Angelus ad virginemThe copy of the plays held in the British Library luckily contains some music as part of the Weavers' Play, the Assumption of the Virgin. The Library describes it: Add MS 35290, the unique MS. of forty-nine plays, forming a series from the 'Creation' and the 'Fall of Lucifer' to the 'Last Judgement' and the 'Coronation of Our Lady' (the last an addition), performed on Corpus Christi Day by the crafts of York.The text shows angels praising the Virgin Mary, who ascends to heaven to join her son Jesus. The music is written in two parts for boys' voices.
In all, there are seven Jesuses in the 2010 production, and no sight is more moving than Neil Tattersall’s Jesus being raised on the cross by the band of matter-of-fact soldiers in the Company of Butchers’ The Crucifixion, especially when played out against the backdrop of the scaffolding on York Minster at College Green.
The Church expected that people would improve their spiritual conduct through learning about the saints, and pilgrimages provided a ready means for accomplishing this goal. Some pilgrims, however, expected more from the saint whose tomb they visited. Some people traveled to saints’ tombs seeking an intermediary with God in solving personal problems-perhaps a twisted leg or even a lost cow-or to commemorate successful cures. Groups such as the London Mercers Company in the 15th century also took part in pilgrimages together, but they had the additional motivation of publicly showing their religious devotion as a specific gro~pTIn the Ilth, IZth, and 13th centuries the ecclesiastical and secular authorities seem to have encouraged pilgrimage as a noble endeavor for all elements of society save one-the monastic community. Although the religious hierarchy was aware of the spiritual benefits that accrued from taking part in a pilgrimage, they feared the temptations of the road and the threat to monastic discipline posed by ~ilgrimage.~ Monks and nuns could take part in pilgrimages but only after receiving the permission of their superiors. E
In 1388 the Statute of Canterbury ordered that a laborer setting off on a pilgrimage should have a letter patent stating where he was going, why, and when he would return. Moreover, the laborer could not tarry in any one place along the way for more than one day unless he was ill.2 Statute of Cambridge?
The story of Montfort's cult began with his army's defeat by royalist forces led by the Lord Edward at Evesham, 4 August 1265. Simon himself was killed and his body mutilated. His head, adorned with his testicles, was sent as a trophy to the wife of one of his enemies. 11 The intended dishonour backfired, for the mutilation of Montfort's body was not the end of his life, but rather the beginning of a new incarnation: St. Simon de Montfort. His limbs, preserved with care by his followers, "quickly, by terrible signs shown through them, were held in veneration, ''12 primarily at Evesham, where his torso was buried, and at Alnwick, where Simon's foot was preserved. his empty tomb remained to become the center of the cult of the first non-ecclesiastical political saint since Earl Waltheof's execution by William the Conqueror. This veneration took place despite the fact that Simon had been excommunicated twice: once before, once after, his death. In the Dictum of Kenilworth (31 October 1266), which attempted to reconcile the Montfortians who had continued to revolt after Evesham, the king and the papal legate jointlyforbade veneration of Simon and the reporting of his miraclesWhy were the clergy so concerned to portray Simon as saint, to give others reasons to venerate him? They were clearly not being completely 'objective' in their portraits: we have enough sources other than their chronicles to know that Simon was not exactly the paragon they imply. In order to build a saintly image, they expunged any negative or worldly features from the record, put stirring speeches accepting martyrdom into his mouth, and emphasized the religious aspects of a basically secular revolt. Why this "almost mystical attitude to Simon"? 56 , the clerical authors were not completely fabricating their accounts of Montfort and his life. Simon truly was a devout man. The consistency of portrait in unrelated chronicles, and the detailed nature of the information given suggests that some of what the clerical chroniclers report is at least plausible
Lollards,followers of the teaching of John Wyclif, denied the religious validityof the saints in addition to pointing out the expense of pilgrimagesand the often unholy side effects associated with them. The cult of St.Thomas Becket in particular came in for criticism with some Lollardsasserting that Becket was a traitor not a saint.26 Lollardy did not havea wide following, but it helped to raise questions about the value of
