Not all built at once. After first forts new ones added in between. Determined from different width of walls and different height.
Annex – Some contain bath house and some show evidence of industrial activity.
Conjecture that the expansions were used for signal beacons.
4652 pacesLegions occupied some forts but others occupied by auxilia – not all known.
This Roman distance slab of the Second Legion was found at Carleith Farm, about a mile west of Duntocher Roman Fort, Strathclyde Region, Scotland, and was picked by Kevin Grant, postgraduate student at the University of Glasgow (Archaeology). Kevin writes - Stone inscriptions like this one have been found in several places along the Antonine wall. They were erected by the Legions who constructed the wall to commemorate and celebrate the completion of a section of it. A translation of the inscription is a simple example of this - "For the Emperor Antoninus Augustus Pius, father of his country, the Second Augustan Legion completed 3271 feet [of the wall]". This one was found at or near Duntocher fort just to the West of Glasgow. The stone is decorated with two images of a winged horse - the symbol of the second legion. It is important to note that this stone was found some time before 1699, which is very early for a Roman find of this type
CarryingBritisharmsBritanniaCharles II Peace at Breda with Dutch 1667
8. F2011 Antonine wall and Scotland
Roman Scotland – Again, and Again Antonine Wall Severus Division of Britannia
AntoninusAntoninus never willing made war PausaniasThey prefer to preserve their empire rather thanextend it indefinitely to profitless, barbarianpeoples Appian (~96-165)They surround the empire with a circle of greatcamps Aelius Aristides (120-189)
Antoninus Pius• Generally shied away from military adventure• Pressure from the north• Reconstruction of base at Corbridge• Victory over barbarians• Antonine Wall
Elements of the Antonine Wall• Rampart• Ditch and mound to the north• Military road to the south
Antonine vs Hadrian Walls• Forts interspersed with smaller stations.• No Vallum.• Double the number of troops along smaller distance than Hadrians Wall• Turf not stone – stone reinforcement• 14-16’ wide, probably 10’ high
Consequences of Antonine Wall• Forces involved ~6-7,000• Pax Romana• No evidence for native rule• Increased use of stone construction• New civilian communities follow the army• Increased mining for iron and surface mining of coal• Production of food for army
Continuation of Native Life• Round houses• No new concentrated settlements except near forts• Natives reuse bronze but not iron from Romans• Roman brooches
Roman Artefacts WigtownshireDunure (South Ayrshire)
Antonine Itinerary• Fourteen numbered roads• List stations along the roads with distances between them
Example Iter III (From London to the port of Dover)Roman Name 1000 paces Miles Current NameDurobrivis xxvii 31 RochesterDuroverno xxv 28 CanterburyAd portum Dubris xiiii 18 Dover
Along the Way• Mansiones, inns, every 30 miles or so – A bed for man and horse – Food ” “ – A hot bath – Storage of government goods – Postal and police services• Mutationes, changing stops
Abandonment of Antonine Wall• Under Governor Julius Verus the wall was abandoned (c. 154-8 CE)• Hadrian’s wall was refurbished• “Military Road” to supply Hadrian wall forts• Outpost forts north of Hadrian’s Wall abandoned by 185 CE
Pertinax• 126 Son of freeman and clothmaker• c. 150 Teacher of literature• 161 Volunteers for military, commander of auxiliary cohort, successful in battles in Asia• 165 Legionary tribune in York, raised to equestrian rank• 168 Procurator in N. Italy, Dacia• Commander of units against Germans
Pertinax• Made Senator and legionary commander• 175 Consul• 176 Series of governorships of provinces – 185-187 Governor of Britain• 189 Mayor of Rome• 192 Consul• Emperor 1/1/193 to 3/28/193
Clodius Albinus• c.140 Born near Carthage, Senatorial rank – 175 Governor of Bithynia – 187 Consul – 189 Governor fo Germany• 191-2 Governor of Britain• 193 Made Caesar by Septimius Severus• 195 Severus names his own sons successors, forcing out Albinus – Supported by legions on German frontier and from Spain – Defeated near Lugdunum (Lyon); suicide?
Lugdunum - SeverusSeverus Albinus• Pannonia • Britannia – XIIII Gemina – II Augusta – VI Victrix• Moesia – XX Valeria – XI Claudia• Germania Superior • Hispania – VII Gemina – XXII Primigenia• Germania Inferior – I Minerva – XXX Ulpia Traiana