13. S2013 Edward i


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Edward I and his legal reforms. Edward I and his conquest of Wales and attempted conquest of Scotland. Changes in military technology.

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13. S2013 Edward i

  1. 1. Edward IEnglish JustinianConquests andAttempted Conquests
  2. 2. It’s all about M.E.Your Uplift and Input
  3. 3. Edward I (1239-1307)Assessment of the Young PrinceThe pard, a beast of many colors, is very swift, likesblood, and kills with a leap. The adulterous mating of thepard with a lion (leo) produces degenerate offspring, theleopard.Isidore of Seville
  4. 4. Some Themes of Edward’s Reign• Need for Money• Expulsion of the Jews• Conquest of Wales• Conquest of Scotland, uncompleted• Statute Law• Development of Parliament as an Institution
  5. 5. Edward IGenealogyAnglo-SaxonrootsAlexander IIINeolus, AthensScota, daughterof PharaohHeptarchy
  6. 6. Wace Roman de Brut ~1150; Layamon Brut ~1190Tracing the Britons back to Troy
  7. 7. Marriage• 1254 Eleanor of Castile (1241-1290)GlastonburyV&A
  8. 8. 1260 Statute of Arms -Tournaments• And no Knight or Esquire serving at theTournament, shall bear a sword pointed, or Daggerpointed, or Staff or Mace, but only a broad sword fortourneying.• And they who shall come to see the tournament, shallnot be armed with any manner of armor, and shallbear no sword, or dagger, or staff, or mace, or stone,• And no King at Arms or Minstrels shall bear secretarms . . .
  9. 9. The Round Table• Round Tables oftenfoci of tournaments• Participants inArthurian costume• Tree ring dating to~1290• Painted during reignof Henry VIII
  10. 10. 1274 Reforms• Replace most sheriffs• Oath to enforce debts to King– treat rich and poor alike• Local inquests with local juries• Wheels of justice grind slowly• 1275 Hundred Rolls
  11. 11. Statute Law• 1275 Statute of Westminster– Attempt to make courts more efficient– Includes Benefit of Clergy Act; Freedom ofElection Act; Prisoners and Bail Act– Robert Burnell, Chancellor• Move towards tradition of laws made by theKing in Parliament rather than by judges incourts
  12. 12. Edward I inparliament 1274(illustration from ~1524)
  13. 13. Edward on Crusade 1270-1274• Tunisia– Death of St. Louis– Philip agrees to truce• Edward to Acre– Venetians trade withenemy; Infightingamong Christians– Mission to Tabriz -Abaqa (nephew ofKublai)
  14. 14. Later Crusade Diplomacy• Arghun, son of Aqaba• 1285 Mission to Pope• 1288 Missions toPhilip and Edward• 1289 Missions toPhilip and Edward– Positive responses butno implementation• 1290 Mission to Persia
  15. 15. Edward and the Jews• 1273-74 Jews restricted to preexisting locales• 1275 Edward’s mother enters convent;demands removal of Jews from any townsfrom which she derives income• Increased taxes
  16. 16. 1275 Statute of Jewry• … all Jews shall dwell in the King’s own citiesand boroughs• …covenants before made shall be observed, …[but] usuries shall cease• … each Jew … shall wear a badge on his outergarment
  17. 17. Edward and the Jews• Strict enforcement of insignia• Arrests for non-payment of taxes• 280 Jews hung in London for coin-clipping
  18. 18. 1290 Expulsion• Changing Christian religious attitudes(Dominicans and Franciscans)• Indications of continuing usury• Failure to change occupation• Expulsion with much confiscation of propertyMundill, Robin R. Englands Jewish Solution: Experimentand Expulsion, 1262-1290 Cambridge [England ; New York:Cambridge University Press, 1998
  19. 19. Video: EdwardI, Wales, Scotland, GasconyEdward II, ScotlandDr. Jennifer Paxton
  20. 20. Wales 1267
  21. 21. Wales: Preparations for War• 228 knights, 294 sergeants plus men suppliedby barons• c. 2500 infantry to 15,000• 200,000 crossbow bolts• Large quantities of wheat and oats• Harvesters