At Canterbury the shrine locations in the 1170s consisted of: the place of martyrdom in the north transept, the tomb in the crypt of the Romanesque Trinity Chapel and the altar in the Trinity Chapel. As Becket‘s body remained in the original burial place until 1220, the new Trinity Chapel did not become another sacred site for several decades, yet the Corona took the place of the old Trinity altar sometime after construction ceased in Comparing Pilgrim Souvenirs and Trinity Chapel Windows at Canterbury CathedralFirst, uniting monumental and miniature art, these objects were both created to promote the cult of St. Thomas Becket and his power of miraculoushealing via blood-tinged water. Second, their likeness helped pilgrims, who saw thestained glass window and purchased the ampullae, remember their visit to theCathedral. The pilgrim souvenirs sparked their memories by copying the sites theyexperienced. These replications reveal much about the nature of copying in theMiddle Ages. Third, the close copy of the windows by the ampullae allows arthistorians to glimpse a medieval window that was shattered centuries ago
Shrine from MSS imageThe golden structure, as seen on the badge was ordered by Archbishop Thomas Langton and dedicated on July 2, 1220. Created by the famed goldsmith Walter of Colchester, the tomb, supported on four bays, contained an effigy of Thomas Becket in ecclesiastical vestments. Here, raised above it, is the gabled shrine, encrusted with jewels on a trellis-like ground and surmounted by two ship models, one of which was damaged. A small figure points to a ruby, claimed to be the largest in existence and given in 1179 by the king of France. To the right another figure raises the cover of the shrine with ropes and a pulley. This badge is one of the best surviving visual documents of the shrine. Its accuracy is attested to by descriptions from ambassadors, clergy, and theologians, such as Erasmus. The badge is an important addition to our knowledge of the imagery surrounding this martyr-saint and joins our unrivaled collection of objects associated with him.Medium: Cast tin-lead alloy Dimensions: Overall: 3 1/8 x 2 1/2 x 1/8in. (7.9 x 6.4 x 0.3cmAccording to Erasmus, gates were placed before the entrance to the Chapel of Our Lady in the Undercroft, in the south choir aisle, and leading up to the Trinity Chapel.56 Such restrictions or ―control systems,‖ had various purposes. Although they certainly increased security, they also enhanced the pilgrim‘s sense of wonder and perception of visual grandeur as they created vistas of the most holy areas. This culminated in excitement as the various relics and shrines of Becket were viewed. Obstructing view seems to have been a requisite of many screens designed to exclude the gazes and bodies of the laity from the sacred precinct of the shrine, except when permitted to do so by the clergy
Late-medieval ampullae (miniature vessels used to contain water, oil and dust collected from shrines and holy wells) are among the diverse items collected by metal-detecting enthusiasts in Britain. Shortly after the archbishop’s murder in December 1170, monks recorded miracles involving his blood and its ability to heal all manner of ailments, and before long the cathedral was attracting devotees seeking to obtain the miraculous ‘water of St Thomas’ Ampullae were probably the dominant form of pilgrim souvenir in 13thcentury England but, in the early 14th century, badges became more common.1Upper left Lead alloy pilgrim souvenir, from the shrine of St Thomas à Becket in Canterbury, in the form of a ship-shaped ampulla; the ship is double ended, crescent shaped and has grotesque animal heads at its stem and stern posts. A representation of Becket appears at the centre on the front of the ampulla's spout.Lower left Lead alloy pilgrim souvenir from the shrine of St Thomas à Becket in Canterbury in the form of a miniature cylindrical costrel; on one side is represented the martyrdom of Becket and on the other the figure of Becket as a bishop with a halo.Height: 47 millimetresWidth: 63 millimetresDepth: 30 millimetresUpper right Lead alloy hollow-cast pilgrim souvenir, from the shrine of St Thomas à Becket at Canterbury, in the form of a châsse-like ampulla, gabled with angular suspensory handles between the neck and the roof ridge.Lower RightLead alloy pilgrim souvenir in the shape of a Canterbury bell, from the shrine to St Thomas à Becket; missing its clapper. Bells were often worn by pilgrims to shrines. Canterbury bells were not mentioned (as is often supposed) by Chaucer, but by the Lollard preacher William Thorpe who complained about the rowdy clatter of pilgrims visiting Canterbury.
