.doe.gov/pub/international/iealf/table63.xls Dissociate H 2 and synthesize fuel (50% x 50% efficiency). Standard LFTR makes 250,000 bbl/year. Install one LFTR each week. 2020 2100 4.9 billion bbl Annual US oil imports for gasoline 3.9 billion bbl
  117. 117. Electric cars help cut oil imports. Chevy Volt recharges with 8 kWh for 40 miles. A 100 MW LFTR can power 300,000 cars. 2020 4.9 billion bbl Annual US oil imports for gasoline http://www.boeing.com/commercial/gallery/787/index1.html http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3112/2654553896_fe93088b30_o.jpg 2.6 billion bbl
  118. 118. Electric cars help cut oil imports. Chevy Volt recharges with 8 kWh for 40 miles. A 100 MW LFTR can power 300,000 cars. 2020 4.9 billion bbl Annual US oil imports for gasoline http://www.boeing.com/commercial/gallery/787/index1.html http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3112/2654553896_fe93088b30_o.jpg 2.6 billion bbl
  119. 119. Electric cars help cut oil imports. Chevy Volt recharges with 8 kWh for 40 miles. A 100 MW LFTR can power 300,000 cars. Install one LFTR each week until half the 125,000,000, 20-mpg fleet is replaced. 2020 4.9 billion bbl Annual US oil imports for gasoline http://www.boeing.com/commercial/gallery/787/index1.html http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3112/2654553896_fe93088b30_o.jpg 2.6 billion bbl
  120. 120. Electric cars help cut oil imports. Chevy Volt recharges with 8 kWh for 40 miles. A 100 MW LFTR can power 300,000 cars. Install one LFTR each week until half the 125,000,000, 20-mpg fleet is replaced. 2020 2024 4.9 billion bbl Annual US oil imports for gasoline http://www.boeing.com/commercial/gallery/787/index1.html http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3112/2654553896_fe93088b30_o.jpg 2.6 billion bbl
  121. 121. Electric cars help cut oil imports. Chevy Volt recharges with 8 kWh for 40 miles. A 100 MW LFTR can power 300,000 cars. Install one LFTR each week until half the 125,000,000, 20-mpg fleet is replaced. 2020 2024 4.9 billion bbl Annual US oil imports for gasoline http://www.boeing.com/commercial/gallery/787/index1.html http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3112/2654553896_fe93088b30_o.jpg Best use of petroleum fuel is for airplanes. 2.6 billion bbl
  122. 122. Lemhi Pass has enough thorium to power the US for millennia. http://www.thoriumenergy.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=17&Itemid=33 Thorium Energy, Inc. claims 1,800,000 tons of high-grade thorium ore. http://www.energyfromthorium.com/ppt/ThoriumBriefSep2008.ppt
  123. 123. Lemhi Pass has enough thorium to power the US for millennia. http://www.thoriumenergy.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=17&Itemid=33 Thorium Energy, Inc. claims 1,800,000 tons of high-grade thorium ore. 500 tons of thorium can supply all US electricity needs for one year. http://www.energyfromthorium.com/ppt/ThoriumBriefSep2008.ppt
  124. 124. Lemhi Pass has enough thorium to power the US for millennia. http://www.thoriumenergy.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=17&Itemid=33 Thorium Energy, Inc. claims 1,800,000 tons of high-grade thorium ore. 500 tons of thorium can supply all US electricity needs for one year. The US has 3,200 tons stored in the Nevada desert. http://www.energyfromthorium.com/ppt/ThoriumBriefSep2008.ppt
  125. 125. Aim High! Build a prototype LFTR in 5 years. 2010 2015 2020 Develop Scale up Produce $ 1 B $ 5 B $ 70 B per year industry Commercialize One LFTR per day Export
  126. 126. The International Generation IV Forum estimates $990 million for R&D. http://nuclear.inl.gov/gen4/msr.shtml
  127. 127. Aim High! Build a prototype LFTR in 5 years. 2010 2015 2020 Develop Scale up Produce $ 1 B $ 5 B $ 70 B per year industry Commercialize One LFTR per day Export Rickover's Shippingport was built in 32 months . Weinberg-engineered Oak Ridge X-10 was built in 9 months .
  128. 128. Aim High! Results and benefits. <ul><li>A new energy source that </li></ul><ul><li>produces electricity cheaper than from coal, </li></ul>< 3¢ / kWh
  129. 129. Aim High! Results and benefits. <ul><li>A new energy source that </li></ul><ul><li>produces electricity cheaper than from coal, </li></ul><ul><li>synthesizes vehicle fuel , </li></ul>1 billion bbl/yr
  130. 130. Aim High! Results and benefits. <ul><li>A new energy source that </li></ul><ul><li>produces electricity cheaper than from coal, </li></ul><ul><li>synthesizes vehicle fuel , </li></ul><ul><li>is inexhaustibl e , </li></ul>1,800,000 t thorium
  131. 131. Aim High! Results and benefits. <ul><li>A new energy source that </li></ul><ul><li>produces electricity cheaper than from coal, </li></ul><ul><li>synthesizes vehicle fuel , </li></ul><ul><li>is inexhaustibl e , </li></ul><ul><li>reduces waste </li></ul>
  132. 132. Aim High! Results and benefits. <ul><li>A new energy source that </li></ul><ul><li>produces electricity cheaper than from coal, </li></ul><ul><li>synthesizes vehicle fuel , </li></ul><ul><li>is inexhaustibl e , </li></ul><ul><li>reduces waste , and </li></ul><ul><li>is affordable to developing nations. </li></ul>
  133. 133. Aim High! Results and benefits. <ul><li>A new energy source that </li></ul><ul><li>produces electricity cheaper than from coal, </li></ul><ul><li>synthesizes vehicle fuel , </li></ul><ul><li>is inexhaustibl e , </li></ul><ul><li>reduces waste , and </li></ul><ul><li>is affordable to developing nations. </li></ul><ul><li>and </li></ul><ul><li>Checks global warming. </li></ul><ul><li>Enables worldwide prosperity and population stability. </li></ul>
  134. 134. Thank you. Aim High! Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactors Energy cheaper than from coal.

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