8. F2011 Antonine wall and Scotland


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Antonine Wall

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  • Britannia dejected head on hand ~155
  • Not all built at once. After first forts new ones added in between. Determined from different width of walls and different height.
  • Annex – Some contain bath house and some show evidence of industrial activity.
  • Conjecture that the expansions were used for signal beacons.
  • 4652 pacesLegions occupied some forts but others occupied by auxilia – not all known.
  • RIB2208
  • This Roman distance slab of the Second Legion was found at Carleith Farm, about a mile west of Duntocher Roman Fort, Strathclyde Region, Scotland, and was picked by Kevin Grant, postgraduate student at the University of Glasgow (Archaeology). Kevin writes - Stone inscriptions like this one have been found in several places along the Antonine wall. They were erected by the Legions who constructed the wall to commemorate and celebrate the completion of a section of it. A translation of the inscription is a simple example of this - "For the Emperor Antoninus Augustus Pius, father of his country, the Second Augustan Legion completed 3271 feet [of the wall]". This one was found at or near Duntocher fort just to the West of Glasgow. The stone is decorated with two images of a winged horse - the symbol of the second legion. It is important to note that this stone was found some time before 1699, which is very early for a Roman find of this type
  • CarryingBritisharmsBritanniaCharles II Peace at Breda with Dutch 1667
  • 8. F2011 Antonine wall and Scotland

    1. 1. Roman Scotland – Again, and Again Antonine Wall Severus Division of Britannia
    2. 2. Hadrian’s Successors
    3. 3. AntoninusAntoninus never willing made war PausaniasThey prefer to preserve their empire rather thanextend it indefinitely to profitless, barbarianpeoples Appian (~96-165)They surround the empire with a circle of greatcamps Aelius Aristides (120-189)
    4. 4. Antoninus Pius• Generally shied away from military adventure• Pressure from the north• Reconstruction of base at Corbridge• Victory over barbarians• Antonine Wall
    5. 5. Corbridge – New Construction 139
    6. 6. AntonineOccupation of Scotland
    7. 7. Military Occupation – Antonine Period
    8. 8. Interests of the Military• Rank and file – pensions and booty• Commanders of equestrian class – Patronage – Better posts in the Mediterranean
    9. 9. Reuse of Gask Ridge Forts
    10. 10. Elements of the Antonine Wall• Rampart• Ditch and mound to the north• Military road to the south
    11. 11. Antonine vs Hadrian Walls• Forts interspersed with smaller stations.• No Vallum.• Double the number of troops along smaller distance than Hadrians Wall• Turf not stone – stone reinforcement• 14-16’ wide, probably 10’ high
    12. 12. Antonine Siege Fort
    13. 13. Wall at Rough Castle Annex
    14. 14. Rough Castle
    15. 15. Principia, Bar Hill
    16. 16. Latrine, BearsdenArtist’s reconstruction
    17. 17. Wall with Fortlet
    18. 18. Distance Slabs
    19. 19. Bridgeness Distance Slab
    20. 20. Old Kirkpatrick
    21. 21. Summerston Farm, near Balmuildy IIIDCLXVIS = 3,666 ½ paces
    22. 22. Distance Slab Hutcheson Hill
    23. 23. Legio II Duntocher
    24. 24. Other victorycommemorations
    25. 25. Consequences of Antonine Wall• Forces involved ~6-7,000• Pax Romana• No evidence for native rule• Increased use of stone construction• New civilian communities follow the army• Increased mining for iron and surface mining of coal• Production of food for army
    26. 26. Continuation of Native Life• Round houses• No new concentrated settlements except near forts• Natives reuse bronze but not iron from Romans• Roman brooches
    27. 27. Roman Artefacts WigtownshireDunure (South Ayrshire)
    28. 28. Antonine Itinerary• Fourteen numbered roads• List stations along the roads with distances between them
    29. 29. Example Iter III (From London to the port of Dover)Roman Name 1000 paces Miles Current NameDurobrivis xxvii 31 RochesterDuroverno xxv 28 CanterburyAd portum Dubris xiiii 18 Dover
    30. 30. Along the Way• Mansiones, inns, every 30 miles or so – A bed for man and horse – Food ” “ – A hot bath – Storage of government goods – Postal and police services• Mutationes, changing stops
    31. 31. Chelmsford Mansio
    32. 32. Godmanchester Mansio Dining Baths room 80’
    33. 33. Abandonment of Antonine Wall• Under Governor Julius Verus the wall was abandoned (c. 154-8 CE)• Hadrian’s wall was refurbished• “Military Road” to supply Hadrian wall forts• Outpost forts north of Hadrian’s Wall abandoned by 185 CE
    34. 34. Maintenance
    35. 35. Breach of Hadrian’s Wall?
    36. 36. Victory in Britain
    37. 37. Commodus• Breach of Hadrians Wall• C. 180 Governor Ulpius Marcellus sent to put down rebellions• 184-5 Victory in Britain• 185 Protest by British legions against prefect, Perennis
    38. 38. Numeri• Non-citizens• Small units• Legionary officers• Identified with nations• No entitlement to citizenship• Less-well armed than regulars – Exploratores - scouts
    39. 39. Sarmatians• 175 Brought to Britain by Marcus Aurelius• Brougham cemetery – Sword and belt fittings – Horses – Unusual burial - womenArchaeology • May/June 2005
    40. 40. Sarmatian Treasure - Gaul
    41. 41. Pertinax• 126 Son of freeman and clothmaker• c. 150 Teacher of literature• 161 Volunteers for military, commander of auxiliary cohort, successful in battles in Asia• 165 Legionary tribune in York, raised to equestrian rank• 168 Procurator in N. Italy, Dacia• Commander of units against Germans
    42. 42. Pertinax• Made Senator and legionary commander• 175 Consul• 176 Series of governorships of provinces – 185-187 Governor of Britain• 189 Mayor of Rome• 192 Consul• Emperor 1/1/193 to 3/28/193
    43. 43. Clodius Albinus• c.140 Born near Carthage, Senatorial rank – 175 Governor of Bithynia – 187 Consul – 189 Governor fo Germany• 191-2 Governor of Britain• 193 Made Caesar by Septimius Severus• 195 Severus names his own sons successors, forcing out Albinus – Supported by legions on German frontier and from Spain – Defeated near Lugdunum (Lyon); suicide?
    44. 44. Lugdunum - SeverusSeverus Albinus• Pannonia • Britannia – XIIII Gemina – II Augusta – VI Victrix• Moesia – XX Valeria – XI Claudia• Germania Superior • Hispania – VII Gemina – XXII Primigenia• Germania Inferior – I Minerva – XXX Ulpia Traiana