At Canterbury, the panels depicting the cure of Robert of Cricklade (n IV) who became lame when in Sicily show his crutch, cloak and shoes as ex votos.(fig.6) The inscription which stretches over the architectural canopy within which the scene takes place The images on the ampullae are remarkably similar to those in window n:IV.In the left petal the crippled man lays in bed, over which a vision of the mitredarchbishop looms promising recovery (as seen in a similar rendering at the top ofWindow n:III). The man's infirmity is revealed in the opposite petal as he strugglesforward, lamely bent over his cane. Then, as in window n:IV, he starts to fall fromthe grip of the man behind him (who holds him around the waist). Another man totheir left, holds aloft an object that appears to be a boot or perhaps a wax model of aleg to be left as an ex-voto.Tp is enigmatic. In the top petal, two monks stand behind the tomb — one holds up a large book as the other points to it and reads aloud. A third looks on, perhaps kneeling at the tomb. In the lower petal, the three monks surround the tomb upon which is placed a three-legged candlestick. One figure holds a book, while another kneels in reverence.
Upper left This example belongs to the earliest known group of heads of Becket surrounded by architectural canopies, which may have been made with reference to the head reliquary itself. Several hundred badges of this type survive from different moulds.Lower left on side Lead alloy pilgrim souvenir modelled in the round in the form of Becket riding a peacock; the figure of Becket has its head missing but the peacock retains its tail feathers and has a frontal spike, possibly for the suspension of a Canterbury bell. The basal collar is perforated perhaps to fix it as a staff mount.Right Lead alloy pilgrim souvenir from the shrine of St Thomas à Becket at Canterbury representing a sword in a sheath; the sword is retractable and has plain, down-turned quillons, a disc pommel and a grip that widens in the middle. An altar was set up on the precise spot where Becket was slain and the murder weapon itself was shown there. In the 14th and 15th centuries souvenirs representing the sword became very popular.
Swan emblem of St Martin of ToursLength: 1.62 inchesInscriptionsInscription TypeinscriptionInscription ScriptBlack LetterInscription PositionscrollInscription LanguageLatinInscription ContentORIOONS DIEU
Pilgrim badge from the shrine of St Thomas Becket at Canterbury Cathedral. This badge depicts the scene of Becket’s martyrdom. An inscription at the base of the badge reads 'THOMAS MA’ (meaning ‘Thomas Martyr’). Becket is on his knees in front of an altar with four knights attacking him. Behind the altar stands the figure of Edward Grim, a clerk who tried to stop Becket’s murder. One of the knights carries a shield with two bears’ heads on it, identifying him as Reginald Fitzurse (through the visual pun on the Latin ‘ursus’, meaning ‘bear’). Fitzurse was the knight popularly believed to have struck final blow that killed Becket. An irregular line running across the badge suggests that it was made in a cracked mould.
