Scholars now generally believe that this manuscript, known as "E," was written by one scribe at one stretchup to 1121; they believe the scribe then added, at intervals, annals 1122-1131 (the First Continuation). Later, either early in 1155 or not later than 1160, the section dealing with events from 1132 to 1154 (theFinal Continuation) appears to have been added by another scrilb
in springtime: the ME (C) has in one sumere dale. I have followed Stanley (1960), who takes the adj. as a form of sumer rather than of sum '(a) certain'; but the translation should probably be 'spring' rather than 'summer' , as the flowering branch on which the Nightingale sits suggests (ME sumer could cover a period beginning earlier than MnE 'summer'). Wessex Parallel WebTextsSouthhampton U
THE LYRICThe lyric was virtually unknown to Old English poets. Poems such as “Deor” and “Wulf and Eadwacer,” which have been called lyrics, are thematically different from those that began to circulate orally in the 12th century and to be written down in great numbers in the 13th; these Old English poems also have a stronger narrative component than the later productions. The most frequent topics in the Middle English secular lyric are springtime and romantic love; many rework such themes tediously, but some, such as “Foweles in the frith” (13th century) and “Ich am of Irlaunde” (14th century), convey strong emotions in a few lines. Two lyrics of the early 13th century, “Mirie it is while sumerilast” and “Sumer is icumen in,” are preserved with musical settings, and probably most of the others were meant to be sung. The dominant mood of the religious lyrics is passionate: the poets sorrow for Christ on the cross and for the Virgin Mary, celebrate the “five joys” of Mary, and import language from love poetry to express religious devotion. Excellent early examples are “Nougothsonne under wod” and “Stondwel, moder, ounder rode.” Many of the lyrics are preserved in manuscript anthologies, of which the best is British Library manuscript Harley 2253 from the early 14th century. In this collection, known as the Harley Lyrics, the love poems, such as “Alysoun” and “Blow, Northern Wind,” take after the poems of the Provençal troubadours but are less formal, less abstract, and more lively. The religious lyrics also are of high quality; but the most remarkable of the Harley Lyrics, “The Man in the Moon,” far from being about love or religion, imagines the man in the Moon as a simple peasant, sympathizes with his hard life, and offers him some useful advice on how to best the village hayward (a local officer in charge of a town’s common herd of cattle).A poem such as “The Man in the Moon” serves as a reminder that, although the poetry of the early Middle English period was increasingly influenced by the Anglo-Norman literature produced for the courts, it is seldom “courtly.” Most English poets, whether writing about kings or peasants, looked at life from a bourgeois perspective. If their work sometimes lacks sophistication, it nevertheless has a vitality that comes from preoccupation with daily affairs
Les chançons le roi de Navarre [Thibaut, comte de Champagne
Septuagesima (in full, Septuagesima Sunday) is the name for the ninth Sunday before Easter, the third before Ash Wednesday. The new liturgical books created after the Second Vatican Council omit Septuagesima, Sexagesima and Quinquagesima Sundays. The traditional liturgical books, such as the Missal of John XXIII and the Roman Breviary, however, continue to include the Septuagesima season.
I kept the versus but not the responsum.
7. S2013 Literature & language of the 12th century courtly love
Literature and Language 12th Century Courtly Love Popular ReligionRevival of the Celtic Hero – King Arthur
Literature - Poetry French influenced – decline of A-S Didactic (religious) (13th C.) Romance Matter of Britain; matter of Troy; Breton lai Lyric
He had castles built and poor men terribly oppressed, The king was very severe, and he took from his underlings many marks of gold and hundreds of pounds of silver. Rime of King William, 1087Alliteration from A-S tradition and rhymed couplets from French tradition
Is ðeos burch Known throughout Britain, this noblebreome geond cityBreotenrice, Its steep slopes and stone buildingssteppa gestaðolad, stanasymbutan are thought a wonder; weirs containwundrum gewæxen. Weor its fast river; fish of all kindsymbeornad, thrive here in the thrusting waters.ea yðum stronge,and ðer inne wunaðfeola fisca kynon floda gemonge. Durham (before 1109, considered last traditional A-S poem) Lines divided into two parts with alliteration, beats but no rhyme .
Ich was in one sumere dale, I was in a valley in springtime;in one suþe diȝele hale, in a very secluded corner,iherde ich holde grete tale I heard an owl and a nightingale holding a greatan hule and one niȝtingale. debate. The Owl and the Nightingale, 1189-1216 (debate poem)
The Owl and the Nightingale last of 1794 linesMid þisse worde forþ hi ferden, With these words they set off,al bute here & bute uerde, without any kind of army,to Portesham þat heo bicome. till they came to Portesham;Ah hu heo spedde of heore but I cant tell you any moredome, about how they succeeded with their judgement.ne [c]an ich eu namore telle: Thats all, folks!her nis namore of þis spelle.
The Lyric Express emotions Seasons Romantic love “Mirie it is while sumer ilast” and “Sumer is icumen in” (early 13th C.) Religious Sorrows and joys of Christ and Mary Apply language of love poetry to religious setting Often set to music
Creators and performersTrobador (obj.), trobaire(nom.) Occitan from trobar, tocompose (a poem)Trouvère FrenchJongleur (French) (joglar) Performer (of music, juggling,etc.)Minstrel “Originally (to the end of the 16th cent.): aperson employed by a patron to provide entertainment bysinging, playing music, storytelling, juggling, etc.” [OED]
Chrétien De Troyes (Manuscript 1450), early 13th C.
Chrétien De Troyes (Manuscript 794), early 13th C.
Damors qui ma tolu a moi, - Chrétien De TroyesDAmors qui ma tolu a moi Of Love, who has taken me from myself2 Na soi ne me veut retenir, and who wishes not to retainMe plaing ensi, quades otroi me, I lament in this way:4 Que de moi face son plesir. I grant that from now on she should do with me as she pleases.
Damors qui ma tolu a moi, - Chrétien De Troyes Yet I cannot keep myselfEt si ne me repuis tenir from complaining, and Ill tell6 Que ne men plaigne, et di you why: because I often see those whopor quoi: betray herCar ceus qui la traissent voi achieve their end,8 Souvent a lor joie venir, and I fail because of my good faith.Et gi fail par ma bone foi.
Early English music Rota (round) 13th century Votive antiphon Texts honoring Virgin Mary but not part of Church service 14th C. Carols 14th C. Connected with religious festivals Mystery plays Processions Circle dances
Adapted from a translation by Richard Axton and John Stevens Longman Anthology of World Literature Volume B The Medieval Era, Pearson/Longman 2009
Content Order for the Representation of Adam ( Ordo representacionis Ade ) Single manuscript; near contemporary translations Chant from Septuagesima Dramatization for a lay audience A good French farmer or burgher, his headstrong wife, domineering lord or bishop and good-for-nothing courtier Forerunner of mystery cycles
Beginning of Latin litany “And the Lord God formed . . .
Structure Props and costumes Adam and Eve Abel and Cain Procession of Prophets