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Literature and Language            12th Century            Courtly Love           Popular ReligionRevival of the Celtic He...
Literature - Poetry French influenced – decline of A-S Didactic (religious) (13th C.) Romance    Matter of Britain; ma...
He had castles built                                      and poor men terribly                                      oppre...
Anglo-Saxon ChronicleFeature                     1121-1131   1132-1154Nominative pronoun                28%         36%Nom...
Is ðeos burch                 Known throughout Britain, this noblebreome     geond              cityBreotenrice,          ...
Ich was in one sumere dale,   I was in a valley in springtime;in one suþe diȝele hale,      in a very secluded corner,iher...
The Owl and the Nightingale last of 1794                  linesMid þisse worde forþ hi ferden,   With these words they set...
The Lyric Express emotions    Seasons    Romantic love    “Mirie it is while sumer ilast” and “Sumer is icumen in”    ...
Creators and performersTrobador (obj.), trobaire(nom.) Occitan from trobar, tocompose (a poem)Trouvère FrenchJongleur (Fre...
Chrétien De Troyes (Manuscript 1450), early 13th C.
Chrétien De Troyes (Manuscript 794), early 13th C.
Mss of troubadorsongs, 1301-25
Damors qui ma tolu a moi, - Chrétien De                TroyesDAmors qui ma tolu a moi      Of Love, who has taken me      ...
Damors qui ma tolu a moi, - Chrétien               De Troyes                                Yet I cannot keep myselfEt si ...
Early English music Rota (round) 13th century Votive antiphon    Texts honoring Virgin Mary but not part of Church serv...
 Adapted from a translation by Richard Axton and John  Stevens Longman Anthology of World Literature  Volume B The Mediev...
Cast – Class membersChorus/Figura (God) –Adam –Eve –Satan (Diabolus) –
Poiteirs, Notre Dame Grande
Content Order for the Representation of Adam ( Ordo  representacionis Ade )    Single manuscript; near contemporary tran...
Beginning of Latin litany “And the Lord God                formed . . .
Structure Props and costumes Adam and Eve Abel and Cain Procession of Prophets
7. S2013 Literature & language of the 12th century   courtly love
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7. S2013 Literature & language of the 12th century courtly love

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Literature of England and northern France in the 12th century. Primarily the literature in Anglo-Norman. The play Jeu d'Adam and the poetry and music of courtly love.

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7. S2013 Literature & language of the 12th century courtly love

  1. 1. Literature and Language 12th Century Courtly Love Popular ReligionRevival of the Celtic Hero – King Arthur
  2. 2. Literature - Poetry French influenced – decline of A-S Didactic (religious) (13th C.) Romance  Matter of Britain; matter of Troy; Breton lai Lyric
  3. 3. He had castles built and poor men terribly oppressed, The king was very severe, and he took from his underlings many marks of gold and hundreds of pounds of silver. Rime of King William, 1087Alliteration from A-S tradition and rhymed couplets from French tradition
  4. 4. Anglo-Saxon ChronicleFeature 1121-1131 1132-1154Nominative pronoun 28% 36%Nominative noun 28% 7%Direct object/ Accusative 9% 0pronounDirect object/Accusative 17% 0nounDirect object/Dative 10% 23%pronounWord order SV, SVO, SVC, and SVIOGender Natural gender
  5. 5. Is ðeos burch Known throughout Britain, this noblebreome geond cityBreotenrice, Its steep slopes and stone buildingssteppa gestaðolad, stanasymbutan are thought a wonder; weirs containwundrum gewæxen. Weor its fast river; fish of all kindsymbeornad, thrive here in the thrusting waters.ea yðum stronge,and ðer inne wunaðfeola fisca kynon floda gemonge. Durham (before 1109, considered last traditional A-S poem) Lines divided into two parts with alliteration, beats but no rhyme .
  6. 6. Ich was in one sumere dale, I was in a valley in springtime;in one suþe diȝele hale, in a very secluded corner,iherde ich holde grete tale I heard an owl and a nightingale holding a greatan hule and one niȝtingale. debate. The Owl and the Nightingale, 1189-1216 (debate poem)
  7. 7. The Owl and the Nightingale last of 1794 linesMid þisse worde forþ hi ferden, With these words they set off,al bute here & bute uerde, without any kind of army,to Portesham þat heo bicome. till they came to Portesham;Ah hu heo spedde of heore but I cant tell you any moredome, about how they succeeded with their judgement.ne [c]an ich eu namore telle: Thats all, folks!her nis namore of þis spelle.
  8. 8. The Lyric Express emotions  Seasons  Romantic love  “Mirie it is while sumer ilast” and “Sumer is icumen in” (early 13th C.) Religious  Sorrows and joys of Christ and Mary  Apply language of love poetry to religious setting Often set to music
  9. 9. Creators and performersTrobador (obj.), trobaire(nom.) Occitan from trobar, tocompose (a poem)Trouvère FrenchJongleur (French) (joglar) Performer (of music, juggling,etc.)Minstrel “Originally (to the end of the 16th cent.): aperson employed by a patron to provide entertainment bysinging, playing music, storytelling, juggling, etc.” [OED]
  10. 10. Chrétien De Troyes (Manuscript 1450), early 13th C.
  11. 11. Chrétien De Troyes (Manuscript 794), early 13th C.
  12. 12. Mss of troubadorsongs, 1301-25
  13. 13. Damors qui ma tolu a moi, - Chrétien De TroyesDAmors qui ma tolu a moi Of Love, who has taken me from myself2 Na soi ne me veut retenir, and who wishes not to retainMe plaing ensi, quades otroi me, I lament in this way:4 Que de moi face son plesir. I grant that from now on she should do with me as she pleases.
  14. 14. Damors qui ma tolu a moi, - Chrétien De Troyes Yet I cannot keep myselfEt si ne me repuis tenir from complaining, and Ill tell6 Que ne men plaigne, et di you why: because I often see those whopor quoi: betray herCar ceus qui la traissent voi achieve their end,8 Souvent a lor joie venir, and I fail because of my good faith.Et gi fail par ma bone foi.
  15. 15. Early English music Rota (round) 13th century Votive antiphon  Texts honoring Virgin Mary but not part of Church service 14th C. Carols 14th C.  Connected with religious festivals  Mystery plays  Processions  Circle dances
  16. 16.  Adapted from a translation by Richard Axton and John Stevens Longman Anthology of World Literature Volume B The Medieval Era, Pearson/Longman 2009
  17. 17. Cast – Class membersChorus/Figura (God) –Adam –Eve –Satan (Diabolus) –
  18. 18. Poiteirs, Notre Dame Grande
  19. 19. Content Order for the Representation of Adam ( Ordo representacionis Ade )  Single manuscript; near contemporary translations Chant from Septuagesima Dramatization for a lay audience  A good French farmer or burgher, his headstrong wife, domineering lord or bishop and good-for-nothing courtier Forerunner of mystery cycles
  20. 20. Beginning of Latin litany “And the Lord God formed . . .
  21. 21. Structure Props and costumes Adam and Eve Abel and Cain Procession of Prophets

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