The Shrine of Our Lady at Walsingham was established in 1061 when, according to the text of the Pynson Ballad (c 1485), Richeldis de Faverches prayed that she might undertake some special work in honour of Our Lady. In answer to her prayer, the Virgin Mary led her in spirit to Nazareth, showed her the house where the Annunciation occurred, and asked her to build a replica in Walsingham to serve as a perpetual memorial of the Annunciation.What is the notion behind the shrine at Walsingham? It is not focused on the Virgin Mary so much as on the Incarnation of Christ. This is seen through an unusual optic: the Holy House built as a replica of the house at Nazareth, where the angel announced to Mary that she was to be the mother of Jesus.The house at Nazareth that was reputed to have been this very spot survived into the late 13th century. A pious legend has it that the house was then transported by angels to Loreto, on Italy's Adriatic coast. But Father Michael Rear in his new book Walsingham, Pilgrims and Pilgrimage (St Pauls Publishing, £19.99) favours the explanation that it was not angels but the Angeli family, related to Byzantine emperors, who transported the stones of the old house to be reassembled at Loreto.The Holy House at Walsingham, by contrast, never claimed to be built from the stones of Nazareth. Indeed the reputed founder, Lady Richeldis, a noble widow, was instructed in a dream in 1061 to build a house of wood according to specified dimensions. The year 1061 puts the foundation in the reign of Henry III's hero Edward the Confessor. Some would date it to the 1130s. In any case, it was intended to be a setting for devotion to God Incarnate.Walsingham became one of England's most popular pilgrim destinations. Pilgrims would wear badges – depicting the Annunciation, for example – to show that they had accomplished their end. Then, in 1538, the priory at Walsingham was suppressed, the shrine broken up and the precious offerings (such as the gold crown given by Henry III) carted away. By an irony, the appearance of the statue of the Virgin Mary and Child at the shrine is known only from the seal of the priory attached to the deed of surrender to Henry VIII.The image is of the "Seat of Wisdom" type. The Virgin Mary is depicted on a throne with the Child on her knee. Jesus embodies Wisdom as described in the biblical book of Proverbs: "I was set up from everlasting, from the beginning before ever the world was."The curtains depicted on the priory seal are taken to refer to the veil of the Temple, hiding the Ark of the Covenant, originally holding the tablets inscribed with the Ten Commandments. These words of God have as their counterpart the Word of God in St John's Gospel: the Word made fleshBlack Lion dates from around 1310 and is said to have been built to accommodate King Edward 111 who made many pilgrimages to Walsingham, and took its name from the coat of arms of his wife Phillipa of Hainault.The Walsingham seal: around the edgesAve Maria gratia plena dominustecumThis Holy House was built and a religious community took charge of the foundation. Although we have very little historical material from this period, we know that with papal approval the Augustinian Canons built a Priory (c 1150). Walsingham became one of the greatest Shrines in Medieval Christendom.Edward III was a frequent visitor in the early years of his reign, the royal chancery being at Walsingham 19-20 September4 and 9 November5 1328, 26-28 June6 and 21 August71331, 20-30 August 1333,8 6-8 October 1334,9 13 March 1339,10 12-20 February 1336.11 Late in 1343 the king returned to England from France and went on pilgrimage, first to Canterbury on foot, and then riding to Gloucester and WalsinghamTradition as Play: Pilgrimage to “England’s Nazareth”
Walsingham Holy House Pilgrim BadgePR-10The Holy House of Walsingham Pilgrim BadgeLate thirteenth, early fourteenth century. This badge show the Holy House that was built in 1061 as a replica of the Holy House in Nazareth. The design was revealed to the builder, a gentlewoman called Richeldis of Faverches, by the Virgin herself in a series of dreams. This small structure attracted such attention that Walsingham Priory was soon built around it. In the central chamber are the figures of the Virgin and Gabriel, standing either side of the Scroll and the Lily Pot. In the chamber below is the statue of the seated Madonna and Child.
