2 Ghana Empire Su2014

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Complex civilization in the Sahel and the gold trade.

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  • I think you should add the references for the images youre using. The map in slide 8 as the slides 10 and 11 are my own graphics taken from my article "Fils à double tête...in: "Money in Africa". Thanks for any correct and proper citation. The best is to read the article in its totality ! Laurence Garenne-Marot
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  • Shillington, Kevin. History of Africa, 3rd edition New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012 (the standard general work on African history) Austen, Ralph A. Trans-Saharan Africa in world history New York: Oxford University Press, 2010 Phillipson, D. W. African archaeology Cambridge, UK ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 2005 Connah, Graham. African civilizations: an archaeological perspective Cambridge, U.K. ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 2001 Insoll, Timothy. The Archaeology of Islam in Sub-Saharan Africa. Cambridge, U.K: Cambridge University Press, 2003 Chu, Daniel, and Elliott Skinner. A glorious age in Africa. Zenith Books, 1965 and later editions (intended for a youth audience) Mauny, Raymond A. "The question of Ghana." Africa 24.03 (1954): 200-213. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1156424 . Holl, Augustin. "Background to the Ghana Empire: archaeological investigations on the transition to statehood in the Dhar Tichitt region (Mauritania)." Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 4.2 (1985): 73-115. Fage, John D. "Ancient Ghana: a review of the evidence." Transactions of the Historical Society of Ghana (1957): 3-24. Munson, Patrick J. "Archaeology and the prehistoric origins of the Ghana Empire." The Journal of African History 21.04 (1980): 457-466. Conrad, David C., and Humphrey J. Fisher. "The conquest that never was: Ghana and the Almoravids, 1076. II. The local oral sources." History in Africa10 (1983): 53-78. MacDonald, Kevin, et al. "10. New Light on the Tichitt Tradition: A preliminary report on survey and excavation at Dhar Nema." (2003). http://www.homepages.ucl.ac.uk/~tcrndfu/articles/McDonaldVernetFullerWoodhouse.pdf Robert, Denise. "Les fouilles de Tegdaoust." Journal of African History 11.4 (1970): 471-493. http://www.jstor.org/stable/180917 . McCALL, DANIEL F. "The traditions of the founding of Sijilmassa and Ghana."Transactions of the Historical Society of Ghana (1961): 3-32. http://www.jstor.org/stable/41405735 . McIntosh, Susan Keech, and Roderick J. McIntosh. "Recent archaeological research and dates from West Africa." The Journal of African History 27.03 (1986): 413-442. http://www.jstor.org/stable/181410
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  • Do you have scholarly citations for this or did you use non scholarly sources?
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  • McIntosh, Susan Keech, and Roderick J. McIntosh. "Recent archaeological research and dates from West Africa." The Journal of African History 27.03 (1986): 413-442. http://www.jstor.org/stable/181410
    Excavations early in this century at El Oualedji and Killi tumuli revealed wooden burial chambers with rich grave goods and probable human sacrifices, closely reminiscent of the burial ritual for the pagan king of the Ghana Empire described by al-Bakri in io68

    Al Bakri description – these tombs were lovcated in scared groves whee only priests were allowed.

    When their king dies they construct over the place where his tomb will be an enormous dome of saj wood. Then they bring him on a bed covered with a few carpets and cushions and place him inside the dome. At his side they place his ornaments, his weapons, and the vessels from which he used to eat and drink, filled with various kinds of food and beverages. They place there too the men who used to serve his meals. They close the door of the dome and cover it with mats and furnishings. Then the people assemble, who heap earth upon it until it becomes like a big hillock and dig a ditch around it until the mound can be reached at only one place.

  • Killi, bird figurine copper based (brass made to look like gold een though gold was available.
    Vfith 27-31% zinc, the final colour of the animal figurines
    has a golden lint very close to that of true gold (Fig. 9)? The
    tumulus of Koi Gourrey dates to a peak time in the exploita-
    tion of the gold deposits of upper Senegal and Niger rivers
    (beginning around the end of the 13th century). This was also
    the time for Munde traders (Mali empire traders) to search
    for new gold supplies, going as far south as modern Ghana
    and the east Ivory Coast in their quest. Why then were these
    figurines made of an alloy that imitates gold and not simply
    made of gold?

