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7. F2012 Rise of Wessex


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The rise of the house of Wessex following Northumbria and Mercia. The vikings threaten to take all of what will ebcome England.

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7. F2012 Rise of Wessex

  1. 1. The Vikings Plunder then Settle Wessex Before Alfred
  2. 2. Summary: Video – Viking Invasions• Changing fortunes of English kingdoms – Northumbria predominates in 7th century – Mercia expands power in 8th century, particularly under Offa – Mercia declines after death of Offa in 799; Wessex which was previously disorganized consolidated by Ecgbehrt (Egbert), his son, Aethelwulf and grandson, Alfred
  3. 3. Summary: Video – Viking Invasions790s: Scattershot raids on monasteries andchurches840s: Larger invading fleets850s: Fleets no longer return to homelands butoverwinter and resume raids the following spring865: Great Army raids London and YorkCaptures territory in all kingdoms but WessexDanelaw – territory of Danes
  4. 4. Heptarchy• Expansion by moving against British• Consolidation by subjugation of less powerful members• Some notes on religion and children
  5. 5. Battle for Chester 613• Æthelfrith, unites Northumbria• Britons (kingdom of Powys) supported by monks of Bangor• Victory for Northumbria – “1,200 monks won the crown of martyrdom”
  6. 6. Mercia – Northern and western borders
  7. 7. Casualties, Mass grave at Heronbridge• Warrior 1 – Age 36-45 – Spinal damage from heavy lifting – Four healed depression fractures – Hand injury – Three sword blows to the head• Warrior 2 – 18-25 – Five head wounds
  8. 8. Laws of Ine – Keeping the Sabbath• If a slave works on Sunday by his lords command, he shall become free, and the lord shall pay a fine of 30 shillings.• If, however, the slave works without the cognisance of his master, he shall undergo the lash or pay the fine in lieu thereof.• If, however, a freeman works on that day, except by his lords command, he shall be reduced to slavery, or [pay a fine of] 60 shillings. A priest shall pay a double fine.
  9. 9. Laws of Ine (~690) - Children• Child of 10 may be accessory to theft (later raised to age 12)• Money given for maintenance of foundlings• No compensation given a man for an illegitimate child he has not acknowledged
  10. 10. Heptarchy• Three major powers: Northumbria, Mercia and later Wessex• New mark of prestige – coinage• New instrument for trade - coinage
  11. 11. Gold tremissis (shilling) of Eadbald of Kent, ~630
  12. 12. Thrymsa, 650-670
  13. 13. Sceatta (or pening)
  14. 14. Offa and the World Beyond
  15. 15. Cynethryth, Queen of Mercia
  16. 16. Mercia vs. Wessex
  17. 17. Wessex Dynasty Ecgberht (802-839) Æthelwulf (839-858)Æthelbald Æthelberht Æthelred Alfred(858-860) (858-865) (865-871) (871-899)
  18. 18. Wessex Rises• Before Ecgberht, weak and disputed kingship• Ecgberht from Kent• 805-7 Kent and Sussex under Wessex control• 825 Battle of Ellendun (Wroughton)• 839 Anoints his son, Æthelwulf
  19. 19. Beginning of Riseof Wessex
  20. 20. Ecgbehrt
  21. 21. Æthelwulf• 838 Overlord of Kent• 853 In charge of Mercia• Base at Winchester• 856 marries Judith, daughter of Charles the Bold
  22. 22. Æthelwulf (839-856)• 840 Battle with Vikings at Carhampton• 848 Alfred born• 850 Æthelstan drives off Vikings at Sandwich, Kent• 854 Daughter marries Burgred, King of Mercia
  23. 23. Æthelwulf Royal Rings Æthelswith
  24. 24. Aethelwulf’s sons• 856 Aethelwulf goes to Rome – Æthelbald West Saxons – Æthelberht Kent• 858 Aethelwulf dies• ~858 Æthelbald m. Judith• 871 Æthelred I killed in battle w. Vikings
  25. 25. Saxon Winchester