In 1323, 2000 people, some of them from as far away as Kent, gathered to pray and make oblations at Thomas of Lancaster's tomb.  Edward II, from Barnard Castle in early September 1323, ordered Richard Moseley, his clerk and the constable of Pontefract Castle, to "go in person to the place of execution of Thomas, late earl of Lancaster, and prohibit a multitude of malefactors and apostates from praying and making oblations there in memory of the said earl not to God but rather to idols, in contempt of the king and contrary to his former command." (Edward making his view of the situation pretty clear, there.) Feelings were running high: Moseley and his servants were assaulted, and two of them, Richard de Godeleye and Robert de la Hawe, were killed.  The archbishop of York, Edward II's friend and ally William Melton, twice had to remind his archdeacon that Thomas of Lancaster was not a canonised saint and order him to disperse the throng gathering at the earl's tomb, some of whom were crushed to death. After Edward II's downfall in 1327, a campaign to canonise Thomas of Lancaster began in earnest. Edward's half-brother the earl of Kent - one of the men who condemned Thomas to death, and also one of the men who sat in judgement on the younger Despenser and accused him of murdering Thomas, hypocrisy which doesn't seem to have bothered anyone at the time - visited Pope John XXII in 1329 to ask him to canonise Thomas. In 1323, Roger Mortimer, who had been held in captivity in the Tower of London, escaped and fled to France. Two years later, Queen Isabella travelled to Paris on an embassy to the French king. Here, Isabella and Mortimer developed a plan to invade England and replace Edward II on the throne with his son, the young Prince Edward, who was in the company of Isabella. Isabella and Mortimer landed in England on 24 September 1326, and due to the virulent resentment against the Despenser regime, few came to the king's aid. Arundel initially escaped the invading force in the company of the king, but was later dispatched to his estates in Shropshire to gather troops. At Shrewsbury he was captured by his old enemy John Charlton of Powys, and brought to Queen Isabella at Hereford. On 17 November – the day after Edward II had been taken captive – Arundel was executed, allegedly on the instigation of Mortimer. According to a chronicle account, the use of a blunt sword was ordered, and the executioner needed 22 strokes to sever the earl's head from his body.The ruins of Haughmond Abbey, Arundel's final resting place.Arundel's body was initially interred at the Franciscan church in Hereford. It had been his wish, however, to be buried at the family's traditional resting place of Haughmond Abbey in Shropshire, and this is where he was finally buried. Though he was never canonised, a cult emerged around the late earl in the 1390s, associating him with the 9th-century martyr king St Edmund. This veneration may have been inspired by a similar cult around his grandson, Richard FitzAlan, 11th Earl of Arundel, who was executed by Richard II in 1397.
Pilgrim-badge; tin-lead; depiction of the execution of Thomas, Earl of Lancaster in 1322 and the ascent of his soul; gabled canopy; kneeling figure being beheaded by standing figure with sword; Above, a pair of angels bear the martyr's soul to Heaven; above, higher, a seated figure of Christ in Judgement. 1325-50With the murder of Edward II in 1327, it suited the policy of Edward III (his son and usurper of the throne), to foster the public's memory of Edward II's 'murder' of Thomas of Lancaster and his reign of despotic injustice. On 28 February 1327, Edward III wrote to Pope John XXI requesting the canonization of Thomas of Lancaster. This request was never granted, though it was repeated in 1330 and 1331. Though not canonized, an office for his feast day was composed. It survives in a manuscript (Royal 12 C xii, British Museum), which is written in a hand of the first half of the fourteenth century.2z On 8 June 1327 Edward III authorized Robert de Werynton, clerk, to collect alms for the building of a chapel on the hill where he had been beheaded. This chapel was never finished, and, though it still existed in Leland's time, no detailed descrip- tion of it survives. As in the case of so many political heroes, his cult did not last long, reaching its height during the two decades following his execution. Therefore it would seem reasonable on historical and stylistic grounds to date this lead object to the years I322--c. 1342.