  22. 22. Conquest of Wales• 1st campaign: 750 cavalry, 8,000 infantry• 2nd campaign: 15,000 infantry– 1010 diggers, 345 carpenters• Naval force at Anglesey• Initial defeats for English• Edward ‘walks on water’
  23. 23. Edward’s Route:First Campaign
  24. 24. 2nd Campaign
  25. 25. Occupation of Wales• 1284 Statute of Wales– provisions for King’s lands obtained fromLlywelyn– Wales annexed to England– Wales divided into shires– English law except for some civil matters
  26. 26. After the Treatyof Rhuddlan
  27. 27. 1294 Rebellion
  28. 28. Ring of Castles
  29. 29. James of St. George
  30. 30. Rhuddlan
  31. 31. Rhuddlan Plan
  32. 32. Caernafon Plan
  33. 33. Caernafon
  34. 34. ConwyBastide Town
  35. 35. Scotland
  36. 36. Man-power for Scotland• Request– 60,000 infantry and 1,000 men-at-arms• From Ireland– 1 earl, 8 bannerets, 26 knights, 26 light cavalry, 27crossbowmen, 2549 foot soldiers
  37. 37. Weaponry• Increased use of infantry• Use of archers - longbow• “Warwolf” largest medieval trebuchet(catapult)• Use of incendiaries?
  38. 38. Model of ‘Warwolf’
  39. 39. Choose Your WeaponsCross Bow (balistarii)• "cocked“ with little effort• Wait for target• Can use coverDefensive situationsSelf bow (sagitarii)• Requires considerablestrength• Mobility• Higher firing rateOffensive situations
  40. 40. Longbows and longbow debateBattles are won more bythe psychological effectsof weapons than by theirphysical impacts.But those psychologicaleffects are the directresults of the physicalones.Clifford RogersLongbows from the Mary Rose
  41. 41. Armor (mail) piercing arrowheadsM10 is the most common in military contextsOliver Jessup,Archaeologydata service
  42. 42. Obtaining Crossbows• John until 1202– Genoa– Mercenaries• John after 1202– Royal workshops• Henry III– Expansion of royal workshops– Private manufacturers in England
  43. 43. Obtaining Crossbows• Edward I– Expand royal workshops, particularly at the Towerof London– Add new workshops near centers of conflict– Install makers at Welsh castles– Imports from Gascony
  44. 44. Costs of War• 1277 Welsh war £23,000• 1282-3 Welsh war £98,000• Castles in Wales £80,000• 1294-8 (Wales, Flanders, Gascony) £750,000
  45. 45. Cost of the Scotland Campaigns• 1300 campaign £40,000 to £50,000• 1303-4 campaign £75,000 to £80,000
  46. 46. 1297 Reaffirm Magna Carta
  47. 47. Confirmatio Cartarum• An additional document in repsonse to newdemands• New taxes would require the consent of therealm and be for the benefit of the realm.• Abolish heavy tax on wool.
  48. 48. Ricciardi of Lucca• Employed to collect customs on wool exports• Borrowing for Welsh wars• Papal crusading tax• Agents for other Italian loans• Debt of Edward in 1294 £392,000(annual clerical receipts £210,000; annual wardrobereceipts £30,000- £140,000)
  49. 49. Bankruptcy• 1294 New customs duties• Riccardi fail to collect all customs due• Assets seized; bank runs in Italy; frozen assetsin France• Edward forces loans from other bankers
  50. 50. TradeEnglandFlandersGasconyWoolClothWine‘carrying wool to England’poet of Artois
  51. 51. Trade flowCredit flow
  52. 52. Domestic ViolenceTithe barn, burnt 1297; replaced late 14th C.
  53. 53. Edward and His Family• Faithful husband to two wives• Close to surviving daughters but perhaps not tohis sole surviving son
  54. 54. Death of Eleanor, 1290• 15-16 children• Death at Lincoln– Entrails• Blackfriars –heart• Westminster Abbey• Crosses at restingplaces for masses forher soul
  55. 55. 1290 Eleanor Dies
  56. 56. CharingCrossCenter of London
  57. 57. 1297 Confrontation with France
  58. 58. Causes• Homage for Gascony• Clashes at sea• French protectorate in Flanders– Wool
  59. 59. Peace• Return to pre-war status in Gascony• Marriage with Margaret of France (age 20) in1299• Arrange marriage between Edward (II) andIsabella of France