    The texts written by Arabic geographers and travellers at
    the time of ancient Mali give us some clues. They stress two
    things. First, the Muslim rulers of the Mali Empire of the
    13th—14th century AD were tolerant of the pagan state of
    peoples in their empire. In son1e cases, moreover, they seem
    to have been more than just tolerant — they were eager to have them maintained in this pagan state. These were populations
    living close to the gold mines and involved in gold mining.“
    Secondly, these populations were mining gold in order to
    obtain salt, but they were also more than willing to exchange
    gold for another metal, copper. To acquire this copper, the
    pagan natives accepted a totally unfair exchange rate: up to
    2/3 of its weight in gold5 whereas, at the same lime, among the
    Mali elite, this same copper had little value.‘


  • Monumnetal grave with multiple bodies
  • Fatimid coin Tripoli 1072-3. Analysis of Fatamid and Almoravid coins are consistent with being made from West African gold. Earlier coins were made from melted Byzantine and Visigothic coins.
  • 1-14 : perles de verre ; 15-23 : céramiques d’Afrique du Nord et d’Asie ; 24 : fragment de verre ; 25 : textile (soie) ; 26 : cauri ; 27 : agate brut ; 28-30 : perles de pierre semi-précieuse ; 31-32 : objets en cuivre.
  • 2 Ghana Empire Su2014

    1. 1. Empire of Ghana
    2. 2. Ghana
    3. 3. Ghana? Ghana (Arabic) = Wagadu (Soninke)?? Leaders: ghana (Arabic) or manga, magha, or kayamaga (Soninke) Sources Al-Bakri ~1067 Timbuktu chronicles Oral histories collected in the late 19th century
    4. 4. Other Kingdoms and Trade
    5. 5. Dhar Tichitt Region • Lakes • Rainwater collected at the foot of cliffs • Rainwater or rising water table between dunes • Stream fed
    6. 6. Growthofsettlement 2000–400BCE
    7. 7. Features • Domesticated bulrush millet • No evidence of irrigation
    8. 8. Trade Routes & metal resources 11th and 12th C. CE
    9. 9. ‘Fil à double tête” Garenne-Marot, Laurence. "‘Fils à double tête’and Copper-based Ingots: Copper Money-objects at the Time of the Sahelian Empires of Ancient Ghana and Mali." Money in Africa 171 (2009): 11.
    10. 10. Transport of copper
    11. 11. Working with imported brass and local copper
    12. 12. Tegdaoust (Aoudaghost) Mosque
    13. 13. Settlements • Compounds – Narrow streets and open plazas with a dry-stone wall – Connected with shared walls • Dwelling units – Single hearth: one or many storage areas – Two to nine: extended or polygamous family?
    14. 14. Silent Trade
    15. 15. Koumbi Saleh Mosque
    16. 16. Tumuli • Stone in Sahara 4000 BCE-500 CE • Earthen in dry Savanna late 1st-early 2nd millennium • Rock cut in wooded savannah 1st millennium
    17. 17. El-Oulaledji, early 11th C.
    18. 18. Killi, bird figurine
    19. 19. Stone circles, Senegal
    20. 20. Senegal, Tienke Boussoura
    21. 21. Gold and gold coins
    22. 22. West African Gold Coins • Described as ‘bald’ – Blank or simple design • Single Tadmekka merchant annually sent across the Sahara 16 bags containing 500 dinars each (8000 in total, c. 34kg of gold)
    23. 23. Essouk - Tadmekka
    24. 24. Tadmekka Ruins
    25. 25. Coin mould found at Tadmekka
    26. 26. Moulds with gold
    27. 27. Trade Objects (750-950) glass beads, North African ceramics, glass, silk, cowry, agate, copper

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