The cult of St. Leonard, a sixth-century French hermit, seems to havebeen at its most popular in England in the twelfth and early thirteenthcenturies;19and a surge in the veneration of an image of the saint in themid fifteenth century is not entirely what we would expect in an agewhose piety was dominated by Marian and Christocentric cults and thoseof newer saints.
three clerics sing from a scroll draped over a lectern the motet 'Zelotuilangueo', and one holds a wound-up roll, with the upper half of a man in the borderI languish for love of you, royal virgin. 7 A Wycliffite sermon refers to such a small group, 'three or four vain and pleasure-loving wastrels', who 'fracture the most devout service so that nobody can understand the meaning of the words ...'
Christmas mumming in Newfoulndland reported in 1976Although mummers are lifelong neighbours or kin, the group and the people within it appear as strange as the knock, as unidentifiable as the ingressive speech. Men, for example, are dressed as women, women as men, or both as generalized fishermen, or masked with the head of a sheep. Faces are always concealed by masks, or veils, or paint. Hands, in communities where small details are known, are hidden by gloves, and posture and gait are altered. Even size may be changed, by putting boards inside boots or by stuffing one's costume with pillows and pads. To mum well is to conceal and then reveal. Masked mummers stomping into a house tease and prod, dance, jostle and prank. As they perform they are questioned, and pinched and prodded back, until bit by bit, one by one, they become known. Once known they unmask, and settle down as normal guests until all are known, and then drinks are served and there is re-established the usual, but festive, relationship between hosts and guests, reciprocal and careful of the customary niceties
In the fourteenth century, from a celebrated MS. (2 B. vii.) in the British Museum and other cognate sources we get a fair insight of the amusement afforded by these dancers and joculators. In the illustration (fig. 35) we get A and C tumblers, male and female; D, a woman and bear dance; and E, a dance of fools to the organ and bagpipe. It will be observed that they have bells on their caps, and it must have required much skill and practice to sound their various toned bells to the music as they danced. This dance of fools may have suggested or became eventually merged into the "Morris Dance" (fig. 50) of which some account with other illustrations of "Comic Dances" will be given hereafter. The man dancing and playing the pipes with a woman on his shoulder (fig. 36), the stilt dancer with a curious instrument (C), and the woman jumping through a hoop, give us other illustrations of fourteenth century amusements
The man dancing and playing the pipes with a woman on his shoulder (fig. 36), the stilt dancer with a curious instrument (C), and the woman jumping through a hoop, give us other illustrations of fourteenth century amusements.
Psalter ('The Queen Mary Psalter')Origin England (London/Westminster or East Anglia?)Date between 1310 and 1320Language Latin, with French image captionssabella [Isabella of France] (b. 1295, d. 1358), queen of England, consort of Edward II: perhaps made for her (see discussion Smith 1993 and Stanton 1996 and 2003), or Edward II [Edward of Caernarfon] (b. 1284, d. 1327), king of England and lord of Ireland, and duke of Aquitaine: Edward the Confessor is included in gold in the calendar (f. 80v).soldier, arrested at the accession of Queen Mary in 1553: inscribed, 'This boke was sumetyme [under erasure: the Erle of Rutelands], and it was his wil / that it shulde by successioun all way / go to the [under erasure: lande of Ruteland] or to / [partially erased: him that linyallysuccedis by reson / of inheritaunce in the seidelande'] (f. 84). Seized by customs officials in October 1553 and presented by the Customs Officer Baldwin Smith to Queen Mary Tudor: inscribed 'hunclibrumnautis ad exterostransvehendumdatu[m]: / spectatus et honestusvirbaldwinusSmithusLondini / a portoriis et vectigalibusretraxitatq[ue] Mariaeillustrissi/maeangliae, ffranciae, et hiberniaeReginaedonavit, / menseOctobri, Anno dominimillesimoquingentesimo / quinquagesimotertio, Regni sui primo' (f. 319v).
Kailes a game to knock down pins with a stick
13. F2013 Age of Chaucer Pilgrimage, Entertainment and Enlgihtenment
Angelus ad virginem
The Clerk in the Miller’s Tale
And all above there lay a gay psalt'ry
On which he made at nightes melody,
So sweetely, that all the chamber rang:
And Angelus ad virginem he sang.
And after that he sung the kinge's note;
Full often blessed was his merry throat.
York Mystery Plays – Corpus Christi
1376 First recorded for the festival of Corpus
1. Creation and fall of Lucifer
48. Judgment day
York Mystery Plays 2010 Introduction
York Mystery Play Crucifixion 2010
Why were Chaucer’s pilgrims going to
And specially from every shires ende
Of engelond to caunterbury they wende,
The hooly blisful martir for to seke,
That hem hath holpen whan that they were
For serfs, only way to escape ties to the land
Medical and other personal problems
See the sights
Group pilgrimage – group solidarity
• 1388 Statute of Canterbury
• Part of attempt to restrict mobility of labor
– Pilgrim needs a paper saying when, where, why
– Forbids remaining in one place for more than a
day unless ill
• Rome, Jerusalem
• International renown
– Santiago de Compostella
Political Favorites & Martyrs?
• Opponents of Henry III
– Simon de Montfort
– Robert Grossteste (1175-1263), anti-papal
• Opponent of Edward II
– Thomas of Lancaster
– Worship fostered by Henry IV
Pilgrim’s Hospital of
• Greeting by monks
• Orientation in Chapter House – stories of
• Start on route
– Altar at site of martyrdom
– Crypt – tomb site (original)
• Trinity Chapel – life and miracles in
– Head reliquary
Pilgrimage Experience at Canterbury
Adam the Forester wounded by a poacher
Cured by St. Thomas
St. Thomas and the family of a man who did not fulfil his
Shrine of Our Lady of Walsingham
1061 Richeldis de Faverches vision of the house
of the Annunciation
– Private place of worship
1150 Augustinian house
1216 Visit of Henry III
1315 Edward II
1328 Edward III
1383 Richard II
Thomas of Lancaster, d. 1322
Edmund FitzAlan, 9th Earl of Arundel
Hugh Despenser the Elder
Opponent and Supporter of Edward II
Thomas, Earl of Lancaster
• Rebel against Edward II
• Attempt to canonize
Indulgences - Norwich
1291 To visitors four feasts of the Virgin Mary, at
Trinity and St. Mary Madgalene and on the
anniversary of the dedication.
– one year and forty days of pardon
1363 Donations to repair recent storm damage
– seven years and seven Lents
1398 Visitors to the three main altars at Trinity
Value of Indulgences - Norwich
Receipts at Rest of
£33 3s £124 3s
£57 18s £142 14s
£65 12s £149 0s
St. Leonard’s, Norfolk
• Small monastery near Cathedral
• Images of St. Michael, the Virgin, St. Anthony
and St. Leonard
And in a launde, upon an hille of floures,
Was set this noble goddesse Nature;
To take hir doom and yeve hir audience.
For this was on Seynt Valentynes day,
Whan every foul cometh ther to chese his make, 310
Of every kinde, that men thynke may;
And that so huge a noyse gan they make,
That erthe and see, and tree, and every lake
So ful was, that unnethe was ther space
For me to stonde, so ful was al the place.
From Parlement of Foules
Christmas in 14th Century England
Lords provide feasts for servants
Hire minstrels & dancers & actors
Boy bishops a la St. Nicholas
Carrying a plow around the fire
Late 14th C. Restrictions on mumming,
• Groups go through the streets
– Visit houses
• Games at home
Masks - Makeup
Late 14th century regulations against night
– 17 Richard II. A.D. 1393. And that no man, . . .shall
go about . . . with visor or false face, during this
solemn Feast of Christmas,
1425 More specific prohibition on those who
– walk by nyght in eny manere mommyng, pleyes,
enterludes, or eny oþer disgisynges with eny
feynyd berdis, [beards] peyntid visers, diffourmyd
or colourid visages in eny wyse,
Jehan de Grise, Alexander Romance, Bodl 264